Presentation on theme: "Memory Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself. If memory was nonexistent,"— Presentation transcript:
1MemoryMemory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself.If memory was nonexistent, everyone would be a stranger to you; every language foreign; every task new; and even you yourself would be a stranger.An event is such a little piece of time and space, leaving only a mindglow behind like the tail of a shooting star. Far a lack of a better word, we call that scintillation memory. Diane Ackerman, An Alchemy of Mind, 2004
2The Phenomenon of Memory Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve information.OBJECTIVE 1| Define memory, and explain how flashbulb memories differ from other memories.
3Flashbulb MemoryA unique and highly emotional moment may give rise to a clear, strong, and persistent memory called flashbulb memory. However, this memory is not free from errors.Ruters/ CorbisPresident Bush being told of 9/11 attack.
4Stages of Memory Sequential Process Keyboard Disk Monitor (Encoding) (Storage)Monitor(Retrieval)Sequential Process
5Information Processing The Atkinson-Schiffrin (1968) three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory, b) short-term memory, and c) long-term memory.OBJECTIVE 2| Describe Atkinson-Schiffrin’s classic three-stage model of memory and explain how contemporary model of working memory differs.Bob Daemmrich/ The Image WorksFrank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/CorbisBob Daemmrich/ The Image Works
6Problems with the Model Some information skips the first two stages and enters long-term memory automatically.Since we cannot focus all the sensory information in the environment, we select information (through attention) that is important to us.The nature of short-term memory is more complex.
7Memory Encoding Storage Retrieval the processing of information into the memory system i.e., extracting meaningStoragethe retention of encoded information over timeRetrievalprocess of getting information out of memory
8Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory systemWorking Memoryfocuses more on the processing of briefly stored information
9Working MemoryAlan Baddeley (2002) proposes that working memory contains auditory and visual processing controlled by the central executive through an episodic buffer.
10Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory activated memory that holds afew items brieflylook up a phone number,then quickly dial before theinformation is forgottenLong-Term Memorythe relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
11Short-Term Memory Function—conscious processing of information where information is actively worked onCapacity—limited (holds 7+/-2 items)Duration—brief storage (about 30 seconds)Hockenbury slides (Schulman)Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; sensory memory; short-term memory; working memory; attention; memory span; 7 +/- 2 itemsWorking orShort-termMemorySensoryInputAttention
12Maintenance Rehearsal Mental or verbal repetition of information allows information to remain in working memory longer than the usual 30 secondsWorking orShort-termMemorySensoryInputAttentionMaintenance RehearsalHockenbury slides (Schulman)Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; sensory memory; short-term memory; working memory; attention; maintenance rehearsal
13Long-Term MemoryOnce information passes from sensory to working memory, it can be encoded into long-term memoryLong-termmemoryWorking orShort-termMemorySensoryInputAttentionEncodingRetrievalMaintenance RehearsalHockenbury slides (Schulman)Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; long-term memory; working memory; short-term memory; encoding; retrieval
14Long-Term Memory Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Function—organizes and stores informationmore passive form of storage than working memoryUnlimited capacityDuration—thought by some to be permanentLong-termmemoryWorking orShort-termMemorySensoryInputAttentionEncodingRetrievalMaintenance RehearsalHockenbury slides (Schulman)Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; long-term memory; working memory; short-term memory; encoding; retrieval
15Long-Term MemoryEncoding—process that controls movement from working to long-term memory storeRetrieval—process that controls flow of information from long-term to working memory storeLong-termmemoryWorking orShort-termMemorySensoryInputAttentionEncodingRetrievalMaintenance RehearsalHockenbury slides (Schulman)Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; long-term memory; working memory; short-term memory; encoding; retrieval
16A Simplified Memory Model ExternaleventsSensorymemoryShort-termLong-termSensory inputAttention to importantor novel informationEncodingRetrieving
17Encoding Automatic Processing unconscious encoding of incidental informationspacetimefrequencywell-learned informationword meaningswe can learn automatic processingreading backwards
18Automatic vs. Effortful Encoding Automatic processingExamples:What did you eat for lunch today?Was the last time you studied during the day or night?You know the meanings of these very words you are reading. Are you actively trying to process the definition of the words?
