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Slavery to Emancipation in Brookhaven Town Slavery to Emancipation in Brookhaven Town Some Vignettes For Black History Month, February 2004 & the Forthcoming.

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Presentation on theme: "Slavery to Emancipation in Brookhaven Town Slavery to Emancipation in Brookhaven Town Some Vignettes For Black History Month, February 2004 & the Forthcoming."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slavery to Emancipation in Brookhaven Town Slavery to Emancipation in Brookhaven Town Some Vignettes For Black History Month, February 2004 & the Forthcoming Brookhaven Town 350 th Anniversary Compiled & Edited by Mark Rothenberg Patchogue-Medford Library Local History Room © 2004 Mark H. Rothenberg

2 From The Duke’s Laws: New-York Province’s 1 st Legal Code Slavery & Servitude in Brookhaven -- March 1, 1665 Toil, “the Whole Day”, without Profit or Comfort “Masters Servants and Labourer[s] “Masters Servants and Labourer[s] by warrant under the hands of two Justices of the Peace as the Offence shall meritt, And whatsoever Person shall either Buy, receive or restore the said Commodityes to the Master of such Servants or Servant, No Servant either Male or Female shall either give, sell or Truck any Commodity whatsoever, dureing the time or theire Service, under the penalty of fine or Corporal punishment, by warrant under the hands of two Justices of the Peace as the Offence shall meritt, And whatsoever Person shall either Buy, receive or restore the said Commodityes to the Master of such Servants or Servant, and forfeit the double value thereof to the poor of the Parrish where they shall Inhabit. in their Callings being thereunto required, the Master or Dame All Labourers and Servants shall work in their Callings being thereunto required, the whole day, the Master or Dame allowing them convenient time for food and rest....” “Duke’s Laws,” (Empire State Historical Publications Series.) Port Washington, NY; London: Kennikat Press; National University Publications, 1977: pp Source: “Duke’s Laws,” Long Island as America, to (Empire State Historical Publications Series.) Port Washington, NY; London: Kennikat Press; National University Publications, 1977: pp [For Students & Teachers: How do the prohibitions on a slave’s, or an indentured servant’s, being able to raise his/her standard of living or to buy his/her freedom compare with other colonies, and with later times? (For the historian: Was this clause enforced, or evaded? ) What does this section say about the lives of slaves, masters, & of late 17 th century ethics, morality, expectations, living conditions & the rule of law?]

3 Slavery: A Sale, with Payment Due in Whale Oil, Pt. 1 December 18, 1677 “These presents testifieth that Isack Rainer, of Southampton, in the est Rieding of yourkshere, upon long Island, for valluable causses and considerations him moveing, have given, granted and sould a negro man, named Samboe, that the said Isack, had of his father, Rainer, unto John Thomas, of Setakett, elles brookhaven, in the above said shere and Rieding, I say that I, Iseck Rainer, have, for himselfe, his haires, exseckators or assigns, fully and absollutely bargened and sould the above saide negroe to the above sayed John Thomas, his haires, exseckaters or saigns, to have and to hould for ever, and the said Iseck Rainer doth ingage to bring him safe and sound, winde and limb, and deliver him or cause to be delivered unto the above saide John Thomas, at Setakett. And in consideration of the above sayed premesses, the above saide John Thomas doth ingage to pay or cause to be “These presents testifieth that Isack Rainer, of Southampton, in the est Rieding of yourkshere, upon long Island, for valluable causses and considerations him moveing, have given, granted and sould a negro man, named Samboe, that the said Isack, had of his father, Rainer, unto John Thomas, of Setakett, elles brookhaven, in the above said shere and Rieding, I say that I, Iseck Rainer, have, for himselfe, his haires, exseckators or assigns, fully and absollutely bargened and sould the above saide negroe to the above sayed John Thomas, his haires, exseckaters or saigns, to have and to hould for ever, and the said Iseck Rainer doth ingage to bring him safe and sound, winde and limb, and deliver him or cause to be delivered unto the above saide John Thomas, at Setakett. And in consideration of the above sayed premesses, the above saide John Thomas doth ingage to pay or cause to be

