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Memory Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself. If memory was nonexistent,

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Presentation on theme: "Memory Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself. If memory was nonexistent,"— Presentation transcript:


2 Memory Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself. If memory was nonexistent, everyone would be a stranger to you; every language foreign; every task new; and even you yourself would be a stranger.

3 The Phenomenon of Memory Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve information.

4 Flashbulb Memory A unique and highly emotional moment may give rise to a clear, strong, and persistent memory called flashbulb memory. However, this memory is not free from errors. President Bush being told of 9/11 attack. Ruters/ Corbis

5 Stages of Memory Keyboard (Encoding) Disk (Storage) Monitor (Retrieval) Sequential Process

6 Information Processing The Atkinson-Schiffrin (1968) three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory, b) short- term memory, and c) long-term memory. Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Frank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/ Corbis

7 Problems with the Model 1. Some information skips the first two stages and enters long-term memory automatically. 2. Since we cannot focus all the sensory information in the environment, we select information (through attention) that is important to us. 3. The nature of short-term memory is more complex.

8 Memory  Encoding  the processing of information into the memory system i.e., extracting meaning  Storage  the retention of encoded information over time  Retrieval  process of getting information out of memory

9 Memory  Sensory Memory  the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system  Working Memory  focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information

10 Working Memory Alan Baddeley (2002) proposes that working memory contains auditory and visual processing controlled by the central executive through an episodic buffer.

11 Memory  Short-Term Memory  activated memory that holds a few items briefly  look up a phone number, then quickly dial before the information is forgotten  Long-Term Memory  the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system

12 Short-Term Memory Function—conscious processing of information where information is actively worked on Capacity—limited (holds 7+/-2 items) Duration—brief storage (about 30 seconds) Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention

13 Maintenance Rehearsal Mental or verbal repetition of information allows information to remain in working memory longer than the usual 30 seconds Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Maintenance Rehearsal

14 Long-Term Memory Once information passes from sensory to working memory, it can be encoded into long-term memory Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal

15 Long-Term Memory Function—organizes and stores information more passive form of storage than working memory Unlimited capacity Duration—thought by some to be permanent Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal

16 Long-Term Memory Encoding—process that controls movement from working to long-term memory store Retrieval—process that controls flow of information from long-term to working memory store Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal

17 A Simplified Memory Model External events Sensory memory Short-term memory Long-term memory Sensory input Attention to important or novel information Encoding Retrieving

18 Encoding  Automatic Processing  unconscious encoding of incidental information  space  time  frequency  well-learned information  word meanings  we can learn automatic processing  reading backwards

19 Automatic vs. Effortful Encoding Automatic processing Examples: What did you eat for lunch today? Was the last time you studied during the day or night? You know the meanings of these very words you are reading. Are you actively trying to process the definition of the words?

20 Encoding  Effortful Processing  requires attention and conscious effort  Rehearsal  conscious repetition of information  to maintain it in consciousness  to encode it for storage

21 Effortful Processing Committing novel information to memory requires effort just like learning a concept from a textbook. Such processing leads to durable and accessible memories. Spencer Grant/ Photo Edit © Bananastock/ Alamy

22 Rehearsal Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition. Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZ Hermann Ebbinghaus ( )

23 Encoding  Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables  TUV ZOF GEK WAV  the more times practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions to relearn on Day 2  Spacing Effect  distributed practice yields better long- term retention than massed practice

24 Rehearsal The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2.

25 Memory Effects 1. Next-in-line-Effect: When you are so anxious about being next that you cannot remember what the person just before you in line says, but you can recall what other people around you say. 2. Spacing Effect: We retain information better when we rehearse over time. 3. Serial Position Effect: When your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items.