19Encoding Effortful Processing Rehearsal requires attention and conscious effortRehearsalconscious repetition of informationto maintain it in consciousnessto encode it for storage
21Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition. Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZHermann Ebbinghaus( )
22Encoding Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables Spacing Effect TUV ZOF GEK WAVthe more times practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions to relearn on Day 2Spacing Effectdistributed practice yields better long- term retention than massed practice
23RehearsalThe more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1,the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2.
24Memory EffectsNext-in-line-Effect: When you are so anxious about being next that you cannot remember what the person just before you in line says, but you can recall what other people around you say.Spacing Effect: We retain information better when we rehearse over time.Serial Position Effect: When your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items.
25ACQUAINTED WITH THE NIGHT Spacing EffectDistributing rehearsal (spacing effect) is better than practicing all at once. Robert Frost’s poem could be memorized with fair ease if spread over time.ACQUAINTED WITH THE NIGHTRobert FrostI have been one acquainted with the night. I have walked out in rain — and back in rain. I have outwalked the furthest city light.… …
26Serial Position Effect TUVZOFGEKWAVXOZTIKFUTWIBSARPOZREYGIJBetter recallPoor recall
27What Do We Encode? Semantic Encoding Acoustic Encoding Visual Encoding encoding of meaningincluding meaning of wordsAcoustic Encodingencoding of soundespecially sound of wordsVisual Encodingencoding of picture images
28“Whale” Encoding Meaning Q: Did the word begin with a capital letter? StructuralEncodingShallowQ: Did the word rhymewith the word“weight”?PhonemicEncodingIntermediateOBJECTIVE 5| Compare the benefits of visual, acoustic, and semantic encoding in remembering verbal information, and describe a memory-enhancing strategy related to the self-referent effect.Q: Would the word fitin the sentence?He met a __________in the street.SemanticEncodingDeepCraik and Lockhart (1972)
32Visual EncodingMental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.OBJECTIVE 6| Explain how encoding imagery aids effortful processing, and describes some memory-enhancing strategies that use visual encoding.Showing adverse effects of tanning and smokingin a picture may be more powerful than simply talking about it.
33Encoding Mnemonics memory aids especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
34Encoding Method of Loci Peg Word System As an aid to memorizing lengthy speeches, ancient Greek orators would visualize themselves moving through familiar locationsPeg Word SystemMemorize a jingle: “one is a bun, two is a shoe…”
35Method of Loci List of Items Imagined Locations Charcoal Backyard Pens Bed SheetsHammer.RugImagined LocationsBackyardStudyBedroomGarage.Living Room
36Link Method List of Items Newspaper Shaving cream Pen Umbrella . Lamp Involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together.
38Organizing Information for Encoding Break down complex information into broad concepts and further subdivide them into categories and subcategories.ChunkingHierarchyOBJECTIVE 7| Discuss the use of chunking and hierarchies in effortful processing.
39Encoding Chunking organizing items into familiar, manageable units like horizontal organizationoften occurs automatically
40Acronyms are another way of chunking information to remember it. HOMES = Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, SuperiorPEMDAS = Parentheses, Exponent, Multiply, Divide, Add, SubtractROY G. BIV = Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, VioletFOOLISH MOMS SMOKE POT
41Chunking 1-7-7-6-1-4-9-2-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1 Organizing items into a familiar, manageable unit. Try to remember the numbers below.If you are well versed with American history, chunk the numbers together and see if you can recall them better
42ChunkingA friend gave you this list of ingredients for muffins. How might you rearrange the ingredients so you can remember them better?salt, eggs, raisins, wheat flour, honey, milk, margarine, nuts, white flour, baking powder, baking soda
43Dry Ingredients Wet or Liquid Ingredients Try dividing (chunking) the ingredients into dry ingredients and liquid (or wet) ingredients.Dry Ingredientssaltnutsraisinswhite flourwheat flourbaking sodabaking powderWet or LiquidIngredientseggsmilkhoneymargarine
44HierarchyComplex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories.
