Presentation on theme: "16.1 Hitler’s Lightning War"— Presentation transcript:
116.1 Hitler’s Lightning War Alex AndersonJustin AbarquezEric Bonfadini
2Germany Sparks A New War in Europe Hitler takes Rhineland, Austria and Czechoslovakia.Hitler Demands Polish CorridorGermany’s Lightning Attack on PolandGreat Britain and France resistPreviously, U.S.S.R. had signed non-aggression pact with Germany. Publicly, they agreed not to attack each other, but privately they agreed that the U.S.S.R. could take over Finland and the Baltic Countries.Hitler launches surprise attack on Poland on September 1st, 1939Hitler overwhelms Poland with troopsUsed “Blitzkrieg” or lightning war. Used fast planes and tanks, followed by massive infantry forces to take the foe by surprise.On September 3, Great Britain and France declare war on Germany, beginning WWIIThe Soviets Make Their MoveSeptember 17, Stalin sends troops to occupy eastern half of Poland and begins annexing the regions in second part of agreementAll fall without struggle except FinlandStalin sends one-million troops, but does not consider winter. Finnish put up good fight though greatly outnumbered. They lose eventuallyThe Phony WarAll is calm for seven months after Poland Falls.April 9, 1940 Hitler Launches Surprise attack on Denmark and NorwayDenmark Falls after four hours. Norway follows two months later.
3The Battle for France and Great Britain May 1940, Hitler sweeps though Holland, Belgium, nad LuxembourgStrategy to strike at FranceWhile Allies are distracted, Hitler sends and even larger force through the Ardennes towards France.France Battles BackNazi Troops sweep up French coast and meet up with more troops at Belgium Border.Belgium SurrendersAllies retreat to Dunkirk, a French Port City where they are trappedGreat Britain rescues over 338,000 soldiers with 850 shipsFrance FallsJune 10 Mussolini Joins HitlerJune 14 Paris FallsJune 22 France SurrendersCharles De Gaule Flees to London and forms the Free French military forces to fight GermanyGermany Attacks Great BritainWinston Churchill says his nation will never back downHitler initiates Operation Sea Lion. This plan involved first taking out the Royal Airforce (RAF) and then landing 250,000 troops on England’s shoresSummer 1940, Hitler begins bombing Great BritainRAF is badly outnumbered with 2,900 planes to the Luftwaffe’s (German Airforce) 4,500Germans first attack airfields and Factories, Then begin to focus on cities, especially London, to break morale.With pressure of airfields, the RAF strike back, two things help turn the tide in their favorRadarGerman code machine called EnigmaGermans give up daylight raidsBattle of Britain continues until May 10, 1941 when Hitler calls of attacks and turns focus to Eastern Europe and the MediterraneanAllies learn that Hitler is not unstoppable
4The Eastern Front and the Mediterranean Germany and Italy Attack North AfricaDuring Battle of Britain, Mussolini attacks British-controlled Egypt.Great Britain Strikes BackBritish attack and crush Italy taking over 130,000 troops as prisonersHitler steps in to save ItalySends General Erwin Rommel, later known as the “Desert Fox” to Libya. He is to command a new tank corps called the Afrika Korps. Rommel atacks the British at Agheila on March 24.British Retreat 500 miles east to TobrukMid-January 1942 British forces Rommel back again to where he started,June, tide turns AGAIN and Rommel pushes Britain back across the desert and takes TobrukShattering loss because Tobruk was a symbol of British resistance.The War in the BalkansHitler eventually plans to take the Soviet UnionBalkans are part of his planBulgaria, Romania and Hungary join AxisYugoslavia and Greece resistYugoslavia falls in 11 days, Greece in 17Hitler Invades the Soviet UnionOperation Barbarossa – Hitler invades Soviet Union using BlitzkriegThe Red Army is the largest in the World at the time, containing over 5 million men, though they are neither well equipped nor well-trained.Germans push for weeks over 500 miles inside the Soviet Union. Russians burn everything as they retreat like they did against NapoleonLeningrad is cut-off from the world, over 1 million people starve. Though Leningrad refuses to fallHitler turns to Moscow, but Soviets counter-attack, using new troops from Siberia and the harsh winterNazis have summer uniforms, so they retreat, their vehicles and fuel freeze, but the still dig in 125 miles west of the capital. Germans lose 500,000 lives.
5The United States Aids Its Allies Due to neutrality acts passed by congress, the U.S. does not go to war, though they do lend arms to their alliesPresident Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meet secretly on a battleship off Newfoundland on AugustThey issue joint declaration called the Atlantic CharterUpheld free trade among nations and the right of people to choose their own government.September 4, a German U-boat fires on a U.S. destroyer in the Atlantic.Roosevelt orders all German subs to be shot on sightUndeclared Naval war with Germany
6Key Terms and Important Names Nonaggression pact: an agreement in which nations agree to not attack one anotherBlitzkrieg: Germany’s military strategy (“lightining war”)Charles de Gaulle: French general whom after France fell fled to London to set up a government-in-exile which was comitted to reconquering FranceWinston Churchill: British prime minister who declares that Great Britain will never give upBattle of Britain: Hitler’s invasion on Great Britain; Hitler calls of attacks and turns focus to Eastern Europe and the MediterraneanAtlantic Charter: joint declaration between Churchill of Great Britain and Roosevelt of the United States that upheld free trade among nations and the right f people to choose their own governmentwould later serve as the Allies’ peace plan at the end of WWII