Presentation on theme: "From Plantation to Cafe Country of Production: Country of Consumption: Harvesting Processing (wet or dry) DryingMillingGradingExport RoastingBlendingGrindingBrewingDrinking!"— Presentation transcript:
From Plantation to Cafe Country of Production: Country of Consumption: Harvesting Processing (wet or dry) DryingMillingGradingExport RoastingBlendingGrindingBrewingDrinking! List the coffee process from plantation to cafe – in correct order.
Tree Production Arabica tree may only produce around 4 – 5 kg of coffee cherries in a typical year. After processing this becomes 400 – 500 gm of roasted coffee beans 1 kg of roasted beans represents more than 1 tree’s entire crop for a year. What weight of green and processed beans does the average coffee tree produce in a year?
Harvesting the Coffee Cherries Selected hand-picking. Strip picking. Machine harvested (knocks them to the ground and then picked up). Cherries then sorted (usually by hand and usually by women and children). This is so that it will get a better grading and hence a better price. What reduces the grade of a coffee?
From Plantation to Cafe Country of Production: Harvesting Processing (wet or dry) DryingMillingGradingExport
Processing Coffee Separate the coffee seed from the cherry. 2 methods – washed or wet and unwashed or dry.
Dry or Wet? Dry used mainly in Ethiopia, some parts of Brazil and other African nations – why do you think that is so? Mostly used for Robusta Beans. Wash and sort beans dry in sun turned regularly fruit pulp dries milled to get rid of dried skin and pulp. Called “natural” coffee. Drawback is that can have mixed quality and lower grade.
Dry or Wet? Coffee processed in this way can fetch higher prices – why? Most Arabica beans are wet processed. Washed de-pulping machine skin and some pulp removed sorts by size and weight fermented with enzymes to break down mucilage and parchment dried milled and polished grading and bagging.
Processing Coffee Beans Wet Processing Used where there is not access to large amounts of water Low-tech. Requires minimal equipment. Doesn’t require large, skilled workforce Cheaper method of processing More defective beans left in = lower grading. Produces “natural” coffee with berry- like qualities in aroma and taste Most robusta processed by this method Dry Processing Requires large amounts of water High-tech. Requires more complex machinery. More skilled labour required More expensive More defective beans can be removed = higher grade coffee Produces “clean-tasting” coffee Most Arabica processed by this method
Drying and Milling Usually sun dried On the ground or racks On ground regular raking to increase airflow. Milling – removes last of the parchment on the beans.
Grading No international standard – depends on country. Size, colour and shape. Number of defective beans or foreign objects per sample. How they are processed and where they are grown (country and altitude). What are the three things that can cause coffee to be given a lower grading?
Tasting Batches are “cupped” as part of grading. Aroma – smell Acidity – sharp, bright flavour (a good thing) Body – consistency in the mouth and aftertaste Flavour – most important, overall impression of the coffee in the mouth e.g. Spicy, chocolaty.
Exporting Once graded bagged in 60 kg sacks ready for export. Every year more than 100 million sacks sold worldwide. Coffee prices affected by weather, politics and supply/demand balance. How can bad weather affect world coffee prices?
Process for Roasting Coffee 0 minutes Unroasted beans grey-green minimal, grassy Starting condition 4-6 minutes Yellow yellow buttery, popcorn-like smell Beans are heating and losing moisture 6-8 minutes “First Pop” followed by Light, Cinnamon, Pale, or Half-City Roast Light brown, uneven colouring. The crevice in the bean spreads apart, swelling its size. There is a popping sound similar to popcorn. Smell of baking bread. High in acidity, low in body, slightly sour with hints of toasted grain. Interior of bean has reached 200 o C. Expanding carbon dioxide inside the bean is breaking the cell walls, causing the bean to “pop”` Degree of Roast (Roast names) Bean Appearance and Noise Bean Smell and FlavourWhat’s Happening?
Process for Roasting Coffee 9 minutes Medium, Brown or American Roast Darker brown, but surface still dry with no visible oil “Grainy” flavour has gone, but still lots of acidity. Expanding cells causes the bean to grow in size. 10-12 minutes “Second Pop” followed by City, Special or High Roast Coffee oil begins to form on the surface of the bean. Popping sound is slightly louder than First Pop Less acid, slight tang, body starting to develop. The “varietal” characteristics of the bean at their peak. More cell walls are bursting inside the bean, moisture is being forced out and evaporating. 12-13 minutes Full City, Dark, Vienna, Espresso Roast Dark brown, oily, glossy surface. Complex, full flavour, balance of acid and body. Caramelised “sweet” flavours develop. Beads of oil are forming on the coffee bean surface, releasing flavour. This roast is used for espresso. Degree of Roast (Roast names) Bean Appearance and Noise Bean Smell and FlavourWhat’s Happening?
Process for Roasting Coffee 14 minutes French, Italian, Very Dark, Continental Roast Deep, dark brown, nearly black. Very oily surface. Beans have become quiet. Smoky, caramel, all acid tones gone. Bean has lost much of its “varietal” characteristics This roast is often used for espresso blends. 15 minutes plus Too Far! Beans turning black, catching fire Smoke, pungent burning smell. Coffee oil evaporating, batch ruined. Degree of Roast (Roast names) Bean Appearance and Noise Bean Smell and FlavourWhat’s Happening?
Roast Coffee Names (in order of how much they are roasted) Light, Cinnamon, Pale or Half-city roast Medium, Brown or American roast City, Special or High roast. Full City, dark, Vienna or Espresso Roast French, Italian, Very dark or Continental roast.