46Storage: Retaining Information Storage is at the heart of memory. Three stores of memory are shown below:SensoryMemoryWorkingMemoryLong-termMemoryEncodingEventsEncodingRetrievalRetrieval
47Sensory Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Events EncodingEventsEncodingRetrievalOBJECTIVE 8| Contrast two types of sensory memory.Retrieval
48Sensory Memory Divided into two types: iconic memory– visual informationechoic memory– auditory informationSensoryInputMemoryHockenbury slides (Schulman)Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; sensory memory; iconic memory; echoic memory; Sperling
49Sensory MemoryFunction—holds information long enough to be processed for basic physical characteristicsCapacity—largecan hold many items at onceDuration—very brief retention of images.3 sec for visual info2 sec for auditory infoSensoryInputMemoryHockenbury slides (Schulman)Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; sensory memory
50Sensory MemorySensory memory forms automatically, without attention or interpretationAttention is needed to transfer information to working memorySensoryInputMemoryHockenbury slides (Schulman)Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; sensory memory; attention
51R G T F M Q L Z S Whole Report “Recall” R T M Z (44% recall) Sperling (1960)R G T F M Q L Z S“Recall”R T M Z(44% recall)50 ms (1/20 second)The exposure time for the stimulus is so smallthat items cannot be rehearsed.
52S X T J R S P K Y Partial Report “Recall” J R S (100% recall) Low Tone Medium ToneHigh Tone“Recall”J R S(100% recall)50 ms (1/20 second)Sperling (1960) argued that sensory memory capacity was larger than what was originally thought.
53A D I N L V O G H Time Delay “Recall” N _ _ (33% recall) Low Tone Medium ToneHigh Tone“Recall”N _ _(33% recall)TimeDelay50 ms (1/20 second)
54The longer the delay, the greater the memory loss. Sensory MemoryThe longer the delay, the greater the memory loss.20406080Percent Recognized0.150.300.501.00Time (Seconds)
55Sensory Memories The duration of sensory memory varies for the Iconic0.5 sec. longEchoic3-4 sec. longHepatic< 1 sec. longThe duration ofsensory memoryvaries for thedifferent senses.
56Working Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Events EncodingEventsEncodingRetrievalOBJECTIVE 9| Describe the duration and working capacity of short-term memory.Retrieval
57Working MemoryWorking memory, the new name for short-term memory, has a limited capacity (7±2) and a short duration (20 seconds).Sir George Hamilton observed that he could accurately remember upto 7 beans thrown on the floor. If there were more beans, he guessed.
58Capacity M U T G I K T L R S Y P The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information (1956).Ready?M U T G I K T L R S Y PYou should be able torecall 7±2 letters.George Miller
59F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M ChunkingThe capacity of the working memory may be increased by “Chunking.”F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-MFBI TWA CIA IBM4 chunks
60The duration of the working memory is about 20 sec. Brown/Peterson and Peterson (1958/1959) measured the duration of working memory by manipulating rehearsal.CHJMKTHIJ547547544541…CH??The duration of the working memory is about 20 sec.
62Long-Term Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Events EncodingEventsEncodingRetrievalOBJECTIVE 10| Describe the capacity and duration of long-term memory.Retrieval
63Long-Term MemoryUnlimited capacity store. Estimates on capacity range from 1000 billion to 1,000,000 billion bits of information (Landauer, 1986).The Clark’s nutcracker can locate 6,000 caches ofburied pine seeds during winter and spring.
66Storing Memories in the Brain Through electrical stimulation of the brain, Wilder Penfield (1967) concluded that old memories were etched into the brain.Loftus and Loftus (1980) reviewed Penfield's data and showed that only a handful of brain stimulated patients reported flashbacks.Using rats, Lashley (1950) suggested that even after removing parts of the brain, the animals retain partial memory of the maze.
67Storage: Long-Term Memory How does storage work?Karl Lashley (1950)rats learn mazelesion cortextest memorySynaptic changesLong-term Potentiationincrease in synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation
68Biological Basis of Memory Karl Lashley searched for a localized memory trace or engramFound that maze-learning in rats was distributed throughout the brainDiscovering Psy2e Photo p. 227
69Synaptic ChangesLong-Term Potentiation (LTP) refers to synaptic enhancement after learning (Lynch, 2002). An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses.Both Photos: From N. Toni et al., Nature, 402, Nov Courtesy of Dominique Muller
70Synaptic ChangesIn Aplysia, Kandel and Schwartz (1982) showed that serotonin release from neurons increased after conditioning.OBJECTIVE 11| Discuss the synaptic changes that accompany memory formation and storage.Photo: Scientific American
71Stress Hormones & Memory Heightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Continued stress may disrupt memory.OBJECTIVE 12| Discuss some ways stress hormones can affect memory.
