# Direct Variation Certain formulas occur so frequently in applied situations that they are given special names. Variation formulas show how one quantity.

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Direct Variation Certain formulas occur so frequently in applied situations that they are given special names. Variation formulas show how one quantity changes in relation to other quantities. Quantities can vary directly, inversely, or jointly. Direct Variation If a situation is described by an equation in the form y  kx where k is a constant, we say that y varies directly as x. The number k is called the constant of variation. 3.7: Modeling Using Variation

4. Use the equation from step 3 to answer the problem's question. 3. Substitute the value of k into the equation in step 1. 2. Substitute the given pair of values into the equation in step 1 and find the value of k. 1.Write an equation that describes the given English statement. Solving Variation Problems Direct Variation Our work up to this point provides a step-by-step procedure for solving variation problems. This procedure applies to direct variation problems as well as to the other kinds of variation problems that we will discuss. 3.7: Modeling Using Variation

Direct Variation Direct variation with powers is modeled by polynomial functions. Direct Variation with Powers y varies directly as the nth power of x if there exists some nonzero constant k such that y  kx n. 3.7: Modeling Using Variation

EXAMPLE: Solving a Direct Variation Problem The amount of garbage, G, varies directly as the population, P. Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, has a population of 1.3 million and creates 26 million pounds of garbage each week. Find the weekly garbage produced by New York City with a population of 7.3 million. Solution Step 1 Write an equation. We know that y varies directly as x is expressed as y  kx. By changing letters, we can write an equation that describes the following English statement: Garbage production, G, varies directly as the population, P. G  kP more 3.7: Modeling Using Variation

EXAMPLE: Solving a Direct Variation Problem The amount of garbage, G, varies directly as the population, P. Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, has a population of 1.3 million and creates 26 million pounds of garbage each week. Find the weekly garbage produced by New York City with a population of 7.3 million. Solution Step 2Use the given values to find k. Allegheny County has a population of 1.3 million and creates 26 million pounds of garbage weekly. Substitute 26 for G and 1.3 for P in the direct variation equation. Then solve for k. more 3.7: Modeling Using Variation

EXAMPLE: Solving a Direct Variation Problem The amount of garbage, G, varies directly as the population, P. Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, has a population of 1.3 million and creates 26 million pounds of garbage each week. Find the weekly garbage produced by New York City with a population of 7.3 million. Solution Step 3Substitute the value of k into the equation. G  kP Use the equation from step 1. G  20P Replace k, the constant of variation, with 20. more 3.7: Modeling Using Variation

EXAMPLE: Solving a Direct Variation Problem The amount of garbage, G, varies directly as the population, P. Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, has a population of 1.3 million and creates 26 million pounds of garbage each week. Find the weekly garbage produced by New York City with a population of 7.3 million. Solution Step 4Answer the problem's question. New York City has a population of 7.3 million. To find its weekly garbage production, substitute 7.3 for P in G  20P and solve for G. G = 20P Use the equation from step 3. G = 20(7.3) Substitute 7.3 for P. G = 146 The weekly garbage produced by New York City weighs approximately 146 million pounds. 3.7: Modeling Using Variation

Inverse Variation We use the same procedure to solve inverse variation problems as we did to solve direct variation problems. When two quantities vary inversely, one quantity increases as the other decreases, and vice versa. Generalizing, we obtain the following statement. Inverse Variation If a situation is described by an equation in the form y  where k is a constant, we say that y varies inversely as x. The number k is called the constant of variation. 3.7: Modeling Using Variation

To continue making money, the number of new songs, S, a rock band needs to record each year varies inversely as the number of years, N, the band has been recording. After 4 years of recording, a band needs to record 15 new songs per year to be profitable. After 6 years, how many new songs will the band need to record in order to make a profit in the seventh year? EXAMPLE: Solving an Inverse Variation Problem By changing letters, we can write an equation that describes the following English statement: The number of new songs each year, S, varies inversely as the number of years, N. Step 1Write an equation. We know that y varies inversely as x is expressed as Solution more 3.7: Modeling Using Variation

To continue making money, the number of new songs, S, a rock band needs to record each year varies inversely as the number of years, N, the band has been recording. After 4 years of recording, a band needs to record 15 new songs per year to be profitable. After 6 years, how many new songs will the band need to record in order to make a profit in the seventh year? Step 2Use the given values to find k. After 4 years of recording, the band needs to record 15 new songs. Substitute 15 for S and 4 for N in the inverse variation equation. Then solve for k. EXAMPLE: Solving an Inverse Variation Problem Solution more 3.7: Modeling Using Variation

To continue making money, the number of new songs, S, a rock band needs to record each year varies inversely as the number of years, N, the band has been recording. After 4 years of recording, a band needs to record 15 new songs per year to be profitable. After 6 years, how many new songs will the band need to record in order to make a profit in the seventh year? Step 3Substitute the value of k into the equation. EXAMPLE: Solving an Inverse Variation Problem Solution more 3.7: Modeling Using Variation

To continue making money, the number of new songs, S, a rock band needs to record each year varies inversely as the number of years, N, the band has been recording. After 4 years of recording, a band needs to record 15 new songs per year to be profitable. After 6 years, how many new songs will the band need to record in order to make a profit in the seventh year? Step 4Answer the problem's question. We need to find how many new songs will the band need to record after 6 years in order to make a profit in the seventh year. Substitute 6 for N in the equation from step 3 and solve for S. EXAMPLE: Solving an Inverse Variation Problem Solution The band will need to record 10 new songs after 6 years. 3.7: Modeling Using Variation

Joint Variation Joint variation is a variation in which a variable varies directly as the product of two or more other variables. Thus, the equation y  kxz is read "y varies jointly as x and z." 3.7: Modeling Using Variation

The centrifugal force, C, of a body moving in a circle varies jointly with the radius of the circular path, r, and the body's mass, m, and inversely with the square of the time, t, it takes to move about one full circle. A 6-gram body moving in a circle with radius 100 centimeters at a rate of 1 revolution in 2 seconds has a centrifugal force of 6000 dynes. Find the centrifugal force of an 18-gram body moving in a circle with radius 100 centimeters at a rate of 1 revolution in 3 seconds. EXAMPLE: Modeling Centrifugal Force more 3.7: Modeling Using Variation

The centrifugal force is 8000 dynes. Translate "Centrifugal force, C, varies jointly with radius, r, and mass, m, and inversely with the square of time, t." Solve for k. Substitute 40 for k in the model for centrifugal force. Find C when r  100, m  18, and t  3. If r  100, m  6, and t  2, then C  6000. EXAMPLE: Modeling Centrifugal Force Solution 3.7: Modeling Using Variation

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