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Equal Opportunities in Schools: Session Learning Objectives n To gain an overview of the main issues n To have an increased awareness of issues of gender.

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Presentation on theme: "Equal Opportunities in Schools: Session Learning Objectives n To gain an overview of the main issues n To have an increased awareness of issues of gender."— Presentation transcript:

1 Equal Opportunities in Schools: Session Learning Objectives n To gain an overview of the main issues n To have an increased awareness of issues of gender and race specifically n To be able to use the model for an EO curriculum within your own subject area This document can be freely copied and amended if used for educational purposes. It must not be used for commercial gain. The author(s) and web source must be acknowledged whether used as it stands or whether adapted in any way Download P1.1_3.1a Authored by Aftab Gujral, St Martin's Lancaster. Accessed from date created [Oct 2004]

2 Session Overview n Who is denied equal opportunities? n Some gender issues with respect to pupils and teachers n Strategies for moving forward This document can be freely copied and amended if used for educational purposes. It must not be used for commercial gain. The author(s) and web source must be acknowledged whether used as it stands or whether adapted in any way Download P1.1_3.1a Authored by Aftab Gujral, St Martin's Lancaster. Accessed from date created [Oct 2004]

3 Addressing Equality in Education n Equality of access; broad and balanced curriculum appropriate to needs n Equality of uptake; the effect of cultural capital n Equality of outcome; moving towards a more just and democratic society This document can be freely copied and amended if used for educational purposes. It must not be used for commercial gain. The author(s) and web source must be acknowledged whether used as it stands or whether adapted in any way Download P1.1_3.1a Authored by Aftab Gujral, St Martin's Lancaster. Accessed from date created [Oct 2004]

4 Frequency Attribute Population A Population B The Difficulties of the Notion of the ‘Average’ Student

5 The gender gap in entry to different GCSE subjects n Large gap: (30%) Design Technology, Computer Studies n Small gap: (5-15%) Geography, MFL, English Lit. n No gap: English, Maths, History, Art and Design

6 Gender and Learning n Differences in learning outcomes n Behaviour in the classroom n Differences in learning styles n Differences in literacy and perceptions of literacy n Stereotyping; resources, teacher, parent and pupil attitudes n Attributions and confidence

7 Gender and Professional Progress n Females form more than 50% of secondary school workforce n 20% of secondary headteachers are women n Women in full time non-manual occupations earn 65% of men’s average earnings n In HE 72% of teachers are women but only 7% of professors are women

8 Dimensions of Equal Opportunities in School n Development of self-esteem and feelings of self-worth n Challenging harassment and discrimination n Widening the curriculum

9 Components of the Curriculum n Content/Concepts n Contexts n Skills and Processes n Teaching and Learning Strategies n Attitudes and Values (The Hidden Curriculum)

10 What can one teacher do? n Be aware of own values, assumptions and prejudices n Demonstrate Equal opportunities policy in action in your own classroom n Carry out your own research n Raise awareness of pupils to the issues n Develop assertiveness skills n Listen to pupils

11 Reading List n Clark, A., Millard, E. (1998) ‘Gender in the Secondary School’ Routledge n Paechter,C. (1998) Educating the Other: Gender, Power and Schooling’, London, Falmer Press n Mac An Ghaill, M. (1994) The Making of Men; Masculinities, Sexualities and Schooling’, Open University Press This document can be freely copied and amended if used for educational purposes. It must not be used for commercial gain. The author(s) and web source must be acknowledged whether used as it stands or whether adapted in any way Download P1.1_3.1a Authored by Aftab Gujral, St Martin's Lancaster. Accessed from date created [Oct 2004]

12 Education for a Multi-Cultural Britain Objectives for session: n Know more about cultural and ethnic diversity in Britain n Be aware of some approaches taken in the English Education System in response to this diversity from both historical and political perspectives

13 Session Overview n Diversity in Britain n Historical Overview of English Education and Responses to Diversity n Values and Models for Curriculum Approaches to Diversity n Summary

