2Theme Theme – universal truth What big ideas is the author dealing with?What does the author reveal about life or about the human condition?
3“Big Ideas” in To Kill a Mockingbird ToleranceCourageHypocrisyEducationRespectPrejudice/InequalityFamily BackgroundInnocenceGrowing UpJustice/Injustice
4Thematic or Universal Level Reading Beyond the Lines Identify the SubjectTurn the Subject into a QuestionSubject/”Big Idea”: ToleranceQuestion: Why is it important to see things from another person’s point of view?Subject/”Big Idea”: Loss of InnocenceQuestion: What causes a loss of innocence?
5Examples of thematic statements Seeing things from other people’s perspective is important because it promotes tolerance.Loss of innocence is moving from the assumption that people are naturally good to the more adult perspective gained from confronting evil.Ignorance is often at the root of trouble.Hardship is necessary to the development of one’s character.Someone of extraordinary strength is often needed to step forward when others hesitate.
6Check your thematic statement: Use a declarative sentence.Avoid clichés (What goes around, comes around; love conquers all, etc.)Avoid moralizations (ought, to, should, must, good, bad, right, wrong, etc.) These create morals of the story or lessons that should be learned, not themes.Keep it universal (relates to anybody, anywhere, any time.)Be sure it reflects the “big idea about life that the author wants us to think about.”Double check that this could also apply to other works of literature.
7Examples of what theme is not… Loss of Innocence = “Big Idea”Level 2 – Novel RelatedIn Harper Lee’s novel To Kill a Mockingbird, Scout’s innocence is lost as she faces the truth about human nature.In her encounters with Mayella, Bob Ewell, and Mrs. Gates, Scout faces the truth about human nature,Level 3 – ClichéFacing the truth about human nature allows you to grow and change
8Evidence: think in 3’sFind three examples in the novel where your theme is evident.Example:Theme: Seeing things from other people’s perspective is important because it promotes tolerance.Evidence #1: Scout understands Miss Caroline’s actions at school after Atticus explains that she is new to town and doesn’t understand “Maycomb’s ways” yet.Evidence #2: Scout sees things from Bob Ewell’s point of view after Atticus explains why Bob reacted as he did after the trial.Evidence #3: Scout is able to see things from Boo’s point of view while standing on his porch after walking him home.
9Evidence: think in 3’sTheme: Loss of innocence is moving from the assumption that people are naturally good to the more adult perspective gained from confronting evil.Evidence #1: Mayella lies on the stand during the trial.Evidence #2: Bob Ewell attacks Jem and Scout for revenge against Atticus.Evidence #3: Racism in Maycomb, as seen in Mrs. Gates’ comment.
10Thesis Statement Example for Expository Essay: A thesis statement includes three things:a subjectan opiniona preview of your essay (often in 3's)Example for Expository Essay:Dedication, hard work, and perseverance are essential to success.Television has a positive effect because it helps you learn; it gives you information from all over the world, and it allows you to relax.
14A Character Wants Something Literary EssayLiterature – novel, poem, drama, short story,Tell a STORYBeginningMiddleEndLEADA Character Wants SomethingOvercomes Conflict/ProblemsTo Get It (or Not)
15Literary Analysis Thesis Statement TAG – Title, Author, Genre of your TextTechnique – what did you notice about the author’s choice of/use of…?diction, imagery, symbols, motifs, archetypes, allusions, characters, etc.Task (or purpose) of the technique – what is the technique accomplishing in the text?Theme – an interpretive statement that links the technique to what the author is expressing about life or the human condition
16Literary Analysis Thesis Statement TAG – Title, Author, Genre of your TextTechnique – diction, imagery, symbols, motifs, archetypes, allusions, characters, etc.Task (or purpose) of the technique – what is the technique accomplishing in the text?Theme – what is the author revealing about life or the human condition?In Richard Selzer’s essay “The Knife,” he uses images of exploration to expresses his sense of wonder and excitement about his profession. Although explorers fear the unknown danger of their task, they must summon all their courage to reach their objective.
17An analytical thesis statement includes: includes three things: A thesis statementAn analytical thesis statement includes:includes three things:a subjectIn TAG, the author uses TECHNIQUE to TASK, revealing THEMEan opiniona preview of your essayTechnique and “Big Idea” = subject of your paper.Task and thematic statement = your opinion and interpretationA strong analytical thesis statement might preview the evidence
18Thesis StatementIn Harper Lee’s novel To Kill a Mockingbird, Scout’s innocence is lost as she confronts lies, attacks, and racism in the town of Maycomb. In her encounters with Mayella, Bob Ewell, and Mrs. Gates, Scout faces the truth about human nature, illustrating loss of innocence is moving from the assumption that people are naturally good to the more adult perspective gained from confronting evil.
19Literary Analysis Paper Prompts: Many authors use the archetype of the hero’s journey to show the transformation of a character. Write an essay analyzing how the journey functions in the work and what it reveals about the characters or themes of the work as a whole.Prompt 2:Focusing on one symbol, write an essay analyzing how that symbol functions in the work and what it reveals about the characters or themes of the work as a whole.Create Your Own Prompt:Write an essay analyzing how the author uses _____________ toTECHNIQUEdevelop_____________ revealing the theme of _______ in the work.TASK/PURPOSE THEME
21Literary Analysis Reflection Letter Letter Format – Dear Ms. Goss, Date, Etc. I’m most proud of… I notice in reading only my Thesis and Topic Sentences that… In providing me feedback, please focus on… Please don’t focus on…because I know I didn’t…
22Genre * Title * AuthorThe __________ Title by ______________... Genre Author’s Name The sci-fiction novel Ender’s Game by Orson Scott Card depicts a future world where children are trained in the art of war to protect the earth against an alien species.
23Make the Author the Subject In the __________ Title, _______________ verb Genre Author’s Name In the sci-fiction novel Ender’s Game, Orson Scott Card depicts a future world where Ender Wiggins, a young child soldier, is the hope of the Earth against an alien species.
24Author * Genre * TitleIn ______________’s _____________ Title, Author’s Name Genre In Orson Scott Card’s sci-fiction novel Ender’s Game, Ender Wiggins is recruited to Battle School in an attempt to save the earth against an alien species.