Presentation on theme: "APUSH: Slavery, Freedom, and The Crisis of Union Mr. Weber -- Room 217."— Presentation transcript:
APUSH: Slavery, Freedom, and The Crisis of Union Mr. Weber -- Room 217
Activator Tuesday 11/17 1. How did slavery shape the economic and social relations in the Old South? 2. What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked? 3. Why did many white southerners support slavery even while they did not own slaves themselves? 4. Why do you think slavery was called the “peculiar institution?”
Agenda Activator, agenda, and objective (10 minutes) The “peculiar” institution lecture (30-45 minutes) Comprehension check (15 minutes) Primary source analysis: voices of freedom (30-45 minutes) Where we are headed: slave culture and resistance video clip (5 minutes) Slave resistance and rebellion project (begin in class, time permitting, finish for HW due Thurs). Exit ticket and homework (5 minutes)
Objective You will all… Analyze the economic and social role of Slavery in the Old South and understand the conditions of slave life, 1840-1860. (AP Topic #10).
How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the Old South? King Cotton: cotton replaced sugar as the world’s major crop produced by slave labor. 3/4 ths of the worlds cotton supply came from the southern U.S. Cotton supplied the textile mills in the North and Great Britain.
How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the Old South? The Southern Economy: economic growth was different from the North. There were few large cities in the South. The cities were mainly centers for gathering and shipping cotton.
Ch. 11, Image 5
How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the Old South? The “Plain Folk” of the Old South: three out of four white southerners did not own slaves. Most white southerners lived on self-sufficient farms in isolated areas and were poorly educated. Most supported slavery. The majority supported the planter elite and slavery because of shared bonds of regional loyalty, racism, and kinship ties.
Ch. 11, Image 6
How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the Old South? The Planter Class: Ownership of slaves provided a rout to wealth, status, and influence. Slavery was a profit-making system. Men watched the world market for cotton, invested in infrastructure, and managed their plantations.
How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the Old South? Paternalism: from the word patria as in father, this was the idea that slaves were well taken care of under slavery. Slave owners were committed to a hierarchical, agrarian society. Paternalism was a kind of proslavery argument which enabled slave owners to think of themselves as kind, responsible masters.
Ch. 11, Image 10
What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked? Slaves were considered chattel, or property and had few legal rights. They could not testify against a white person, carry weapons, or leave the plantations. Labor was most of the slaves daily existence
What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked? Gang labor and task labor: Most slaves worked in the fields. An estimated 75% of women and 90% of men worked as field hands. On large plantations they worked in gangs under the direction of an overseer, a man who was generally considered to be cruel by the slaves.
Ch. 11, Image 15
What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked? Maintaining Order: The system of maintaining order rested on force. There were many tools a master had to keep order, including whipping, exploiting divisions among slaves, incentives, denial of education, and the threat of sale.
Ch. 11, Image 18
Ch. 11, Image 21
Comprehension Check Take no more than the next 15 minutes to answer the following four multiple choice questions and two short answer using the key terms from lecture.
The Peculiar Institution 1. In the Old South, the percentage of white families that owned slaves was approximately 10 percent. 25 percent. 40 percent. 60 percent.
The Peculiar Institution 2. Which of the following was not a central theme of planter ideology? The competitive marketplace is where we make our fortunes—but it is not where we derive our values. There is no place for fixed social hierarchies in a democratic republic. We are the aristocrats of our region; women, children, slaves, and poorer whites depend upon us for guidance and protection. Wealth is meant to be consumed, not merely reinvested.
The Peculiar Institution 3. Cotton was “King” during the first half of the nineteenth century. Three-fourths of the world’s supply came from the United States, and textile manufacturers in New England, Great Britain, France, and Russia depended on the American cotton supply. Define “textile”: Tiles, usually made of ceramic and cotton, used in building houses, manufacturing plants, and government buildings. Woven cloth. A small book or text, usually on a topic of general interest to the reading public. Steam engine-powered factory or manufactures.
The Peculiar Institution 4. Slaves made up a significant portion of the Old South’s field laborers. house servants. skilled artisans. all of the above.
Short Answer Key Terms: King Cotton, the Southern economy, Plain folk of the Old South, Planter class, Paternalism, Chattel, Gang labor, Overseer, Maintaining order… 1. How did slavery shape the economic and social relations in the Old South? 2. What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked? 4 Advanced3 Proficient2.5 Basic2 Below Basic Shows mastery of the objective by explaining all key terms in proper context Understanding of objective shown by explaining most key terms Knowledge of objective shown through explanation of some key terms Misunderstanding of objective or incorrect use of several key terms
Analyzing Primary Sources (15 minutes) Turn to the Voices of Freedom, pp.404-405. Read Solomon Northup Twelve Years a Slave (1853) and pick one sentence you think best represents the main idea of the text. Write that sentence in your notebook. Read J.D.B. De Bow The Non-Slaveholders of the South (1861) and pick one sentence you think best represents the main idea of the text. Write that sentence in your notebook.
Analyzing Primary Sources In groups, take turns explaining why you chose the sentence you chose. Pick no more than 3-5 words which you all agree best represent the main idea of the text. Write them on the paper provided. Pass the paper to the next group and write comments on their choice of words. (Remember to initial your comments so I can grade them later). Why do you think the picked those words? Would you have chosen differently? Why? How well do those words sum up what you understand to be the main idea of the text? How do these phrases relate to our understanding of economic and social role of slavery in the Old South and the conditions in which slaves lived (our objective for today)?
Where We Are Headed…
Forecasting: What to look for in the reading… For Thursday: Finish Chapter 11, pp.413-423. Slave culture The slave family The threat of sale Gender roles among slaves Slave religion Desire for liberty Slave resistance and rebellion Forms of resistance Fugitive slaves The Amistad Slave revolts Nat Turner’s rebellion
Slave Resistance and Rebellion Your job is to solve the murder mystery and identify the cause of death for John Taylor, the plantation owner. Look through the evidence: Obituary; Daily routine; Plantation map; and the Description of slaves. Was Mr. Taylor poisoned or did he get sick? Who had the motive to kill him? Who had the knowledge necessary to prepare the poison? Who could give it to him without being noticed? If someone did poison him, how come they didn’t get caught?
Review Questions for Thursday’s Test 1. How would you describe slave culture, explaining the similarities and differences among various regions? 2. Why did many white southerners support slavery even when they did not actually own slaves? 3. What forms of slave resistance were practiced in the American South? 4. Given that by 1860 the economic investment represented by the slave population exceeded the value of the nation’s factories, railroads, and banks combined, explain how important slavery was to the national economy and the emergence of the U.S. as a great power.
Exit ticket and homework Exit ticket: What does the video clip and anticipation of where we are headed Thursday suggest about the economic and social role of slavery in the Old South, and what do you expect to understand about the conditions of slave life, 1840-1860? Homework: Finish chapter 11 (reading test Thurs.) Slave Resistance and Rebellion project due Thurs.