72Storing Implicit & Explicit Memories Explicit Memory refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. Implicit memory involves learning an action while the individual does not know or declare what she knows.OBJECTIVE 13| Distinguish between implicit and explicit memory, and identify the main brain structure associated with each.
73Fig. 7-26, p. 288 Figure 7.26: Theories of independent memory systems. Theorists have distinguished between declarative memory, which handles facts and information, and nondeclarative memory, which handles motor skills, conditioned responses, and emotional memories. Declarative memory is further subdivided into semantic memory (general knowledge) and episodic memory (dated recollections of personal experiences). The extent to which nondeclarative memory can be usefully subdivided remains the subject of debate, although many theorists view procedural memory, which handles actions and perceptualmotor skills, as an independent subsystem.Fig. 7-26, p. 288
74Bloom, Nelson, and Lazerson, Brain, Mind, and Behavior Figure 10.06
75Hippocampus Hippocampus – a neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories.Weidenfield & Nicolson archives
76Fig. 7-23, p. 286 Figure 7.23: The anatomy of memory. All the brain structures identified here have been implicated in efforts to discover the anatomical structures involved in memory. The hippocampus is the hub of the medial temporal lobe memory system, which is thought to play a critical role in the consolidation of long-term memories.Fig. 7-23, p. 286
77Cerebellum Cerebellum – a neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories.
78Biological Basis of Memory Amnesia— severe memory lossRetrograde amnesia— inability to remember past episodic information; common after head injury; need for consolidationAnterograde amnesia— inability to form new memories; related to hippocampus damage
79Anterograde AmnesiaAfter losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) remembered everything before the operation but cannot make new memories. We call this anterograde amnesia.AnterogradeAmnesia(HM)Memory IntactNo New MemoriesSurgery
80Implicit Memory HM is unable to make new memories that are declarative (explicit), but he can form newmemories that are procedural (implicit).CBAHM learned the Tower of Hanoi (game) after his surgery. Each time he plays it, he is unable to remember the fact that he has already played the game.
81Retrieval: Getting Information Out Retrieval refers to getting information out of the memory store.OBJECTIVE 14| Contrast the recall, recognition, and relearning measures of memory.Spanky’s Yearbook ArchiveSpanky’s Yearbook Archive
82Measures of MemoryIn recognition, the person must identify an item amongst other choices. (A multiple-choice test requires recognition.)Name the capital of France.BrusselsRomeLondonParis
83Measures of MemoryIn recall, the person must retrieve information using effort. (A fill-in-the blank test requires recall.)The capital of France is ______.
84Measures of MemoryIn relearning, the individual shows how much time (or effort) is saved when learning material for the second time.ListJetDaggerTreeKite…SilkFrogRingListJetDaggerTreeKite…SilkFrogRingOriginalTrialsRelearningTrials1 day laterSavingX 100RelearningTrials105X 10010It took 10 trialsto learn this listIt took 5 trialsto learn the list50%
85Retrieval CuesMemories are held in storage by a web of associations. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory.watersmellhoseFire TruckfireOBJECTIVE 15| Explain how retrieval cues help us access stored memories, and describe the process of priming.smoketruckheatred
86Priming (William James) To retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you must first activate one of the strands that leads to it. This process is called priming.
87Context EffectsScuba divers recall more words underwater if they learned the list underwater, while they recall more words on land if they learned that list on land (Godden & Baddeley, 1975).Fred McConnaughey/ Photo Researchers
88Context EffectsAfter learning to move a mobile by kicking, infants most strongly respond when retested in the same context rather than in a different context (Butler & Rovee-Collier, 1989).OBJECTIVE 16| Cite some ways that context can affect retrieval.
