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Syntactical Devices Important: These are different from the grammar concepts that we have been covering because these devices manipulate the structure.

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Presentation on theme: "Syntactical Devices Important: These are different from the grammar concepts that we have been covering because these devices manipulate the structure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Syntactical Devices Important: These are different from the grammar concepts that we have been covering because these devices manipulate the structure of your sentence. They are not focusing on a “grammar concept”. These are different from the grammar concepts that we have been covering because these devices manipulate the structure of your sentence. They are not focusing on a “grammar concept”. Also, these are all forms of repetition!!!! Also, these are all forms of repetition!!!! There are no allusions for these because your sentences will have to be longer to incorporate these devices. There are no allusions for these because your sentences will have to be longer to incorporate these devices.

2 Anaphora The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses or lines. The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses or lines. The purpose of using Anaphora is to build up to a point or create strong emotional emphasis. The purpose of using Anaphora is to build up to a point or create strong emotional emphasis.

3 Examples We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender. Churchill. We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender. Churchill. Churchill uses anaphora (We Shall) to emphasis to the people that this is not something just one man could do. He wanted England as a collective body to rally for the fight. Churchill uses anaphora (We Shall) to emphasis to the people that this is not something just one man could do. He wanted England as a collective body to rally for the fight.

4 Other Examples "Sir Walter Raleigh. Good food. Good cheer. Good times." (slogan of the Sir Walter Raleigh Inn Restaurant, Maryland) "Sir Walter Raleigh. Good food. Good cheer. Good times." (slogan of the Sir Walter Raleigh Inn Restaurant, Maryland) "Of all the gin joints in all the towns in all the world, she walks into mine." (Rick Blaine in Casablanca) "Of all the gin joints in all the towns in all the world, she walks into mine." (Rick Blaine in Casablanca)

5 Epistrophe This is the same concept as Anaphora except the repeated word, series of words, or phrase comes at the END of the sentence or sentences. This is the same concept as Anaphora except the repeated word, series of words, or phrase comes at the END of the sentence or sentences.

6 Examples "A day may come when the courage of men fails, when we forsake our friends and break all bonds of fellowship, but it is not this day. An hour of woes and shattered shields, when the age of men comes crashing down! But it is not this day! This day we fight!" (Viggo Mortensen as Aragorn in The Lord of "A day may come when the courage of men fails, when we forsake our friends and break all bonds of fellowship, but it is not this day. An hour of woes and shattered shields, when the age of men comes crashing down! But it is not this day! This day we fight!" (Viggo Mortensen as Aragorn in The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, 2003) the Rings: The Return of the King, 2003) "Don't you ever talk about my friends! You don't know any of my friends. You don't look at any of my friends. And you certainly wouldn't condescend to speak to any of my friends." (Judd Nelson as John Bender in The Breakfast "Don't you ever talk about my friends! You don't know any of my friends. You don't look at any of my friends. And you certainly wouldn't condescend to speak to any of my friends." (Judd Nelson as John Bender in The Breakfast Club, 1865) Club, 1865)

7 More Examples Manny Delgado: "Shel was there" Manny Delgado: "Shel was there" "Shel Turtlestein was many things, but above all he was my friend. When I didn’t get a date with Fiona Gunderson, Shel was there. When I didn’t get to play the part of Tevye, Shel was there. And when a raccoon broke into my room, unfortunately, Shel was there." (Manny's eulogy for his turtle in the episode "Truth Be Told." Modern Family, episode "Truth Be Told." Modern Family, March 2010) March 2010)

8 Polysyndeton This is where you use many conjunctions between clauses This is where you use many conjunctions between clauses One of the main purposes of this is often to slow the tempo or rhythm. One of the main purposes of this is often to slow the tempo or rhythm.

9 EXAMPLE I said, "Who killed him?" and he said, "I don't know who killed him but he's dead all right," and it was dark and there was water standing in the street and no lights and windows broke and boats all up in the town and trees blown down and everything all blown and I got a skiff and went out and found my boat where I had her inside Mango Key and she was all right only she was full of water. —Ernest Hemingway, "After the Storm." I said, "Who killed him?" and he said, "I don't know who killed him but he's dead all right," and it was dark and there was water standing in the street and no lights and windows broke and boats all up in the town and trees blown down and everything all blown and I got a skiff and went out and found my boat where I had her inside Mango Key and she was all right only she was full of water. —Ernest Hemingway, "After the Storm."

