2Essential Questions How did the modern system of slavery develop? What was the history of the slave trade and the Middle Passage?How did Africans manage to create communities among the brutal slave system?What were the connections between the institutions of slavery and the imperial system of the eighteenth century?How and why did racism develop in America?
3Origins How long has slavery existed? Why Africans? In Jamestown? 1441: Portuguese brought slaves to sugar plantations on Madeira
4Why the increase in demand? Hints:- Wages in England- Bacon’s Rebellion- Falling tobacco prices
13Olaudah Equiano“We were not many days in the merchant’s custody, before we were sold after their usual manner, which is this: On a signal given (as the beat of a drum), the buyers rush at once into the yard where the slaves are confined, and make choice of that parcel they like best. The noise and clamor with which this is attended, and the eagerness visible in the countenances of the buyers, serve not a little to increase the apprehension of terrified Africans, who may well be supposed to consider them as the ministers of that destruction to which they think themselves devoted. In this manner, without scruple, are relations and friends separated, most of them never to see each other again.”
17“Society with Slaves” or “Slave Society?” Servants/slaves worked, ate, slept in same quartersDominant form of labor was slaveryChristian baptism could no longer alter conditions of servitudeSlaves could earn freedom by hiring themselves out in free timeSlaves more expensive but could be worked longer and more days per yearSlave codesAfricans acquired slaves or servants of their ownDecline in immigration of English servantsSlaves generally more expensive than indentured servantsDeath of a slave during punishment “shall not be counted as a felony”Bacon’s rebellionVA (1662): “bond or free only according to the condition of the mother”
18Slaves CodesThe 1712 South Carolina slave code included provisions such as:Slaves were forbidden to leave the owner's property, unless accompanied by a white person, or obtaining permission. If a slave leaves the owner's property without permission, "every white person" is required to chastise such slavesAny slave attempting to run away and leave the colony (later, state) receives the death penaltyAny slave who evades capture for 20 days or more is to be publicly whipped for the first offense; branded with the letter R on the right cheek for the second offense; and lose one ear if absent for thirty days for the third offense; and castrated for the fourth offense.Owners refusing to abide by the slave code are fined and forfeit ownership of their slavesSlave homes are to be searched every two weeks for weapons or stolen goods. Punishment for violations escalate to include loss of ear, branding, and nose-slitting, and for the fourth offense, death.No slave shall be allowed to work for pay, or to plant corn, peas or rice; or to keep hogs, cattle, or horses; or to own or operate a boat; to buy or sell; or to wear clothes finer than 'Negro cloth'
19Rebellion Slave system based on force and violence Africans resisted by:Refusing to cooperate and malingering; mistreating tools and animals; Running awayRevolting (NYC, 1721; Stono, 1739)Fear of uprisings but slaves in North America rarely revoltedConditions for a successful revolt were not present
20Stono Rebellion What happened? Why? Why were these type of rebellions not more commonplace?
25How did mercantilism affect the relationship between England and colonies? In practice? 1651–1696: Navigation Actslegal and institutional structure of Britain’s colonial system.“Enumerated Articles” such as sugar could only be sent to Britain.How about in practice?Salutary Neglect
26Impact of Nav Acts in colonies PositiveNegativeNew England ship building prosperedTobacco monopoly in EnglandProtection from EnglandExports/Ports/Cities***Limited colonial manufacturingLow crop pricesHigh priced manufactured goods
27Wars for EmpireThe English, French, and Spanish struggled for control over North America and the Caribbean in a series of wars that had their European counterparts.No country gaining upper hand
29Sum it up!Southern planters, Northern merchants and British traders were all equally involved in slavery.Slavery permeated colonial societies and made colonies profitable to the mother countries.Mercantilism supported and reinforced slavery as profits flowed back to England.
30Regions Region Crop(s) or product slaves used to produce. Why did slavery grow as an institution?% of population by 18th Century?Chesapeake(Upper South)TobaccoFalling tobacco pricesDecreased migrationLower SouthRiceIndigoDecreased migration; agricultural skillNorthCattleDairy farmingPort laborServantsNA