Presentation on theme: "Objectives Learn why totalitarian dictators gained power after World War I. Find out how Germany, Italy, and Japan embarked on a path of military conquest."— Presentation transcript:
1ObjectivesLearn why totalitarian dictators gained power after World War I.Find out how Germany, Italy, and Japan embarked on a path of military conquest.Discover how the United States tried to remain neutral in a new world conflict.Understand how World War II began in Europe.
2Terms and PeopleJosef Stalin – a brutal dictator of the Soviet Union who ended up siding with the Allies during World War IItotalitarian state – a nation in which a single party controls the government and every aspect of people’s livesBenito Mussolini – Italian prime minister who made Italy a fascist state and sided with the Axis Powers during World War II
3Terms and People (continued) fascism – a political system based on militarism, extreme nationalism, and blind loyalty to the state and its leaderAdolf Hitler – brutal leader of Germany and the Nazi party who started World War IIaggression – a warlike act by one country against another without causeappeasement – a policy of giving in to aggression in order to avoid warWinston Churchill – British prime minister during World War II
4What events led to the outbreak of World War II? Events that set the stage for World War II included:The Great Depression of the 1930s caused worldwide economic hardship.World War I and the Russian Revolution resulted in the deaths of millions and altered the political map of Europe.
5By 1929, Joseph Stalin was dictator of the Soviet Union, which he turned into a totalitarian state. Stalin took brutal measures to control and modernize industry and agriculture.Stalin had four million people killed or imprisoned on false charges of disloyalty to the state.
6In 1922, the Italian king appointed Benito Mussolini prime minister. Mussolini turned Italy into the world’s first fascist state.Mussolini ended freedom of the press and crushed political opposition.
7Many Germans were angry about their defeat in World War I and the heavy reparation payments forced on them by the Allies.By 1921, Adolf Hitler had become leader of the National Socialist, or Nazi, Party.Racism formed the core of Nazi beliefs:Nazis believed Germans were a “master race.”Feelings of Anti- Semitism ran high.
8The Great Depression increased Hitler’s popularity. In 1933, Hitler was named chancellor of the German parliament.Hitler quickly created a totalitarian state.He outlawed other political parties.Secret police enforced strict loyalty.
9In Japan, military leaders wanted to take control of nearby countries to exploit their natural resources and have room to expand.The militarists said the Japanese were the superior race.
10Soon, Italy, Japan, and Germany were following policies of ruthless aggression. In 1931, the Japanese army seized Manchuria.At the end of 1937, Japanese troops pillaged Nanjing, China, massacring civilians and prisoners of war.
11In 1935, Mussolini’s armies invaded the African country of Ethiopia. Ethiopia’s emperor, Haile Selassie, asked the League of Nations for help, but it responded weakly.Britain and France would not help, either, so Ethiopia fell to Italy.
12Hitler defied the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, as Germany became increasingly aggressive. 19361938Hitler rebuilt Germany’s armed forces and sent troops into the Rhineland region of western Germany.German armies occupied Austria. European democracies did not stop Hitler.
13Hitler threatened to invade Czechoslovakia. 19381939Hitler threatened to invade Czechoslovakia.In a gesture of appeasement, Britain and France let Hitler occupy part of Czechoslovakia if he promised to seek no further territory.Munich PactHitler occupied the rest of Czechoslovakia and then set his sights on Poland.
14After World War I, the United States returned to a policy of isolationism. In 1935, Congress passed the Neutrality Act, which was designed to keep the U.S. at peace.The Act forbade the president from selling arms or making loans to any nation involved in war.
15At the same time, the U.S. sought to strengthen ties with Latin America. Hoover said the U.S. no longer claimed the right to intervene in Latin American affairs.President Herbert Hoover rejected the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.Under the Good Neighbor policy, President Franklin Roosevelt withdrew troops from Latin America and gave more independence to Cuba.
16The Nazis then marched into France, and Britain sent troops to help defend France. But, by May 1940, the Nazis had trapped the British and French in the port city of Dunkirk.In a bold action, the British rescued the trapped soldiers and evacuated them to Britain.Hitler accepted France’s surrender on June 22, 1940.
17Now Britain stood alone against the Nazi war machine, but British Prime Minister Winston Churchill vowed that he would never surrender.
18For months, German planes bombed London and other British cities, killing tens of thousands. Londoners slept in subway stations at night to avoid the bombs and tried to carry on with their lives during the day.By fall, Hitler abandoned plans to invade Britain.
19On June 22, 1941, Hitler broke his pact with Stalin by sending a huge German force into the Soviet Union.The Soviet Union now joined Britain in fighting the Germans.Although Churchill and Stalin deeply distrusted each other, they were forced to work together to defeat their common enemy.
20Section ReviewQuickTake QuizKnow It, Show It Quiz