1Parallel structure Identify parallel structure Targets: Identify and revise faulty parallelismUse parallel structure in writingStudents should write down the information in blue in their spirals
2What is Parallel Structure? Before instruction, have kids share their knowledge of parallel structure from their reading
31.4 Writers Craft: Parallel Structure/Parallelism Parallelism refers to matching grammatical structures in sentences. Elements in a sentence that have the same function or express similar ideas should be grammatically parallel, or grammatically matched.Parallelism is used effectively as a rhetorical device throughout literature and in speeches, advertising copy, and popular songs.Parallel structure is a syntax: a way of ordering language.Parallelism is an example of good syntax – it helps to create powerful sentences for effect.Rhetorical = PersuasiveRhetoric - the art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing, especially the use of figures of speech and other compositional techniques. nounnoun: rhetoricthe art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing, especially the use of figures of speech and other compositional techniques.I would remind my students to copy down RED QUESTIONS in comp book/journal; blue definitions/terms/information write under the questions, in outline form.synonyms: oratory, eloquence, command of language, way with words"a form of rhetoric"language designed to have a persuasive or impressive effect on its audience, but often regarded as lacking in sincerity or meaningful content.
4Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com Rhetoricthe art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing, especially the use of figures of speech and other compositional techniquesHave them copy down the definition of rhetoric in their spirals and emphasize the link between rhetoric and parallel structureFree powerpoint template:
5How do I define it?Parallel Structure: the repetition, or pattern of phrases (or words) in the same grammatical form.SKIP SLIDES 4 & 5 if you want to…
6What’s an example?What are the repeating patterns? (highlight the repeating phrases; underline the repeating words) “We must read aloud; we must listen. We must roll vowels on our tongues, chew on consonants; we must keep the beat with arm and leg.” ~ Donald HallHave students identify the repeating phrases and words and discuss why this might be important. What does it do for the reader? Why would the author use this technique?
7What is its purpose?Parallel structure is an ordering of language (a syntax) and has two main persuasive (rhetorical) purposes:To demonstrate that two or more ideas have the same importance. (Impacting the intellect).To please the reader/listener’s ear and eye with repetition and balance. (Impacting the emotions/senses).
8Why do I need to know this? Good parallel structure improves the clarity of your writingWhen you can create parallel structures in your own sentences, you can bring power and persuasiveness to your writing.When you can identify parallel structure in others’ writing you can analyze the IMPACT of specific kinds of writing on audiences(SUTTON ADD-IN)
9Importance of Parallelism When you write a thesis statement, often you have to summarize three reasons in parallel form.Example: Tobacco should be outlawed because it endangers everyone’s health, pollutes the environment, and drains us of valuable energy.
10Parallelism in Writing To make your writing parallel, use the same grammatical form for all items in a listLists can be any of these things:Parts of a sentenceHeadings in a reportItems in a resumeBulleted lists
11Parallelism in Lists Poor: I left my job for several reasons: The pay was poorLong hoursI found the work tediousEquipment was dangerousImproved: I left my job for several reasons:Poor payTedious workDangerous equipmentAsk students what the differences are between the poor and improved examples. What do they notice?
12Examples: Parallelism in Sentences Poor: Betty has intelligence, honesty, and she is funny.Improved: Betty has intelligence, honesty, andshe is funny humour.Poor: Good writing requires you to plan outlines, write several drafts, and revision.Improved: Good writing requires you to plan outlines, write several drafts, and revision revise your work.Ask students what the differences are between the poor and improved examples. What do they notice?