10 Another Example "He pulled the blue plastic tarp off of him and folded it and carried it out to the grocery cart and packed it and came back with their plates and some cornmeal cakes in a plastic bag and a plastic bottle of syrup." (Cormac McCarthy, The Road, Knopf, 2006) "He pulled the blue plastic tarp off of him and folded it and carried it out to the grocery cart and packed it and came back with their plates and some cornmeal cakes in a plastic bag and a plastic bottle of syrup." (Cormac McCarthy, The Road, Knopf, 2006)

11 Asyndeton Lack of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words. Lack of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words. from Gk. a and sundeton “bound together with” from Gk. a and sundeton “bound together with”

12 Examples We shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardships, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty. J. F. Kennedy, Inaugural We shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardships, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty. J. F. Kennedy, Inaugural But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. Lincoln, Gettysburg Address But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. Lincoln, Gettysburg Address

13 Anadiplosis Repeats the last word of one phrase, clause, or sentence at or very near the beginning of the next Repeats the last word of one phrase, clause, or sentence at or very near the beginning of the next It can be generated in series for the sake of beauty or to give a sense of logical progression It can be generated in series for the sake of beauty or to give a sense of logical progression

14 Examples They have forsaken me, the fountain of living waters, and hewed them out cisterns, broken cisterns that can hold no water. --Jer. 2:13 They have forsaken me, the fountain of living waters, and hewed them out cisterns, broken cisterns that can hold no water. --Jer. 2:13 The question next arises, How much confidence can we put in the people, when the people have elected Joe Doax? The question next arises, How much confidence can we put in the people, when the people have elected Joe Doax? This treatment plant has a record of uncommon reliability, a reliability envied by every other water treatment facility on the coast. This treatment plant has a record of uncommon reliability, a reliability envied by every other water treatment facility on the coast. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. --John 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. --John 1:1

15 More Examples The love of wicked men converts to fear, That fear to hate, and hate turns one or both To worthy danger and deserved death. —Shakespeare, Richard II The love of wicked men converts to fear, That fear to hate, and hate turns one or both To worthy danger and deserved death. —Shakespeare, Richard II The following shows anadiplosis of a phrase:...a man could stand and see the whole wide reach Of blue Atlantic. But he stayed ashore. The following shows anadiplosis of a phrase:...a man could stand and see the whole wide reach Of blue Atlantic. But he stayed ashore.

16 Epanalepsis Repeats the beginning word of a clause or sentence at the end Repeats the beginning word of a clause or sentence at the end The beginning and the end are the two positions of strongest emphasis in a sentence, so by having the same word in both places, you call special attention to it The beginning and the end are the two positions of strongest emphasis in a sentence, so by having the same word in both places, you call special attention to it

17 Examples Examples "In times like these, it is helpful to remember that there have always been times like these. " —Paul Harvey Examples "In times like these, it is helpful to remember that there have always been times like these. " —Paul Harvey "Believe not all you can hear, tell not all you believe." —Native American proverb "Believe not all you can hear, tell not all you believe." —Native American proverb "A lie begets a lie." —English proverb "A lie begets a lie." —English proverb "To each the boulders that have fallen to each." —Robert Frost, "Mending Wall" "To each the boulders that have fallen to each." —Robert Frost, "Mending Wall"

18 More Examples Water alone dug this giant canyon; yes, just plain water. To report that your committee is still investigating the matter is to tell me that you have nothing to report.

19 Antimetabole Repetition of words, in successive clauses, in reverse grammatical order. Repetition of words, in successive clauses, in reverse grammatical order. Gk. anti “in opposite direction” and metabole “turning about” Gk. anti “in opposite direction” and metabole “turning about”

20 Examples When the going gets tough, the tough get going. Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country. —John F. Kennedy You can take the gorilla out of the jungle, but you can't take the jungle out of the gorilla.

21 More Examples Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful. —Samuel Johnson, Rasselas Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful. —Samuel Johnson, Rasselas Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter! —Isaiah 5:20 Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter! —Isaiah 5:20


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