4 Slavery: A Sale, with Payment Due in Whale Oil, Pt. 2 December 18, 1677 paiede, unto the above saide Iseck Rainer, or his order, nienteen barells of good marchantable whale oyle, in good thiete casks, to be delivered aboute unkachauk, upon the beach, or estward of the triing places, or other wayes to be paid in comodities, oyle at forty shillens pr. Barell, the full of some therty aight pounds, at Setaket, by Mr. Richard mann, if the saide Iseck Rayner se cause to take comoditis, or other was to be paide in oyle as above stated.” paiede, unto the above saide Iseck Rainer, or his order, nienteen barells of good marchantable whale oyle, in good thiete casks, to be delivered aboute unkachauk, upon the beach, or estward of the triing places, or other wayes to be paid in comodities, oyle at forty shillens pr. Barell, the full of some therty aight pounds, at Setaket, by Mr. Richard mann, if the saide Iseck Rayner se cause to take comoditis, or other was to be paide in oyle as above stated.” Source:Records. Town of Brookhaven, Up to Source: Records. Town of Brookhaven, Up to Patchogue, NY: The Town, 1880: pp

5 Figuring Out an Indentured Servant Child’s Age January ye 15 th 1694/3 “Rachell Whitehaire the Wife of Peter Whitehaire declared to mee that DaVid Jinnins. Jun[i]or the son of David & Hannah Jinnins [Jennings?] who is bound unto John Roe Senior was Seven yeares old the 29 th of September last which sheweth that he was borne the 29 th of September 1686 – “Rachell Whitehaire the Wife of Peter Whitehaire declared to mee that DaVid Jinnins. Jun[i]or the son of David & Hannah Jinnins [Jennings?] who is bound unto John Roe Senior was Seven yeares old the 29 th of September last which sheweth that he was borne the 29 th of September 1686 – Pr mee Timothy Brewster Clerk” Pr mee Timothy Brewster Clerk” Source: Brookhaven (N.Y. : Town). Records of the Town of Brookhaven, Book B, New York: Derrydale Press, 1932: p Questions for Students: What above tends to suggest that David Jinnins, Jr. was an indentured servant, rather than a slave. Why might local colonial authorities be concerned to know an indentured servant’s age?

6 Small Pox & Runaways, April 10, 1732, Pt. 1 Control Liquor, Slaves & Indians & You Control Contagion Great 18 th Century Enlightenment Thinking, in Brookhaven “At a Meeting of ye Trustees on ye 10 th daye of Aperill, Present Justis Brewster, Mr. Woodhull, M. Tomson, Mr. Miller, John Smith. voteed and agreed upon att this meeteing, by the Trustees that, Whereas, by reason of the small pox, wee are under ye gratest obligation Imaginable to use all possibel endevers for ye spedy & effectual supresing thereof, the Justises & Trustes of the Towne, out of a pi[o]us senc of their duty, have thought fit, & doe hereby strictly prohibit & fore warn all persons, whatsoever, from selling or other wise disposeing of to any Indians, Indian sarvants or negro slaves, any maner of strong drink or likquors of penalty of being peremptorryly obliged to finde suretys for thare good behavior & answering thaire comtempt at the court of sessions to prevent all which disorders. All masters of families are allso hereby desiered & requiered to keep & restraine thare sarvants & slaves from Absenting themselves by night without sume Extraordinary Occation and Express token thereof, & to incorage all persons to ingage herein, wee do allso certifie that wosoever shall apprehend & secure any such Indian sarvant

