Presentation on theme: "16.1 Hitler’s Lightning War Alex Anderson Justin Abarquez Eric Bonfadini."— Presentation transcript:
16.1 Hitler’s Lightning War Alex Anderson Justin Abarquez Eric Bonfadini
Germany Sparks A New War in Europe Hitler takes Rhineland, Austria and Czechoslovakia. Hitler Demands Polish Corridor Germany’s Lightning Attack on Poland –Great Britain and France resist –Previously, U.S.S.R. had signed non-aggression pact with Germany. Publicly, they agreed not to attack each other, but privately they agreed that the U.S.S.R. could take over Finland and the Baltic Countries. Germany’s Lightning Attack on Poland –Hitler launches surprise attack on Poland on September 1 st, 1939 Hitler overwhelms Poland with troops Used “Blitzkrieg” or lightning war. Used fast planes and tanks, followed by massive infantry forces to take the foe by surprise. On September 3, Great Britain and France declare war on Germany, beginning WWII The Soviets Make Their Move –September 17, Stalin sends troops to occupy eastern half of Poland and begins annexing the regions in second part of agreement All fall without struggle except Finland –Stalin sends one-million troops, but does not consider winter. Finnish put up good fight though greatly outnumbered. They lose eventually The Phony War –All is calm for seven months after Poland Falls. –April 9, 1940 Hitler Launches Surprise attack on Denmark and Norway Denmark Falls after four hours. Norway follows two months later.
The Battle for France and Great Britain May 1940, Hitler sweeps though Holland, Belgium, nad Luxembourg –Strategy to strike at France –While Allies are distracted, Hitler sends and even larger force through the Ardennes towards France. France Battles Back –Nazi Troops sweep up French coast and meet up with more troops at Belgium Border. Belgium Surrenders –Allies retreat to Dunkirk, a French Port City where they are trapped Great Britain rescues over 338,000 soldiers with 850 ships France Falls –June 10 Mussolini Joins Hitler –June 14 Paris Falls –June 22 France Surrenders –Charles De Gaule Flees to London and forms the Free French military forces to fight Germany Germany Attacks Great Britain –Winston Churchill says his nation will never back down –Hitler initiates Operation Sea Lion. This plan involved first taking out the Royal Airforce (RAF) and then landing 250,000 troops on England’s shores –Summer 1940, Hitler begins bombing Great Britain RAF is badly outnumbered with 2,900 planes to the Luftwaffe’s (German Airforce) 4,500 Germans first attack airfields and Factories, Then begin to focus on cities, especially London, to break morale. With pressure of airfields, the RAF strike back, two things help turn the tide in their favor –Radar –German code machine called Enigma Germans give up daylight raids Battle of Britain continues until May 10, 1941 when Hitler calls of attacks and turns focus to Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean Allies learn that Hitler is not unstoppable
The Eastern Front and the Mediterranean Germany and Italy Attack North Africa –During Battle of Britain, Mussolini attacks British-controlled Egypt. Great Britain Strikes Back –British attack and crush Italy taking over 130,000 troops as prisoners –Hitler steps in to save Italy –Sends General Erwin Rommel, later known as the “Desert Fox” to Libya. He is to command a new tank corps called the Afrika Korps. Rommel atacks the British at Agheila on March 24. British Retreat 500 miles east to Tobruk –Mid-January 1942 British forces Rommel back again to where he started, –June, tide turns AGAIN and Rommel pushes Britain back across the desert and takes Tobruk Shattering loss because Tobruk was a symbol of British resistance. The War in the Balkans –Hitler eventually plans to take the Soviet Union Balkans are part of his plan Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary join Axis Yugoslavia and Greece resist –Yugoslavia falls in 11 days, Greece in 17 Hitler Invades the Soviet Union –Operation Barbarossa – Hitler invades Soviet Union using Blitzkrieg The Red Army is the largest in the World at the time, containing over 5 million men, though they are neither well equipped nor well-trained. –Germans push for weeks over 500 miles inside the Soviet Union. Russians burn everything as they retreat like they did against Napoleon –Leningrad is cut-off from the world, over 1 million people starve. Though Leningrad refuses to fall –Hitler turns to Moscow, but Soviets counter-attack, using new troops from Siberia and the harsh winter –Nazis have summer uniforms, so they retreat, their vehicles and fuel freeze, but the still dig in 125 miles west of the capital. Germans lose 500,000 lives.
The United States Aids Its Allies Due to neutrality acts passed by congress, the U.S. does not go to war, though they do lend arms to their allies President Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meet secretly on a battleship off Newfoundland on August –They issue joint declaration called the Atlantic Charter Upheld free trade among nations and the right of people to choose their own government. September 4, a German U-boat fires on a U.S. destroyer in the Atlantic. –Roosevelt orders all German subs to be shot on sight –Undeclared Naval war with Germany
Key Terms and Important Names
Jeopardy –VocabBattlesMiscellaneous – – – – –
Vocab-100 The nonaggression pact was signed by which two people? Joseph Stalin and Hitler.
Vocab-200 What is “lightning war”? blitzkrieg
Vocab-300 Who was the French General that fled to London? Charles de Gaulle
Vocab-400 With the fall of France, the British stood alone against the Nazis, who was the British prime minister at this time? Winston Churchill
Vocab-500 What was the joint declaration between Roosevelt and Churchill called? The Atlantic Charter
Battles-100 After signing the nonaggression pact, on September 1, 1939 Hitler attacked which country? Poland
Battles-200 Which half of Poland was Russia’s in the nonaggression pact? Eastern
Battles-300 For seven months the allies waited and defended, while the Germans did the same. What was this period called? The Phony War
Battles-400 On June 22, 1940, which country surrendered to the Nazis? France
Battles-500 From this battle, the allies learned that Hitler’s advances could be blocked. The Battle of Britain
Miscellaneous-100 What act allowed the United States to lend and lease weapons to allies at war? The Lend-Lease Act
Miscellaneous-200 Which country rescued over 338,000 troops with 850 ships? Great Britain
Miscellaneous-300 The United States were drawn into the war after which country fired on a U.S. destroyer? Germany
Miscellaneous-400 The attack on the U.S. destroyer by a German U-Boat was actually from which country? Japan
Miscellaneous-500 Which Country broke the nonaggression pact? Germany