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Targets: Identify parallel structure Identify and revise faulty parallelism Use parallel structure in writing Parallel structure.

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Presentation on theme: "Targets: Identify parallel structure Identify and revise faulty parallelism Use parallel structure in writing Parallel structure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Targets: Identify parallel structure Identify and revise faulty parallelism Use parallel structure in writing Parallel structure

2 What is Parallel Structure?

3 1.4 Writers Craft: Parallel Structure/Parallelism Parallelism refers to matching grammatical structures in sentences. Elements in a sentence that have the same function or express similar ideas should be grammatically parallel, or grammatically matched. Parallelism is used effectively as a rhetorical device throughout literature and in speeches, advertising copy, and popular songs. Parallel structure is a syntax: a way of ordering language. 3

4 Rhetoric the art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing, especially the use of figures of speech and other compositional techniques Free powerpoint template: 4

5 How do I define it? Parallel Structure: the repetition, or pattern of phrases (or words) in the same grammatical form.

6 What’s an example?

7 What is its purpose? Parallel structure is an ordering of language (a syntax) and has two main persuasive (rhetorical) purposes: To demonstrate that two or more ideas have the same importance. (Impacting the intellect). To please the reader/listener’s ear and eye with repetition and balance. (Impacting the emotions/senses).

8 Why do I need to know this? Good parallel structure improves the clarity of your writing When you can create parallel structures in your own sentences, you can bring power and persuasiveness to your writing. When you can identify parallel structure in others’ writing you can analyze the IMPACT of specific kinds of writing on audiences

9 Importance of Parallelism When you write a thesis statement, often you have to summarize three reasons in parallel form. Example: Tobacco should be outlawed because it endangers everyone’s health, pollutes the environment, and drains us of valuable energy. 9

10 Parallelism in Writing To make your writing parallel, use the same grammatical form for all items in a list Lists can be any of these things: –Parts of a sentence –Headings in a report –Items in a resume –Bulleted lists 10

11 Parallelism in Lists Poor: I left my job for several reasons: –The pay was poor –Long hours –I found the work tedious –Equipment was dangerous Improved: I left my job for several reasons: –Poor pay –Long hours –Tedious work –Dangerous equipment 11

12 Examples: Parallelism in Sentences Poor: Betty has intelligence, honesty, and she is funny. Improved: Betty has intelligence, honesty, and she is funny humour. Poor: Good writing requires you to plan outlines, write several drafts, and revision. Improved: Good writing requires you to plan outlines, write several drafts, and revision revise your work. 12

13 What is faulty parallelism? Define this in your spiral (see page 13) Free powerpoint template: 13

14 Examples of Parallelism Winston Churchill did not say –I have nothing to offer but bleeding, toil, tears, and sweating. He said –“I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat.” ~ Winston Churchill Churchill understood parallelism! 14

15 More examples of Parallelism “Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body”.— Joseph Addison “Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor sinith in the seat of the scornful”.—The Book of Psalms 1:1 “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.”—John F. Kennedy 15

16 How do I learn to identify parallel structure? Identify the parallel words, and parallel prepositional phrases in the lines below: "Friends, Romans, Countrymen, lend me your ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.” —William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Julius CaesarThe Tragedy of Julius Caesar

17 How do I learn to identify parallel structure? Identify the parallel words, and parallel prepositional phrases in the lines below: "Friends, Romans, Countrymen, lend me your ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.” —William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Julius CaesarThe Tragedy of Julius Caesar

18 How do I learn to identify parallel structure?

19 Practice: Parallel Struture from the Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln Listen to the audio of the Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln. How does the voice of Abraham Lincoln capture the readers attention?Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln Identify and highlight the parts of the sentences provided on page 12 that can be described as parallel. What type are they? (question 1 and 2) Free powerpoint template: 19

20 Identify parallel structure: Read the sentences from Abraham Lincoln’s second inaugural address at the bottom of page 12. Answer #3 on page 13. Share with a partner to check your understanding. Review as a class Free powerpoint template: 20

21 John F. Kennedy Inaugural Address Free powerpoint template: 21

22 Anaphora See page 13 Write down a definition of anaphora in your spiral Listen for how MLK uses anaphora in his “I Have a Dream” speech Free powerpoint template: 22

23 “I Have a Dream” Martin Luther King Free powerpoint template: 23

24 How do I learn to create parallel structure? Begin by writing out three sentences of your own. Create one sentence on the word level of parallel structure. Create one sentence on the phrase level of parallel structure. Create one final sentence on the clause level of parallel structure.

25 Studying on the weekend takes persistence, discipline, and commitment. My young pup Rondo Ray digs up our garden, brings in buried treasure, and deposits it at my feet. During the next several weeks of this pilot, we will dedicate ourselves to the experience of newness; we will respect ourselves for the effort we expend; and we will expect ourselves to master something challenging. Free powerpoint template: 25

26 Check Your Understanding (page 13) Take out a sheet of paper and head it properly Read and identify the faulty parallel structure in each example sentences (1-5). Rewrite the sentences with correct parallelism on a separate sheet of paper. Share your answers with a partner when done. Turn in to the in box Free powerpoint template: 26


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