7 Small Pox & Runaways, April 10, 1732, Pt. 2 Penalties for Servant Defections & Willful Fence Destruction or negro slave so absenting themselves after it is dark, and ye next morning convay and bring them before Athorty of the sd Justis shall, ass a Reward, reseve from him thre shillings currant money, & allso the like recompenc for any other Indian found Drunk att any other time, and being in like manner apprehended, convayed & convicted. All which Indians or slaves, unles prevented by thaire masters, paying six shillings for ye use aforementioned, shall, by said Justis, bee sentenced to be public whipt according to his respective Demerrit, & such persons as shall faithfully execute the same, shall allso be payd by ye sd Justis thre shillings more, all & singular, which sumes of money disburst by the said Justis on this perticeler ocation,it is unanimusly assented sall be punktually repayd them by ye Towne Treasuer on reasonable demand. This act to continu three month in forc from the publication. All persuns are also hereby strictly forbid pulling down any fences made to prevent ye danger of spreding ye smalle pox, ass they will ansuaire ye contrary at thaire perill.” Source: Brookhaven (N.Y.:Town). Clerk. Records. Town of Brookhaven,, Up to Patchogue, NY: The Town, Printed at the Office of the “Advance, 1880: pp

8 By Order of the New York Provincial Convention American Preparations: Province & Region Stemming Desertion in a Cast Die “ August 29, Resolved, that it be recommended to the inhabitants of Long Island to remove as many of their women, children and slaves, and as much of their livestock and grain, to the main[land], as they can; and that this Convention will pay the expense of removing the same.” “ August 29, Resolved, that it be recommended to the inhabitants of Long Island to remove as many of their women, children and slaves, and as much of their livestock and grain, to the main[land], as they can; and that this Convention will pay the expense of removing the same.” Source:Refugees of 1776 from Long Island to Connecticut.. Source: Mather, Frederic Gregory. Refugees of 1776 from Long Island to Connecticut.. Albany, NY: J.B. Lyon Co., Printers, 1913: pp Questions for Students: Questions for Students: What does this say about how slaves were valued and thought of (a) compared to other human beings?; (b) compared to other things owned? Why aren’t men mentioned? How do they fit into this picture of who and what’s important to save from the British invasion? What has changed since then? How?

9 Slave Examined to Determine His Worthiness of Manumission Freedom for One -- March 5, 1798 “We the Undersigned in Conformity to the Act of the Legislature of the State of New york intitled an Act Concerning Slaves passed 22 feb-y 1788 – do hereby Certify that on Application of Genl. Smith in behalf of Mrs. Ruth Woodhull have Examined as Certain Negro man Slave Named Ben and are of Opinion that Said Negroman is of Sufficient ability to provide for himself and that the Said Negro man is under the Age of fifty Years. Nicholl Floyd, Richard Robinson, Stephan Overton, Joseph Brewster, Jur., Caleb M. Hulse, Merritt S. Woodhull} Trustees” Source: Brookhaven (N.Y. : Town). Records of the Town of Brookhaven, Suffolk County, N.Y. [ ]. Port Jefferson, NY: Times Steam Job Print, 1888: p. 7.

10 Recording a Slave Birth with the Town Relative to Pending Statewide Abolition December 24, 1799 “Agreeable to a Law of this state for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery Passed the 29 of march 1799 Samuel Smith of the Town of Brookhaven Makes Return to the Record of sd Town that he had a feemale Child Born of a Slave of his On the first Day of September 1799 Childs Name is Aner [Anna?] – Entered the 24 of December 1799.” Source: Brookhaven (N.Y. : Town). Records of the Town of Brookhaven, Suffolk County, N.Y. [ ]. Port Jefferson, NY: Times Steam Job Print, 1888: pp. 23. Note: The slave is given no surname, which was pretty usual, and the birth date is not clear, just the date the clerk made the entry.