26 Spacing Effect Distributing rehearsal (spacing effect) is better than practicing all at once. Robert Frost’s poem could be memorized with fair ease if spread over time. ACQUAINTED WITH THE NIGHT Robert Frost I have been one acquainted with the night. I have walked out in rain — and back in rain. I have outwalked the furthest city light. …

27 Serial Position Effect 1.TUV 2.ZOF 3.GEK 4.WAV 5.XOZ 6.TIK 7.FUT 8.WIB 9.SAR 10.POZ 11.REY 12.GIJ Better recall Poor recall

28 What Do We Encode?  Semantic Encoding  encoding of meaning  including meaning of words  Acoustic Encoding  encoding of sound  especially sound of words  Visual Encoding  encoding of picture images

29 Encoding Meaning Q: Did the word begin with a capital letter? Structural Encoding Q: Did the word rhyme with the word “weight”? Q: Would the word fit in the sentence? He met a __________ in the street. Phonemic Encoding Semantic Encoding “Whale” Craik and Lockhart (1972) Intermediate Deep Shallow

30 Results

31 Semantic Encoding


33 Visual Encoding Mental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. Showing adverse effects of tanning and smoking in a picture may be more powerful than simply talking about it.

34 Encoding  Mnemonics  memory aids  especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

35 Encoding  Method of Loci  As an aid to memorizing lengthy speeches, ancient Greek orators would visualize themselves moving through familiar locations  Peg Word System  Memorize a jingle: “one is a bun, two is a shoe…”

36 Method of Loci List of Items Charcoal Pens Bed Sheets Hammer. Rug Imagined Locations Backyard Study Bedroom Garage. Living Room

37 Link Method Involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together. List of Items Newspaper Shaving cream Pen Umbrella. Lamp

38 Fig. 7-29a, p. 292

39 Break down complex information into broad concepts and further subdivide them into categories and subcategories. Organizing Information for Encoding 1.Chunking 2.Hierarchy

40 Encoding  Chunking  organizing items into familiar, manageable units  like horizontal organization  often occurs automatically

41 Chunking Acronyms are another way of chunking information to remember it. HOMES = Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior PEMDAS = Parentheses, Exponent, Multiply, Divide, Add, Subtract ROY G. BIV = Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet FOOLISH MOMS SMOKE POT

42 Chunking Organizing items into a familiar, manageable unit. Try to remember the numbers below If you are well versed with American history, chunk the numbers together and see if you can recall them better

43 A friend gave you this list of ingredients for muffins. How might you rearrange the ingredients so you can remember them better? salt, eggs, raisins, wheat flour, honey, milk, margarine, nuts, white flour, baking powder, baking soda Chunking

44 Try dividing (chunking) the ingredients into dry ingredients and liquid (or wet) ingredients. Dry Ingredients salt nuts raisins white flour wheat flour baking soda baking powder Wet or Liquid Ingredients eggs milk honey margarine

45 Hierarchy Complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories.

46 Encoding Summarized in a Hierarchy

47 Storage: Retaining Information Storage is at the heart of memory. Three stores of memory are shown below: Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding RetrievalEncoding Events Retrieval

48 Sensory Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding RetrievalEncoding Events Retrieval

49 Sensory Memory Divided into two types: iconic memory– visual information echoic memory– auditory information Sensory Input Sensory Memory

50 Sensory Memory Function—holds information long enough to be processed for basic physical characteristics Capacity—large can hold many items at once Duration—very brief retention of images.3 sec for visual info 2 sec for auditory info Sensory Input Sensory Memory

51 Sensory Memory Sensory memory forms automatically, without attention or interpretation Attention is needed to transfer information to working memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory

52 Whole Report The exposure time for the stimulus is so small that items cannot be rehearsed. R G T F M Q L Z S 50 ms (1/20 second) “Recall” R T M Z (44% recall) Sperling (1960)

53 Partial Report Low Tone Medium Tone High Tone “Recall” J R S (100% recall) Sperling (1960) argued that sensory memory capacity was larger than what was originally thought. 50 ms (1/20 second) S X T J R S P K Y

54 Time Delay “Recall” N _ _ (33% recall) Time Delay 50 ms (1/20 second) A D I N L V O G H Low Tone Medium Tone High Tone

55 Sensory Memory The longer the delay, the greater the memory loss Percent Recognized Time (Seconds)

56 Sensory Memories Iconic 0.5 sec. long Echoic 3-4 sec. long Hepatic < 1 sec. long The duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses.

57 Working Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding RetrievalEncoding Events Retrieval

58 Working Memory Working memory, the new name for short-term memory, has a limited capacity (7±2) and a short duration (20 seconds). Sir George Hamilton observed that he could accurately remember up to 7 beans thrown on the floor. If there were more beans, he guessed.

59 Capacity You should be able to recall 7±2 letters. The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information (1956). George Miller M U T G I K T L R S Y P Ready?

60 Chunking F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M The capacity of the working memory may be increased by “Chunking.” FBI TWA CIA IBM 4 chunks

61 Duration Brown/Peterson and Peterson (1958/1959) measured the duration of working memory by manipulating rehearsal. CH?? The duration of the working memory is about 20 sec. CHJ MKT HIJ …

62 Working Memory Duration

63 Long-Term Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding RetrievalEncoding Events Retrieval

64 Long-Term Memory Unlimited capacity store. Estimates on capacity range from 1000 billion to 1,000,000 billion bits of information (Landauer, 1986). The Clark’s nutcracker can locate 6,000 caches of buried pine seeds during winter and spring.

65 Memory Stores Feature Sensory Memory Working Memory LTM EncodingCopyPhonemicSemantic CapacityUnlimited7±2 ChunksVery Large Duration0.25 sec.20 sec.Years


67 Storing Memories in the Brain 1. Through electrical stimulation of the brain, Wilder Penfield (1967) concluded that old memories were etched into the brain. 2. Loftus and Loftus (1980) reviewed Penfield's data and showed that only a handful of brain stimulated patients reported flashbacks. 3. Using rats, Lashley (1950) suggested that even after removing parts of the brain, the animals retain partial memory of the maze.

68 Storage: Long-Term Memory  How does storage work?  Karl Lashley (1950)  rats learn maze  lesion cortex  test memory  Synaptic changes  Long-term Potentiation  increase in synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation

69 Biological Basis of Memory Karl Lashley searched for a localized memory trace or engram Found that maze- learning in rats was distributed throughout the brain

70 Synaptic Changes Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) refers to synaptic enhancement after learning (Lynch, 2002). An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses. Both Photos: From N. Toni et al., Nature, 402, Nov Courtesy of Dominique Muller

71 Synaptic Changes In Aplysia, Kandel and Schwartz (1982) showed that serotonin release from neurons increased after conditioning. Photo: Scientific American

72 Stress Hormones & Memory Heightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Continued stress may disrupt memory.

73 Storing Implicit & Explicit Memories Explicit Memory refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. Implicit memory involves learning an action while the individual does not know or declare what she knows.

74 Fig. 7-26, p. 288


76 Hippocampus Hippocampus – a neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories. Weidenfield & Nicolson archives

77 Fig. 7-23, p. 286

78 Cerebellum Cerebellum – a neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories.

79 Biological Basis of Memory Amnesia— severe memory loss Retrograde amnesia— inability to remember past episodic information; common after head injury; need for consolidation Anterograde amnesia— inability to form new memories; related to hippocampus damage

80 No New Memories Anterograde Amnesia Anterograde Amnesia (HM) Surgery After losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) remembered everything before the operation but cannot make new memories. We call this anterograde amnesia. Memory Intact

81 Implicit Memory HM learned the Tower of Hanoi (game) after his surgery. Each time he plays it, he is unable to remember the fact that he has already played the game. HM is unable to make new memories that are declarative (explicit), but he can form new memories that are procedural (implicit). C B A

82 Retrieval: Getting Information Out Retrieval refers to getting information out of the memory store. Spanky’s Yearbook Archive

83 Measures of Memory In recognition, the person must identify an item amongst other choices. (A multiple-choice test requires recognition.) 1.Name the capital of France. a.Brussels b.Rome c.London d.Paris

84 Measures of Memory In recall, the person must retrieve information using effort. (A fill-in-the blank test requires recall.) 1.The capital of France is ______.

85 Measures of Memory In relearning, the individual shows how much time (or effort) is saved when learning material for the second time. List Jet Dagger Tree Kite … Silk Frog Ring It took 10 trials to learn this list List Jet Dagger Tree Kite … Silk Frog Ring It took 5 trials to learn the list 1 day later Saving Original Trials Relearning Trials Relearning Trials % X 100

86 Retrieval Cues Memories are held in storage by a web of associations. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory. Fire Truck truck red fire heat smoke smell water hose

87 Priming (William James) To retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you must first activate one of the strands that leads to it. This process is called priming.

88 Context Effects Scuba divers recall more words underwater if they learned the list underwater, while they recall more words on land if they learned that list on land (Godden & Baddeley, 1975). Fred McConnaughey/ Photo Researchers

89 Context Effects After learning to move a mobile by kicking, infants most strongly respond when retested in the same context rather than in a different context (Butler & Rovee-Collier, 1989).

90 Déja Vu Déja Vu means “I've experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience. © The New Yorker Collection, Leo Cullum from All Rights Reserved

91 Slumber

92 Awake

93 Comfort

94 Snore

95 Sound

96 Eat

97 Night

98 Dream

99 Bed

100 Wake

101 Rest

102 Tired

103 Context Effects  Deja Vu (French)--already seen  cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience  "I've experienced this before."  Mood-congruent Memory  tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current mood  memory, emotions, or moods serve as retrieval cues  State-dependent Memory  what is learned in one state (while one is high, drunk, or depressed) can more easily be remembered when in same state

104 Moods and Memories We usually recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood. Emotions, or moods, serve as retrieval cues.

105 Forgetting An inability to retrieve information due to poor encoding, storage, or retrieval.

106 Encoding Failure We cannot remember what we do not encode.

107 Which penny is real?

108 Storage Decay Poor durability of stored memories leads to their decay. Ebbinghaus showed this with his forgetting curve.

109 Retaining Spanish Bahrick (1984) showed a similar pattern of forgetting and retaining over 50 years. Andrew Holbrooke/ Corbis

110 Retrieval Failure Although the information is retained in the memory store, it cannot be accessed. Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) is a retrieval failure phenomenon. Given a cue (What makes blood cells red?) the subject says the word begins with an H (hemoglobin).

111 Interference Learning some new information may disrupt retrieval of other information.

112 Retroactive Interference Sleep prevents retroactive interference. Therefore, it leads to better recall.

113 Forgetting as Interference  Learning some items may disrupt retrieval of other information  Proactive (forward acting) Interference  disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information  Retroactive (backwards acting) Interference  disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old information

114 Forgetting  Retroactive Interference Without interfering events, recall is better After sleep After remaining awake Hours elapsed after learning syllables 90% Percentage of syllables recalled

115 Motivated Forgetting Motivated Forgetting: People unknowingly revise their memories. Repression: A defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. Sigmund Freud Culver Pictures

116 Forgetting  Forgetting as encoding failure  Information never enters the long-term memory External events Sensory memory Short- term memory Long- term memory Attention Encoding failure leads to forgetting

117 The Forgetting Curve Hermann Ebbinghaus first began to study forgetting using nonsense syllables Nonsense syllables are three letter combinations that look like words but are meaningless (ROH, KUF)

118 Forgetting  Forgetting can occur at any memory stage  As we process information, we filter, alter, or lose much of it

119 Memory Construction While tapping our memories, we filter or fill in missing pieces of information to make our recall more coherent. Misinformation Effect: Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.

120 Elizabeth Loftus and John Palmer: Memory Experiment and Hypothesis Hypothesis: People will remember a car accident differently if given different language cues (words) about the accident

121 Loftus and Palmer: Methodology Students watched a film of two cars colliding Collision was moderate with no broken glass Different students asked different questions: hit, smashed, collided, bumped, contacted

122 Loftus and Palmer: Results People reported the fastest speeds if the researchers had used the word “smashed” in the question From fastest to slowest reported speeds: smashed, collided, bumped, hit, and contacted groups VERBMEAN ESTIMATE OF SPEED (MPH) Smashed40.8 Collided39.3 Bumped38.1 Hit34.0 Contacted31.8

123 Loftus and Palmer: Results One week later, subjects were asked if they had seen broken glass 32% of subjects asked the “smashed” question said yes; 14% of subjects asked the “hit” question said yes

124 Loftus and Palmer: Results and Implications People remember things differently depending on the language used to describe an event (e.g., “smashed” versus “hit”) Misinformation effect

125 Eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned about the event. Misinformation and Imagination Effects Depiction of the actual accident.

126 Misinformation Group A: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other? Group B: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?

127 Memory Construction A week later they were asked: Was there any broken glass? Group B (smashed into) reported more broken glass than Group A (hit).

128 Loftus Results Word Used in Question Average Speed Estimate smashed collided bumped hit contacted 41 m.p.h. 39 m.p.h. 38 m.p.h. 34 m.p.h. 32 m.p.h.

129 Memory Construction  We filter information and fill in missing pieces  Source Amnesia  attributing to the wrong source an event that we experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined (misattribution)

130 Discerning True & False Memories Just like true perception and illusion, real memories and memories that seem real are difficult to discern. When students formed a happy or angry memory of morphed (computer blended) faces, they made the (computer assisted) faces (a), either happier or (b) angrier. © Simon Niedsenthal

131 Repressed or Constructed? Some adults actually do forget childhood episodes of abuse. False Memory Syndrome A condition in which a person’s identity and relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of a traumatic experience, which is sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists. False Memories

132 Children’s eyewitness recall can be unreliable if leading questions are posed. However, if cognitive interviews are neutrally worded, the accuracy of their recall increases. In cases of sexual abuse, this usually suggests a lower percentage of abuse. Children’s Eyewitness Recall

133 Are memories of abuse repressed or constructed? Many psychotherapists believe that early childhood sexual abuse results in repressed memories. However, other psychologists question such beliefs and think that such memories may be constructed. Memories of Abuse

134 Constructed Memories Loftus’ research shows that if false memories (lost at the mall or drowned in a lake) are implanted in individuals, they construct (fabricate) their memories.

135 Consensus on Childhood Abuse 1. Injustice happens. 2. Incest and other sexual abuse happens. 3. People may forget. 4. Recovered memories are commonplace. 5. Recovered memories under hypnosis or drugs are unreliable. 6. Memories of things happening before 3 years of age are unreliable. 7. Memories, whether real or false, are emotionally upsetting. Leading psychological associations of the world agree on the following concerning childhood sexual abuse:

136 Improving Memory 1. Study repeatedly to boost long-term recall. 2. Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material. 3. Make material personally meaningful. 4. Use mnemonic devices:  associate with peg words — something already stored  make up a story  chunk — acronyms

137 Improving Memory 5. Activate retrieval cues — mentally recreate the situation and mood. 6. Recall events while they are fresh — before you encounter misinformation. 7. Minimize interference: 1.Test your own knowledge. 2.Rehearse and then determine what you do not yet know. © LWA-Dann Tardiff/ Corbis

138 Forgetting Theories Encoding failure Interference theories Motivated forgetting Decay

139 Figure 9.28 Levels of analysis for the study of memory Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers

140 CHRISTMAS CAROLS FOR THE PSYCHIATRICALLY CHALLENGED Schizophrenia: Do You Hear What I Hear? Multiple Personality Disorder: We Three Queens Disoriented Are Amnesia: I Don't Know if I'll be Home for Christmas Narcissistic: Hark the Herald Angels Sing About Me Manic: Deck the Halls and Walls and House and Lawn and Streets and Stores and Office and Town and Cars and Buses and Trucks and Trees and Fire Hydrants and... Paranoid: Santa Claus is Coming to Get Me Borderline Personality Disorder: Thoughts of Roasting on an Open Fire Personality Disorder: You Better Watch Out, I'm Gonna Cry, I'm Gonna Pout, Maybe I'll tell You Why Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells... Agoraphobia: I Heard the Bells on Christmas Day But Wouldn't Leave My House Autistic: Jingle Bell Rock and Rock and Rock and Rock... Senile Dementia: Walking in a Winter Wonderland Miles From My House in My Slippers and Robe Oppositional Defiant Disorder: I Saw Mommy Kissing Santa Claus So I Burned Down the House Social Anxiety Disorder: Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas While I Sit Here and Hyperventilate

141 Why isn’t anyone ringing the doorbell?

142 Tombstone

143 Snow Angels

144 Santa Measurements

145 Jerk Santa

146 Santa Shot

147 Rottweiler

148 Christmas Lights

149 Cold Feet



152 Rudolph















167 School for the Blind

168 Snowman Stick-up


170 Snowbaby

171 Snowman Dog

172 Snowman Funeral


174 Letter to Santa

175 Santa’s Flat Tire


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