13What is faulty parallelism? Define this in your spiral (see page 13)Have students turn to page 13 and write a definition of faulty parallelism in their spirals – they will practice identifying faulty examples soon.Free powerpoint template:
14Examples of Parallelism Winston Churchill did not sayI have nothing to offer but bleeding, toil, tears, and sweating.He said“I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat.” ~ Winston ChurchillChurchill understood parallelism!Point out the first example would be faulty parallelism
15More examples of Parallelism “Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body”.—Joseph Addison“Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor sinith in the seat of the scornful”.—The Book of Psalms 1:1“Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.”—John F. KennedyGive them a few more examples of proper parallelism
16How do I learn to identify parallel structure? Identify the parallel words, and parallel prepositional phrases in the lines below:"Friends, Romans, Countrymen, lend me your ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.”—William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Julius CaesarIf you feel like you have time/inclination to pause here, you might mention that by using parallel structure in the first line, Marc Antony equates the friends (of Caesar) to all Romans and Countrymen – a very deliberate fusion of unlike-minded factions.By using bury and praise in parallel phrases, Antony belies his actual words by saying, rhetorically, I will do BOTH things at once, because BOTH actions are equally needed at this juncture in our history.A preposition is a word that begins a prepositional phrase and shows the relationship between its object and another word in the sentence. A preposition must always have an object. A prepositional phrase starts with a preposition, ends with an object, and may have modifiers between the preposition and object of the preposition.Here is a list of common words that can be used as prepositions: about, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, besides, between, beyond, but (when it means except), by, concerning, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, on, out, outside, over, past, since, through, to, toward, under, until, up, upon, with, within, and without.A participle is a verb form used as an adjective to modify nouns and pronouns. The following sentence contains both a present and a past participle:The children, crying and exhausted, were guided out of the collapsed mine.Crying is a present participle, formed by adding -ing to the present form of the verb (cry). Exhausted is a past participle, formed by adding -ed to the present form of the verb (exhaust). Both participles modify the subject, children.A gerund is a verb form ending in -ing that functions in a sentence as a noun. Although both the present participle and the gerund are formed by adding -ing to a verb, note that the participle does the job of an adjective while the gerund does the job of a noun. Compare the verbals in these two sentences:Crying will not get you anywhere.Whereas the participle crying modifies the subject in the first sentence, the gerund Crying is the subject of the second sentence.InfinitivesAn infinitive is a verb form--often preceded by the particle to--that can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Compare the verbals in these two sentences:I don't like crying in public unless I'm getting paid for it.I don't like to cry in public unless I'm getting paid for it.In the first sentence, the gerund crying serves as the direct object. In the second sentence, the infinitive to cry performs the same function.
17How do I learn to identify parallel structure? Identify the parallel words, and parallel prepositional phrases in the lines below:"Friends, Romans, Countrymen, lend me your ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.”—William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Julius CaesarCorrected version of previous slide.Marc Antony equates the friends (of Caesar) to all Romans and Countrymen – a very deliberate fusion of unlike-minded factions.
18How do I learn to identify parallel structure? Turn to page 9 of your text. Examine paragraph 3 (from Speak) for use of parallel structure.Turn to page 12 in your text.Highlight the example sentences in each type of parallel structure (words, phrases, clauses)Slides # follow the book and direct students to specific pages, etc.
19Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com Practice: Parallel Struture from the Gettysburg Address by Abraham LincolnListen to the audio of the Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln. How does the voice of Abraham Lincoln capture the readers attention?Identify and highlight the parts of the sentences provided on page 12 that can be described as parallel. What type are they? (question 1 and 2)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BvA0J_2ZpIQAnswer question #2 on page 12 with a partnerRead “parallel structure” definitionRead example of Abraham Lincoln’s second inaugural address and describe the parallelism being used (#3 page 13)Free powerpoint template:
20Identify parallel structure: Read the sentences from Abraham Lincoln’s second inaugural address at the bottom of page 12.Answer #3 on page 13. Share with a partner to check your understanding.Review as a classFree powerpoint template:
21John F. Kennedy Inaugural Address https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SODxisodLA0Listen to JFK, what makes this an effective speech? What is the impact of the spoken word and the resounding effect a message can have on an individual, a group, an organization, a culture, or even a generation? There are lines from this speech in the student text. Instruct students to then complete question 4 on page 13 by looking at these lines again regarding parallel structure. Push them a bit further to tell you what type of parallelism is present (word, phrase, clause)Free powerpoint template:
22Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com AnaphoraSee page 13Write down a definition of anaphora in your spiralListen for how MLK uses anaphora in his “I Have a Dream” speechFree powerpoint template:
23“I Have a Dream” Martin Luther King https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e8jyojwJHKwListen to speech. What makes MLK effective to the audience? What about his “voice” captures their attention?Free powerpoint template:
24How do I learn to create parallel structure? Begin by writing out three sentences of your own.Create one sentence on the word level of parallel structure.Create one sentence on the phrase level of parallel structure.Create one final sentence on the clause level of parallel structure.These next few slides give students extra practice writing out sentences that use different forms of parallel structure.
25Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com Studying on the weekend takes persistence, discipline, and commitment.My young pup Rondo Ray digs up our garden, brings in buried treasure, and deposits it at my feet.During the next several weeks of this pilot, we will dedicate ourselves to the experience of newness; we will respect ourselves for the effort we expend; and we will expect ourselves to master something challenging.Show them my examples if they are strugglingFree powerpoint template:
26Check Your Understanding (page 13) Take out a sheet of paper and head it properlyRead and identify the faulty parallel structure in each example sentences (1-5).Rewrite the sentences with correct parallelism on a separate sheet of paper.Share your answers with a partner when done.Turn in to the in boxFree powerpoint template: