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Memory Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself. If memory was nonexistent,

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Presentation on theme: "Memory Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself. If memory was nonexistent,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself. If memory was nonexistent, everyone would be a stranger to you; every language foreign; every task new; and even you yourself would be a stranger. An event is such a little piece of time and space, leaving only a mindglow behind like the tail of a shooting star. Far a lack of a better word, we call that scintillation memory. Diane Ackerman, An Alchemy of Mind, 2004

2 The Phenomenon of Memory
Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve information. OBJECTIVE 1| Define memory, and explain how flashbulb memories differ from other memories.

3 Flashbulb Memory A unique and highly emotional moment may give rise to a clear, strong, and persistent memory called flashbulb memory. However, this memory is not free from errors. Ruters/ Corbis President Bush being told of 9/11 attack.

4 Stages of Memory Sequential Process Keyboard Disk Monitor (Encoding)
(Storage) Monitor (Retrieval) Sequential Process

5 Information Processing
The Atkinson-Schiffrin (1968) three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory, b) short-term memory, and c) long-term memory. OBJECTIVE 2| Describe Atkinson-Schiffrin’s classic three-stage model of memory and explain how contemporary model of working memory differs. Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Frank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/ Corbis Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works

6 Problems with the Model
Some information skips the first two stages and enters long-term memory automatically. Since we cannot focus all the sensory information in the environment, we select information (through attention) that is important to us. The nature of short-term memory is more complex.

7 Memory Encoding Storage Retrieval
the processing of information into the memory system i.e., extracting meaning Storage the retention of encoded information over time Retrieval process of getting information out of memory

8 Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory
the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system Working Memory focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information

9 Working Memory Alan Baddeley (2002) proposes that working memory contains auditory and visual processing controlled by the central executive through an episodic buffer.

10 Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly look up a phone number, then quickly dial before the information is forgotten Long-Term Memory the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system

11 Short-Term Memory Function—conscious processing of information
where information is actively worked on Capacity—limited (holds 7+/-2 items) Duration—brief storage (about 30 seconds) Hockenbury slides (Schulman) Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; sensory memory; short-term memory; working memory; attention; memory span; 7 +/- 2 items Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Attention

12 Maintenance Rehearsal
Mental or verbal repetition of information allows information to remain in working memory longer than the usual 30 seconds Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Attention Maintenance Rehearsal Hockenbury slides (Schulman) Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; sensory memory; short-term memory; working memory; attention; maintenance rehearsal

13 Long-Term Memory Once information passes from sensory to working memory, it can be encoded into long-term memory Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal Hockenbury slides (Schulman) Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; long-term memory; working memory; short-term memory; encoding; retrieval

14 Long-Term Memory Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory
Function—organizes and stores information more passive form of storage than working memory Unlimited capacity Duration—thought by some to be permanent Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal Hockenbury slides (Schulman) Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; long-term memory; working memory; short-term memory; encoding; retrieval

15 Long-Term Memory Encoding—process that controls movement from working to long-term memory store Retrieval—process that controls flow of information from long-term to working memory store Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal Hockenbury slides (Schulman) Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; long-term memory; working memory; short-term memory; encoding; retrieval

16 A Simplified Memory Model
External events Sensory memory Short-term Long-term Sensory input Attention to important or novel information Encoding Retrieving

17 Encoding Automatic Processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information space time frequency well-learned information word meanings we can learn automatic processing reading backwards

18 Automatic vs. Effortful Encoding
Automatic processing Examples: What did you eat for lunch today? Was the last time you studied during the day or night? You know the meanings of these very words you are reading. Are you actively trying to process the definition of the words?

19 Encoding Effortful Processing Rehearsal
requires attention and conscious effort Rehearsal conscious repetition of information to maintain it in consciousness to encode it for storage

20 Effortful Processing Committing novel information to memory requires effort just like learning a concept from a textbook. Such processing leads to durable and accessible memories. OBJECTIVE 4| Contrast effortful processing with automatic processing, and discuss the next-in-line effect, the spacing effect and the serial position effect. Spencer Grant/ Photo Edit © Bananastock/ Alamy

21 Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition.
Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZ Hermann Ebbinghaus ( )

22 Encoding Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables Spacing Effect
TUV ZOF GEK WAV the more times practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions to relearn on Day 2 Spacing Effect distributed practice yields better long- term retention than massed practice

23 Rehearsal The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2.

24 Memory Effects Next-in-line-Effect: When you are so anxious about being next that you cannot remember what the person just before you in line says, but you can recall what other people around you say. Spacing Effect: We retain information better when we rehearse over time. Serial Position Effect: When your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items.

Spacing Effect Distributing rehearsal (spacing effect) is better than practicing all at once. Robert Frost’s poem could be memorized with fair ease if spread over time. ACQUAINTED WITH THE NIGHT Robert Frost I have been one acquainted with the night. I have walked out in rain — and back in rain. I have outwalked the furthest city light. … …

26 Serial Position Effect

27 What Do We Encode? Semantic Encoding Acoustic Encoding Visual Encoding
encoding of meaning including meaning of words Acoustic Encoding encoding of sound especially sound of words Visual Encoding encoding of picture images

28 “Whale” Encoding Meaning Q: Did the word begin with a capital letter?
Structural Encoding Shallow Q: Did the word rhyme with the word “weight”? Phonemic Encoding Intermediate OBJECTIVE 5| Compare the benefits of visual, acoustic, and semantic encoding in remembering verbal information, and describe a memory-enhancing strategy related to the self-referent effect. Q: Would the word fit in the sentence? He met a __________ in the street. Semantic Encoding Deep Craik and Lockhart (1972)

29 Results

30 Semantic Encoding

31 Semantic Encoding

32 Visual Encoding Mental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. OBJECTIVE 6| Explain how encoding imagery aids effortful processing, and describes some memory-enhancing strategies that use visual encoding. Showing adverse effects of tanning and smoking in a picture may be more powerful than simply talking about it.

33 Encoding Mnemonics memory aids
especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

34 Encoding Method of Loci Peg Word System
As an aid to memorizing lengthy speeches, ancient Greek orators would visualize themselves moving through familiar locations Peg Word System Memorize a jingle: “one is a bun, two is a shoe…”

35 Method of Loci List of Items Imagined Locations Charcoal Backyard Pens
Bed Sheets Hammer . Rug Imagined Locations Backyard Study Bedroom Garage . Living Room

36 Link Method List of Items Newspaper Shaving cream Pen Umbrella . Lamp
Involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together.

37 Fig. 7-29a, p. 292 Figure 7.29: Narrative methods of remembering.
Bower and Clark (1969) presented participants with 12 lists of words. Subjects in the “narrative group” were asked to recall the words by constructing a story out of them (like the two stories shown here). Subjects in the control group were given no special instructions. Recoding the material in story form dramatically improved recall, as the graph clearly shows. Source: Adapted from Bower, G. H., & Clark, M. C. (1969). Narrative stories as mediators of serial learning. Psychonomic Science, 14, 181–182. Copyright © 1969 by the Psychonomic Society. Adapted by permission of the Psychonomic Society and the author. Fig. 7-29a, p. 292

38 Organizing Information for Encoding
Break down complex information into broad concepts and further subdivide them into categories and subcategories. Chunking Hierarchy OBJECTIVE 7| Discuss the use of chunking and hierarchies in effortful processing.

39 Encoding Chunking organizing items into familiar, manageable units
like horizontal organization often occurs automatically

40 Acronyms are another way of chunking information to remember it.
HOMES = Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior PEMDAS = Parentheses, Exponent, Multiply, Divide, Add, Subtract ROY G. BIV = Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet FOOLISH MOMS SMOKE POT

41 Chunking 1-7-7-6-1-4-9-2-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1
Organizing items into a familiar, manageable unit. Try to remember the numbers below. If you are well versed with American history, chunk the numbers together and see if you can recall them better

42 Chunking A friend gave you this list of ingredients for muffins. How might you rearrange the ingredients so you can remember them better? salt, eggs, raisins, wheat flour, honey, milk, margarine, nuts, white flour, baking powder, baking soda

43 Dry Ingredients Wet or Liquid Ingredients
Try dividing (chunking) the ingredients into dry ingredients and liquid (or wet) ingredients. Dry Ingredients salt nuts raisins white flour wheat flour baking soda baking powder Wet or Liquid Ingredients eggs milk honey margarine

44 Hierarchy Complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories.

45 Encoding Summarized in a Hierarchy

46 Storage: Retaining Information
Storage is at the heart of memory. Three stores of memory are shown below: Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding Events Encoding Retrieval Retrieval

47 Sensory Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Events
Encoding Events Encoding Retrieval OBJECTIVE 8| Contrast two types of sensory memory. Retrieval

48 Sensory Memory Divided into two types:
iconic memory– visual information echoic memory– auditory information Sensory Input Memory Hockenbury slides (Schulman) Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; sensory memory; iconic memory; echoic memory; Sperling

49 Sensory Memory Function—holds information long enough to be processed for basic physical characteristics Capacity—large can hold many items at once Duration—very brief retention of images .3 sec for visual info 2 sec for auditory info Sensory Input Memory Hockenbury slides (Schulman) Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; sensory memory

50 Sensory Memory Sensory memory forms automatically, without attention or interpretation Attention is needed to transfer information to working memory Sensory Input Memory Hockenbury slides (Schulman) Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; sensory memory; attention

51 R G T F M Q L Z S Whole Report “Recall” R T M Z (44% recall)
Sperling (1960) R G T F M Q L Z S “Recall” R T M Z (44% recall) 50 ms (1/20 second) The exposure time for the stimulus is so small that items cannot be rehearsed.

52 S X T J R S P K Y Partial Report “Recall” J R S (100% recall) Low Tone
Medium Tone High Tone “Recall” J R S (100% recall) 50 ms (1/20 second) Sperling (1960) argued that sensory memory capacity was larger than what was originally thought.

53 A D I N L V O G H Time Delay “Recall” N _ _ (33% recall) Low Tone
Medium Tone High Tone “Recall” N _ _ (33% recall) Time Delay 50 ms (1/20 second)

54 The longer the delay, the greater the memory loss.
Sensory Memory The longer the delay, the greater the memory loss. 20 40 60 80 Percent Recognized 0.15 0.30 0.50 1.00 Time (Seconds)

55 Sensory Memories The duration of sensory memory varies for the
Iconic 0.5 sec. long Echoic 3-4 sec. long Hepatic < 1 sec. long The duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses.

56 Working Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Events
Encoding Events Encoding Retrieval OBJECTIVE 9| Describe the duration and working capacity of short-term memory. Retrieval

57 Working Memory Working memory, the new name for short-term memory, has a limited capacity (7±2) and a short duration (20 seconds). Sir George Hamilton observed that he could accurately remember up to 7 beans thrown on the floor. If there were more beans, he guessed.

58 Capacity M U T G I K T L R S Y P
The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information (1956). Ready? M U T G I K T L R S Y P You should be able to recall 7±2 letters. George Miller

59 F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M
Chunking The capacity of the working memory may be increased by “Chunking.” F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M FBI TWA CIA IBM 4 chunks

60 The duration of the working memory is about 20 sec.
Brown/Peterson and Peterson (1958/1959) measured the duration of working memory by manipulating rehearsal. CHJ MKT HIJ 547 547 544 541 CH?? The duration of the working memory is about 20 sec.

61 Working Memory Duration

62 Long-Term Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Events
Encoding Events Encoding Retrieval OBJECTIVE 10| Describe the capacity and duration of long-term memory. Retrieval

63 Long-Term Memory Unlimited capacity store. Estimates on capacity range from 1000 billion to 1,000,000 billion bits of information (Landauer, 1986). The Clark’s nutcracker can locate 6,000 caches of buried pine seeds during winter and spring.

64 Memory Stores Feature Sensory Memory Working Memory LTM Encoding Copy
Phonemic Semantic Capacity Unlimited 7±2 Chunks Very Large Duration 0.25 sec. 20 sec. Years


66 Storing Memories in the Brain
Through electrical stimulation of the brain, Wilder Penfield (1967) concluded that old memories were etched into the brain. Loftus and Loftus (1980) reviewed Penfield's data and showed that only a handful of brain stimulated patients reported flashbacks. Using rats, Lashley (1950) suggested that even after removing parts of the brain, the animals retain partial memory of the maze.

67 Storage: Long-Term Memory
How does storage work? Karl Lashley (1950) rats learn maze lesion cortex test memory Synaptic changes Long-term Potentiation increase in synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation

68 Biological Basis of Memory
Karl Lashley searched for a localized memory trace or engram Found that maze-learning in rats was distributed throughout the brain Discovering Psy2e Photo p. 227

69 Synaptic Changes Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) refers to synaptic enhancement after learning (Lynch, 2002). An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses. Both Photos: From N. Toni et al., Nature, 402, Nov Courtesy of Dominique Muller

70 Synaptic Changes In Aplysia, Kandel and Schwartz (1982) showed that serotonin release from neurons increased after conditioning. OBJECTIVE 11| Discuss the synaptic changes that accompany memory formation and storage. Photo: Scientific American

71 Stress Hormones & Memory
Heightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Continued stress may disrupt memory. OBJECTIVE 12| Discuss some ways stress hormones can affect memory.

72 Storing Implicit & Explicit Memories
Explicit Memory refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. Implicit memory involves learning an action while the individual does not know or declare what she knows. OBJECTIVE 13| Distinguish between implicit and explicit memory, and identify the main brain structure associated with each.

73 Fig. 7-26, p. 288 Figure 7.26: Theories of independent memory systems.
Theorists have distinguished between declarative memory, which handles facts and information, and nondeclarative memory, which handles motor skills, conditioned responses, and emotional memories. Declarative memory is further subdivided into semantic memory (general knowledge) and episodic memory (dated recollections of personal experiences). The extent to which nondeclarative memory can be usefully subdivided remains the subject of debate, although many theorists view procedural memory, which handles actions and perceptualmotor skills, as an independent subsystem. Fig. 7-26, p. 288

74 Bloom, Nelson, and Lazerson, Brain, Mind, and Behavior
Figure 10.06

75 Hippocampus Hippocampus – a neural center in the limbic
system that processes explicit memories. Weidenfield & Nicolson archives

76 Fig. 7-23, p. 286 Figure 7.23: The anatomy of memory.
All the brain structures identified here have been implicated in efforts to discover the anatomical structures involved in memory. The hippocampus is the hub of the medial temporal lobe memory system, which is thought to play a critical role in the consolidation of long-term memories. Fig. 7-23, p. 286

77 Cerebellum Cerebellum – a neural center in the hindbrain
that processes implicit memories.

78 Biological Basis of Memory
Amnesia— severe memory loss Retrograde amnesia— inability to remember past episodic information; common after head injury; need for consolidation Anterograde amnesia— inability to form new memories; related to hippocampus damage

79 Anterograde Amnesia After losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) remembered everything before the operation but cannot make new memories. We call this anterograde amnesia. Anterograde Amnesia (HM) Memory Intact No New Memories Surgery

80 Implicit Memory HM is unable to make new memories that are
declarative (explicit), but he can form new memories that are procedural (implicit). C B A HM learned the Tower of Hanoi (game) after his surgery. Each time he plays it, he is unable to remember the fact that he has already played the game.

81 Retrieval: Getting Information Out
Retrieval refers to getting information out of the memory store. OBJECTIVE 14| Contrast the recall, recognition, and relearning measures of memory. Spanky’s Yearbook Archive Spanky’s Yearbook Archive

82 Measures of Memory In recognition, the person must identify an item amongst other choices. (A multiple-choice test requires recognition.) Name the capital of France. Brussels Rome London Paris

83 Measures of Memory In recall, the person must retrieve information using effort. (A fill-in-the blank test requires recall.) The capital of France is ______.

84 Measures of Memory In relearning, the individual shows how much time (or effort) is saved when learning material for the second time. List Jet Dagger Tree Kite Silk Frog Ring List Jet Dagger Tree Kite Silk Frog Ring Original Trials Relearning Trials 1 day later Saving X 100 Relearning Trials 10 5 X 100 10 It took 10 trials to learn this list It took 5 trials to learn the list 50%

85 Retrieval Cues Memories are held in storage by a web of associations. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory. water smell hose Fire Truck fire OBJECTIVE 15| Explain how retrieval cues help us access stored memories, and describe the process of priming. smoke truck heat red

86 Priming (William James)
To retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you must first activate one of the strands that leads to it. This process is called priming.

87 Context Effects Scuba divers recall more words underwater if they learned the list underwater, while they recall more words on land if they learned that list on land (Godden & Baddeley, 1975). Fred McConnaughey/ Photo Researchers

88 Context Effects After learning to move a mobile by kicking, infants most strongly respond when retested in the same context rather than in a different context (Butler & Rovee-Collier, 1989). OBJECTIVE 16| Cite some ways that context can affect retrieval.

89 Déja Vu Déja Vu means “I've experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience. © The New Yorker Collection, Leo Cullum from All Rights Reserved

90 Slumber

91 Awake

92 Comfort

93 Snore

94 Sound

95 Eat

96 Night

97 Dream

98 Bed

99 Wake

100 Rest

101 Tired

102 Context Effects Deja Vu (French)--already seen Mood-congruent Memory
cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience "I've experienced this before." Mood-congruent Memory tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current mood memory, emotions, or moods serve as retrieval cues State-dependent Memory what is learned in one state (while one is high, drunk, or depressed) can more easily be remembered when in same state

103 Moods and Memories We usually recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood. Emotions, or moods, serve as retrieval cues. OBJECTIVE 17| Describe the effects of internal states on retrieval.

104 Forgetting An inability to retrieve information due to poor encoding, storage, or retrieval. OBJECTIVE 18| Explain why we should value our ability to forget, and distinguish three general ways our memory fails us.

105 We cannot remember what we do not encode.
Encoding Failure We cannot remember what we do not encode. OBJECTIVE 19| Discuss the role of encoding failure in forgetting.

106 Which penny is real?

107 Storage Decay Poor durability of stored memories leads to their decay. Ebbinghaus showed this with his forgetting curve. OBJECTIVE 20| Discuss the concept of storage decay, and describe Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve.

108 Retaining Spanish Bahrick (1984) showed a similar pattern of forgetting and retaining over 50 years. Andrew Holbrooke/ Corbis

109 Retrieval Failure Although the information is retained in the memory store, it cannot be accessed. Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) is a retrieval failure phenomenon. Given a cue (What makes blood cells red?) the subject says the word begins with an H (hemoglobin).

110 Interference Learning some new information
may disrupt retrieval of other information. OBJECTIVE 21| Contrast proactive and retroactive interference, and explain how they can cause retrieval failure.

111 Retroactive Interference
Sleep prevents retroactive interference. Therefore, it leads to better recall.

112 Forgetting as Interference
Learning some items may disrupt retrieval of other information Proactive (forward acting) Interference disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information Retroactive (backwards acting) Interference disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old information

113 Hours elapsed after learning syllables
Forgetting Retroactive Interference Without interfering events, recall is better After sleep After remaining awake Hours elapsed after learning syllables 90% 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Percentage of syllables recalled

114 Motivated Forgetting Motivated Forgetting: People unknowingly revise their memories. Repression: A defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. OBJECTIVE 22| Summarize Freud's concept of repression, and state whether this view is reflected in current memory research. Culver Pictures Sigmund Freud

115 Forgetting Forgetting as encoding failure
Information never enters the long-term memory External events Sensory memory Short- term Long- Attention Encoding failure leads to forgetting

116 The Forgetting Curve Hermann Ebbinghaus first began to study forgetting using nonsense syllables Nonsense syllables are three letter combinations that look like words but are meaningless (ROH, KUF)

117 Forgetting Forgetting can occur at any memory stage
As we process information, we filter, alter, or lose much of it

118 Memory Construction While tapping our memories, we filter or fill in missing pieces of information to make our recall more coherent. Misinformation Effect: Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.

119 Elizabeth Loftus and John Palmer: Memory Experiment and Hypothesis
Researchers have also conducted experiments that reveal a great deal about memory. Psychologists have looked at things such as how people remember things, how memories change over time, and why different people often remember the same event differently. In a well-known 1974 experiment, Elizabeth Loftus and John Palmer hypothesized that people would remember a car accident differently if they were given different language cues about the accident. Hypothesis: People will remember a car accident differently if given different language cues (words) about the accident

120 Loftus and Palmer: Methodology
Loftus and Palmer recruited 45 American college students to participate in their study. These subjects watched a film of an accident in which two cars collided relatively gently. The film showed no broken glass. Subjects were then divided into groups and asked one of the following five questions: About how fast were the cars going when they hit each other? About how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? About how fast were the cars going when they collided? About how fast were the cars going when they bumped into each other? About how fast were the cars going when they contacted each other? Students watched a film of two cars colliding Collision was moderate with no broken glass Different students asked different questions: hit, smashed, collided, bumped, contacted

121 Loftus and Palmer: Results
VERB MEAN ESTIMATE OF SPEED (MPH) Smashed 40.8 Collided 39.3 Bumped 38.1 Hit 34.0 Contacted 31.8 Subjects who had been asked how fast the cars were going when they smashed into each other reported higher speeds than subjects who were asked the other questions. The subsequent order of reported speeds was given—from fastest to slowest—by people in the smashed, collided, bumped, hit, and contacted groups. People reported the fastest speeds if the researchers had used the word “smashed” in the question From fastest to slowest reported speeds: smashed, collided, bumped, hit, and contacted groups

122 Loftus and Palmer: Results
One week later, the researchers asked the subjects whether they recalled seeing broken glass in the film. Subjects who had been asked the smashed question were more than twice as likely (32%) to report having seen broken glass as subjects who had been asked the hit question (14%). One week later, subjects were asked if they had seen broken glass 32% of subjects asked the “smashed” question said yes; 14% of subjects asked the “hit” question said yes

123 Loftus and Palmer: Results and Implications
Loftus and Palmer’s results show that memories can be altered when people receive language prompts regarding an event they’ve witnessed. In this case, the subjects were asked leading questions that altered their memories of the car crash. Although the accident was staged and subjects avoided the trauma that might be associated with witnessing an accident in person, the researchers’ questions had a significant effect on subjects’ memories. The subjects experienced a “misinformation effect,” which means that people’s memories became skewed when they were presented with some slight misinformation (e.g., the word “smashed,” which exaggerated what really happened in the film). Think about your own memory. Have you ever disagreed with a friend about how something occurred, even though you were both present for the event? Have you ever had trouble remembering exactly how something happened? These phenomena are very common and will undoubtedly occur throughout your life. People remember things differently depending on the language used to describe an event (e.g., “smashed” versus “hit”) Misinformation effect

124 Misinformation and Imagination Effects
Eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned about the event. OBJECTIVE 23| Explain how misinformation and imagination can distort our memory of an event. Depiction of the actual accident.

125 Misinformation Group A: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other? Group B: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?

126 Memory Construction A week later they were asked: Was there any broken glass? Group B (smashed into) reported more broken glass than Group A (hit).

127 Loftus Results Word Used in Question Average Speed Estimate smashed
collided bumped hit contacted 41 m.p.h. 39 m.p.h. 38 m.p.h. 34 m.p.h. 32 m.p.h. Hockenbury slides (Schulman)

128 Memory Construction We filter information and fill in missing pieces
Source Amnesia attributing to the wrong source an event that we experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined (misattribution)

129 Discerning True & False Memories
Just like true perception and illusion, real memories and memories that seem real are difficult to discern. OBJECTIVE 25| List some differences and similarities between true and false memories. © Simon Niedsenthal When students formed a happy or angry memory of morphed (computer blended) faces, they made the (computer assisted) faces (a), either happier or (b) angrier.

130 False Memories Repressed or Constructed?
Some adults actually do forget childhood episodes of abuse. False Memory Syndrome A condition in which a person’s identity and relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of a traumatic experience, which is sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists.

131 Children’s Eyewitness Recall
Children’s eyewitness recall can be unreliable if leading questions are posed. However, if cognitive interviews are neutrally worded, the accuracy of their recall increases. In cases of sexual abuse, this usually suggests a lower percentage of abuse. OBJECTIVE 26| Give arguments supporting and rejecting the position that very young children's reports are reliable.

132 Are memories of abuse repressed or constructed?
Many psychotherapists believe that early childhood sexual abuse results in repressed memories. However, other psychologists question such beliefs and think that such memories may be constructed. OBJECTIVE 27| Discuss the controversy over reports of repressed and recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse.

133 Constructed Memories Loftus’ research shows that if false memories (lost at the mall or drowned in a lake) are implanted in individuals, they construct (fabricate) their memories.

134 Consensus on Childhood Abuse
Leading psychological associations of the world agree on the following concerning childhood sexual abuse: Injustice happens. Incest and other sexual abuse happens. People may forget. Recovered memories are commonplace. Recovered memories under hypnosis or drugs are unreliable. Memories of things happening before 3 years of age are unreliable. Memories, whether real or false, are emotionally upsetting.

135 Improving Memory Study repeatedly to boost long-term recall.
Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material. Make material personally meaningful. Use mnemonic devices: associate with peg words — something already stored make up a story chunk — acronyms OBJECTIVE 28| Explain how an understanding of memory can contribute to effective study techniques.

136 Improving Memory Activate retrieval cues — mentally recreate the situation and mood. Recall events while they are fresh — before you encounter misinformation. Minimize interference: 1. Test your own knowledge. 2. Rehearse and then determine what you do not yet know. © LWA-Dann Tardiff/ Corbis

137 Interference theories Motivated forgetting Decay
Forgetting Theories Encoding failure Interference theories Motivated forgetting Decay Hockenbury slides (Schulman) key words: forgetting; encoding; decay theories; interference theories; retrieval cues

138 Figure Levels of analysis for the study of memory Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers

Schizophrenia: Do You Hear What I Hear? Multiple Personality Disorder: We Three Queens Disoriented Are Amnesia: I Don't Know if I'll be Home for Christmas Narcissistic: Hark the Herald Angels Sing About Me Manic: Deck the Halls and Walls and House and Lawn and Streets and Stores and Office and Town and Cars and Buses and Trucks and Trees and Fire Hydrants and ... Paranoid: Santa Claus is Coming to Get Me Borderline Personality Disorder: Thoughts of Roasting on an Open Fire Personality Disorder: You Better Watch Out, I'm Gonna Cry, I'm Gonna Pout, Maybe I'll tell You Why Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells ... Agoraphobia: I Heard the Bells on Christmas Day But Wouldn't Leave My House Autistic: Jingle Bell Rock and Rock and Rock and Rock Senile Dementia: Walking in a Winter Wonderland Miles From My House in My Slippers and Robe Oppositional Defiant Disorder: I Saw Mommy Kissing Santa Claus So I Burned Down the House Social Anxiety Disorder: Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas While I Sit Here and Hyperventilate

140 Why isn’t anyone ringing the doorbell?

141 Tombstone

142 Snow Angels

143 Santa Measurements

144 Jerk Santa

145 Santa Shot

146 Rottweiler

147 Christmas Lights

148 Cold Feet



151 Rudolph















166 School for the Blind

167 Snowman Stick-up


169 Snowbaby

170 Snowman Dog

171 Snowman Funeral


173 Letter to Santa

174 Santa’s Flat Tire


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