11 Abolition Accounting to Brookhaven Town, from William Floyd 1799 & 1802 “Agreeable to a Law of the State of New York for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery Passed the 29 th of march 1799 – General William Floyd of the Town of Brookhaven Made Return to the Record of said Town of Brookhaven that he had a feemale Child Born of a slave of his on the Third Day of October 1799 Sd Childs name is Rachel. Entered By me Isaac Hulse Town Clk…” “Agreeable to a Law of this State Genrl Wm Floy[d] made return to the Record of Brookhaven that he had a male child born of a Slave of his on the 23 rd Day of November 1801 – Childs Name is Hector – Recorded April 5 th, 1802 A Wetmore T[own] Clerk” Source: Brookhaven (N.Y. : Town). Records of the Town of Brookhaven, Suffolk County, N.Y. [ ]. Port Jefferson, NY: Times Steam Job Print, 1888: pp. 25.

12 Parents Consign Two Sons to Apprenticeship or Indentured Servitude -- April 8, 1800 “Brookhaven Moriches April the 8, 1800 – Personally Appeared before me Benjamin Edwards one of the Justices of the Peace Pomp a Melatter [mulatto?] man & Sary Arch Wife and Acknowledged that they of their Own free and Voluntary Will have Bound their Son Named William unto David Day to Serve him [until] he Arrives to the Age of Twenty One years of age. BENJAMIN EDWARDS Justice” “Brookhaven Moriches April the 8, 1800 – Personally Appeared before me Benjamin Edwards Justice of the Peace Pomp a Melltterman & Sarah Arch his Wife and Acknowledged that they of their Own free and Voluntary Will have Bound their Son Named Sonney unto Capt – John Havens to Serve him [until] he Arrives to the Age of Twenty One years of age. BENJAMIN EDWARDS Justice” Source: Brookhaven (N.Y. : Town). Records of the Town of Brookhaven, Suffolk County, N.Y. [ ]. Port Jefferson, NY: Times Steam Job Print, 1888: pp. 30.

13 Brookhaven Slave Manumissions During the War of 1812 For the years 1812-Jan. 1815, the following slaves are listed in the Town records as having been freed following scrutiny under the conditions permitting manumission set by state law (under 45 years old & self- sufficient): NameDate FreedPrior Owner(s)/Requestor NameDate FreedPrior Owner(s)/Requestor 1. BettyPhillips Roe 1. Betty(June 2, 1812)Phillips Roe 2. Harry Jonas Hawkins, Jr. Thomas S. Mount 2. Harry (April 6, 1813)Jonas Hawkins, Jr. & Thomas S. Mount 3. Killis Samuel Thompson, dec’d. 3. Killis (September 7, 1813)Samuel Thompson, dec’d. 4. TamerHannah Woodhull 4. Tamer(March 1, 1814)Hannah Woodhull 5. KilllisThomas Strong 5. Killlis(March 1, 1814)Thomas Strong 6. SarahTheophilus Smith 6. Sarah(March 1, 1814)Theophilus Smith 7. MargettRobert Hawkins 7. Margett(May 4, 1814)Robert Hawkins 8. JuleanorWessell Sell 8. Juleanor(September 6, 1814)Wessell Sell Summarized from the: Brookhaven (N.Y. : Town). Records of the Town of Brookhaven, Suffolk County, N.Y. [ ]. Port Jefferson, NY: Times Steam Job Print, 1888: pp

14 A Slave Manumission April 5, 1825 Mills Brewster Peter “Be it remembered that on the fifth day of April 1825 Mills Brewster Made application to the Trustees of the freeholders and commonalty of the town of Brook haven to Manumitt a certain Slave Named Peter and said Trustees being satisfied that said Slave is under forty five years and of Sufficient ability to provide for and maintain himself do hereby consent that he should be Manumitted as the Law of this State directs. THOMAS S. STRONG, president Attest MORDECHAI HOMAN town Clerk” Records of the Town of Brookhaven, Suffolk County, N.Y. Source: Brookhaven (N.Y. : Town). Records of the Town of Brookhaven, Suffolk County, N.Y. [ ]. Port Jefferson, NY: Times Steam Job Print, 1888: pp