14 Ethnic Minority Populations in Britain

15 Changes to Immigration Patterns n

16 Historical Background to Educational Responses to Diversity 1 Post WarCurriculum is the responsibility of individual schools 1960’s‘Immigrant problem’; Response was ‘Assimilation’ Early 1970’s‘Compensatory Education’; ‘Black Studies’ for schools with high numbers of black pupils Late 1970’sRampton Committee identifies major cause of black children’s underachievement as low expectations by schools Early 1980’sSome schools in multi-ethnic communities develop their curriculum in response to diversity; ‘Education for a Pluralist Society’

17 Historical Background to Educational Responses to Diversity ’sCurriculum Development of ‘Multicultural’ and ‘Anti-Racist’ approaches in some schools and Local Education Authorities 1985Swan Committee of Enquiry into Education of Children from Ethnic Minorities produce their report ‘Education for All’. Recommend that a curriculum which ‘Values Diversity and Challenges Prejudice’ are seen as a requirement for all children in Britain 1988Education Reform Act; National Government take over the determination of the curriculum and introduce the National Curriculum

18 The Education Reform Act, 1988 “ The curriculum for a maintained school satisfies the requirements if it is a balanced and broadly based curriculum which: a. promotes the spiritual, moral, cultural, mental and physical development of pupils at the school and of society and; b. prepares such pupils for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of life.”

19 The School Effect: A Study of Multi-Racial Comprehensives n “ The academic level which is expected of a child depends more on school policies than the qualities of the pupil. Before the introduction of GCSE, a child with similar attainment would be entered for 8 ‘O’ levels at one school and 5 CSE’s in another.” n Tomlinson and Smith, 1989

20 Historical Background to Educational Responses to Diversity Introduction of National Curriculum in all State Schools for 5-16 year olds. Nine curriculum subjects plus locally devised Religious Education Curriculum 1992National (SATs) tests for children at ages 7,11 and 14 in English, Mathematics and Science Mid 1990sPublication of individual school results of children’s test performance; so called ‘league tables’ 1999McPhearson Report identifies continuing racism in British society; recommends action in education in addition to police services

21 McPhearson Recommendations n Altering National Curriculum which should aim to ‘value cultural diversity and prevent racism’ (Incorporated into ‘Citizenship Education for 2002) n Schools should record racist incidents, and report to parents and others n Strategies for dealing with racism to be subject to regular inspection

22 Issues of Race and Culture n Complexity of different achievements of ethnic communities n Black children are 6 times more likely to be excluded from school n Higher representation of black pupils in Special Schools n 29% of Afro Caribbean teens passed five GCSEs at grade C compared with 47% of white teens, 53%Indians and 61% of SE Asians

23 Models for the curriculum n Assimilation n Multi-cultural n Anti-racist n Modern Cosmopolitanism n Conforming n Reforming n Deforming n Transforming ( Richardson, 1990)

24 Dear Teacher, I am a survivor of a concentration camp. My eyes saw what no man should witness: gas chambers built by learned engineers; children poisoned by educated physicians; infants killed by trained nurses; women and babies shot by high-school and college graduates. So I am suspicious of education. My request is: help your students to become human. Your efforts must never produce learned monsters, skilled psychopaths, educated Eichmanns. Reading, writing and arithmatic are important only if they serve to make our children more human.

25 Reading List n Gaine, C. & George, R.,(1999) ‘Gender,’Race’ and Class in Schooling; A New Introduction’, Falmer Press n Mason, D. (1995) ‘Race and Ethnicity in Modern Britain’ Oxford University Press n Richardson, R.,(1990) ‘Daring to be a Teacher’, Trentham Press This document can be freely copied and amended if used for educational purposes. It must not be used for commercial gain. The author(s) and web source must be acknowledged whether used as it stands or whether adapted in any way Download P1.1_3.1a Authored by Aftab Gujral, St Martin's Lancaster. Accessed from date created [Oct 2004]


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