Presentation on theme: "1 COFFEE Chapter- 13.2 The second most popular non-alcoholic beverage after tea must be coffee. Today we learn about the coffee plant, the exporting countries,the."— Presentation transcript:
1 COFFEE Chapter The second most popular non-alcoholic beverage after tea must be coffee. Today we learn about the coffee plant, the exporting countries,the classification of coffee, the processing & the varieties of coffee that are available in market. The Coffee Plant- The coffee plant is a evergreen tree/bush which is grown commercially in tropical climates through the world. It requires not only a hot climate but also a high rainfall, a rich soil & a high altitude. The coffee plant is unable to survive any wide variation of temperature or frost condition. The part of the plant is used in coffee processing is the ripened berry. Commercially, three varieties of coffee are grown: Arabica coffee- Supplies the largest & the best quality coffee. It has a bold regular size bean & a fine flavour. It is very prone to disease & requires careful cultivation. It grows in Brazil, Colombia, Kenya, Jamaica & India. Coffee Robusta-produces the second main type of coffee. The beans are generally smaller & of a lower quality. It is a more hardy plant, has a higher yield & is grown in East &West Asia. Coffee Liberica-produces the third main type of coffee. It is a hardy robust plant,sometimes grows wild. The beans are large in size but of an inferior quality. COMPILED BY: MRS. REETU UDAY KUGAJI.
2 Exporting Countries-the main exporting countries are Brazil, Columbia, Uganda, Kenya, the Ivory coast & the Congo. Classification- Coffee may be classified under the following headings: By their country of origin eg. Kenya,Brazil By their type eg. Arabica, Rousta, Liberica By the grade of the bean By the method of processing eg. Wet & dry By the blend By their catering use Processing – When the berries are ripe they are picked by hand & taken to the processing plant. The berries are about the size of a small berry & consist of an external red skin,a layer of pulp, a tough parchment like inner membrane, a thin skin &finally two beans rounded on one side, flat on the other, with the flat sides pressed against each other. Depending on the country in which it is being processed, any one of the following methods will be used: The dry method- used in countries which do not have sufficient water supply. The berries are spread out thinly in the sun & left tall the pulp shrivel tightly on to the parchment. The berries are then put through a hulling machine which removes the parchment and the pulp in one stage. COMPILED BY: MRS. REETU UDAY KUGAJI.
3 Very little sorting of the berries is done and the same may carry traces of the silver skin and thereby lack the attractiveness of the washed beans. The wet method- This method is used in countries where there is sufficient and abundant water supply. The berries are put through a de-pulping machine to remove the fleshy part of the berry leaving the two seeds and their jackets. They are then placed in large vats and then allowed to ferment partially for 24 to 40 hours. This fermentation serves two purposes. It helps to develop the aroma of the cooked coffee and also helps in the removal of any adhering pulp attached to it. Then the fermentation stage is complete, the beans are thoroughly washed and then spread out in the sun to dry completely. The next stage is the removal of the parchment by machines to leave just the clear olive green beans. Coffee Roasting- the green coffee bean has a little or no flavour. The flavour, aroma & colour of liquid coffee is developed by roasting the coffee beans. The roasting causes the cell walls to be ruptured making the flavouring & aromatic quantities of the natural oil content readily available to extraction by hot water. Roasting can vary from light to dark. A dark roast gives a slightly bitter characteristic & is widely used for expresso. A light roast gives a mild flavour suitable for general purpose. Roasted coffee beans are a cooked commodity & liable to deterioration of quality. Any bean not used after roasting, must be stored in a air-tight container. COMPILED BY: MRS. REETU UDAY KUGAJI.
4 Coffee Grinding- The roasted coffee bean is next ground to enable the flavour, aroma & colour to be easily extracted. The degree of grinding will affect the strength of the coffee, finer the grain the stronger/bitter the flavour. Prolonged infusion not add anything of advantage except possibly bitterness. This is because the flavouring oils are highly volatile. Ground coffee will lose 20% of its freshness in one day& upto 50% in three weeks if not stored in airtight containers. Moreover it will develop a certain staleness as a resist of volatile oils being easily oxidized. Good quality coffee is always made from freshly ground beans. Coffee Blending- Many coffee blends are available for coffee merchants. The blending is done skillfully by experts in a manner similar to tea blending. Blending will produce a standard product of high, quality,flavour,colour & aroma available throughout the year at a standard price. Coffee Mixture- some well known brands of coffee are a blend of coffee & other substances eg: French Coffee is made of a blend of coffee & chicory. Viennese Coffee- is made of a blend of dried & roasted figs & coffee Chicory helps to bring down the cost while the figs help produce a smoother, & sweeter liquid. Constant coffee- This is the convenience form mostly widely used today. So special equipments are is required & the product is of acceptable standard. Instant coffee is pure coffee which is atomized to a fine mist into a drying chamber. COMPILED BY: MRS. REETU UDAY KUGAJI.
5 Caffeine Free Coffee-Caffeine is an alkaloid substance which produces the stimulating effect on coffee. It also is responsible for the bitterness. 87% of caffeine can be extracted by processing the green beans under steam in a vacuum. Used by persons who have heart ailments & those who are advised not to drink ordinary coffee. Coffee Concentrates – are concentrated extracts of coffee mainly used as a flavouring agent in bakery & confectionery. Coffee Bags – similar to tea bags’ but contain ground coffee & a percentage of instant coffee. Catering Packs- Again similar to catering packs of tea. They will reduce a specific yield eg. ½,1,3 or 5 gallons of coffee. Storage – Care must be taken regards to storage of coffee. Since the flavouring oils are highly volatile, some flavour is lost after roasting & then again after grinding. Coffee powder must be vacuum packed & the stored in sealed air tight containers. LIST ANY 05 BRAND NAMES OF COFFEE AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET. 01 NESCAFE 02 BRU 03 STARBUCKS 04 SEATTLE’S BEST 05 MILLSTONE ********************************** COMPILED BY: MRS. REETU UDAY KUGAJI.