15 Brookhaven Town’s Greatest Fish Story, Pt 1 Daniel Webster & the Demon Trout, Since 1820fishing Since 1820, U.S. Senator Daniel Webster had favored the fine summer fishing (along with copious quaffings of rum & cider), afforded by Brookhaven’s Connecticut (now Carman’s) River, esp. around Carman’s gristmill. He and his oft renowned guests (e.g., future President Martin Van Buren) would lodge at Carman’s Tavern, in Fireplace [now South Haven], N.Y., & his host, Samuel Carman, no political slouch, himself, would usually accompany them fishing. A huge brook trout had successfully eluded and bedeviled Webster for 5 years, , as it had others since 1821, growing larger with each year’s spotting. In 1827, the Senator arrived, highly resolved to catch his quarry. Spotted by Carman’s slave, Lige—below the race, the mill’s water wheel having been removed for repair-- while Webster and guest, N.Y.C. Mayor Philip Hone, were attending obligatory South Haven Church Sunday services, Lige quietly stole into the services, informed them (as previously instructed), and as they an others stole out – it being an open secret – the normally hours-long devotions were quickly abbreviated, the pastor also being an avid fisherman. Pastor and flock adjourned to view the contest at the mill race. After several trials and errors, just as the crowd was breaking up in disappointment, the legendary behemoth was suddenly landed, creating a holiday atmosphere. Given its unusual size, it was taken to Carman’s general store, where it weighed in at a whopping 14 lb., 8 oz.

16 Brookhaven Town’s Greatest Fish Story, Pt 2 Daniel Webster & the Demon Trout, Next, it was traced. Enlarged by 1/3 (as is only natural to such a tale), so it would appear its proper size from the ground, of course, a wooden facsimile was carved (which served for years as South Haven Church’s weathervane, until struck from the roof, by lightning) Next day, the fish accompanied the triumphant Webster & Hone by stage coach to New York, thence to Delmonico’s, where it was prepared as a memorable dinner for three: U.S. Sen. Daniel Webster, NYC Mayor Philip Hone, & future U.S. Pres. Martin Van Buren. July 4 th 1827 Yet, on July 4 th that same summer of 1827 it was Lige who was probably feeling more joy than any he’d served. Webster’s prowess was soon celebrated in a Currier & Ives period print. Source: Karas, Nicholas. “The Trout and Daniel Webster.” Dawn, Dec. 31, 1966: 8-9.  Carman’s Mill   The Weathervane The Courier & Ives Print 

17 Manumission Day -- July 4, 1827 Slavery Officially Ends in New York State Manumission Day -- July 4, 1827 Slavery Officially Ends in New York State Brookhaven Slaves to be Free & Unequal 1799 – The NYS Legislature enacts a gradual emancipation bill, with provisos that after July 4, 1827 (allowing 28 years’ preparation time), children of mothers in slavery would be freed upon reaching age 25, for women, and 27, for men. But those born before 7/4/1827 might be kept enslaved for life – The NYS Legislature enacts a gradual emancipation bill, with provisos that after July 4, 1827 (allowing 28 years’ preparation time), children of mothers in slavery would be freed upon reaching age 25, for women, and 27, for men. But those born before 7/4/1827 might be kept enslaved for life – The New York Legislature enacts a follow-up bill, emancipating all slaves born prior to July 4, 1827, on that date, as well – The New York Legislature enacts a follow-up bill, emancipating all slaves born prior to July 4, 1827, on that date, as well – The N.Y.S. legislature enacts a property restriction on voting, applicable only to non-whites, disenfranchising most, before they were even freed – The N.Y.S. legislature enacts a property restriction on voting, applicable only to non-whites, disenfranchising most, before they were even freed. Source: “July 4, 1827: The Day NY Freed Its Slaves.” Newsday, July 4, 2003: A 4, A 38. Source: “July 4, 1827: The Day NY Freed Its Slaves.” Newsday, July 4, 2003: A 4, A 38.


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