102Context Effects Deja Vu (French)--already seen Mood-congruent Memory cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience"I've experienced this before."Mood-congruent Memorytendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current moodmemory, emotions, or moods serve as retrieval cuesState-dependent Memorywhat is learned in one state (while one is high, drunk, or depressed) can more easily be remembered when in same state
103Moods and MemoriesWe usually recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood. Emotions, or moods, serve as retrieval cues.OBJECTIVE 17| Describe the effects of internal states on retrieval.
104ForgettingAn inability to retrieve information due to poor encoding, storage, or retrieval.OBJECTIVE 18| Explain why we should value our ability to forget, and distinguish three general ways our memory fails us.
105We cannot remember what we do not encode. Encoding FailureWe cannot remember what we do not encode.OBJECTIVE 19| Discuss the role of encoding failure in forgetting.
107Storage DecayPoor durability of stored memories leads to their decay. Ebbinghaus showed this with his forgetting curve.OBJECTIVE 20| Discuss the concept of storage decay, and describe Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve.
108Retaining SpanishBahrick (1984) showed a similar pattern of forgetting and retaining over 50 years.Andrew Holbrooke/ Corbis
109Retrieval FailureAlthough the information is retained in the memory store, it cannot be accessed.Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) is a retrieval failure phenomenon. Given a cue (What makes blood cells red?) the subject says the word begins with an H (hemoglobin).
110Interference Learning some new information may disrupt retrieval of other information.OBJECTIVE 21| Contrast proactive and retroactive interference, and explain how they can cause retrieval failure.
111Retroactive Interference Sleep prevents retroactive interference.Therefore, it leads to better recall.
112Forgetting as Interference Learning some items may disrupt retrieval of other informationProactive (forward acting) Interferencedisruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new informationRetroactive (backwards acting) Interferencedisruptive effect of new learning on recall of old information
113Hours elapsed after learning syllables ForgettingRetroactive InterferenceWithout interferingevents, recall isbetterAfter sleepAfter remaining awakeHours elapsed after learning syllables90%8070605040302010Percentageof syllablesrecalled
114Motivated ForgettingMotivated Forgetting: People unknowingly revise their memories.Repression: A defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.OBJECTIVE 22| Summarize Freud's concept of repression, and state whether this view is reflected in current memory research.Culver PicturesSigmund Freud
115Forgetting Forgetting as encoding failure Information never enters the long-term memoryExternaleventsSensorymemoryShort-termLong-AttentionEncodingfailure leadsto forgetting
116The Forgetting CurveHermann Ebbinghaus first began to study forgetting using nonsense syllablesNonsense syllables are three letter combinations that look like words but are meaningless (ROH, KUF)
117Forgetting Forgetting can occur at any memory stage As we process information, we filter, alter, or lose much of it
118Memory ConstructionWhile tapping our memories, we filter or fill in missing pieces of information to make our recall more coherent.Misinformation Effect: Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
119Elizabeth Loftus and John Palmer: Memory Experiment and Hypothesis Researchers have also conducted experiments that reveal a great deal about memory. Psychologists have looked at things such as how people remember things, how memories change over time, and why different people often remember the same event differently.In a well-known 1974 experiment, Elizabeth Loftus and John Palmer hypothesized that people would remember a car accident differently if they were given different language cues about the accident.Hypothesis: People will remember a car accident differently if given different language cues (words) about the accident
120Loftus and Palmer: Methodology Loftus and Palmer recruited 45 American college students to participate in their study. These subjects watched a film of an accident in which two cars collided relatively gently. The film showed no broken glass. Subjects were then divided into groups and asked one of the following five questions:About how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?About how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?About how fast were the cars going when they collided?About how fast were the cars going when they bumped into each other?About how fast were the cars going when they contacted each other?Students watched a film of two cars collidingCollision was moderate with no broken glassDifferent students asked different questions: hit, smashed, collided, bumped, contacted
121Loftus and Palmer: Results VERBMEAN ESTIMATE OF SPEED (MPH)Smashed40.8Collided39.3Bumped38.1Hit34.0Contacted31.8Subjects who had been asked how fast the cars were going when they smashed into each other reported higher speeds than subjects who were asked the other questions. The subsequent order of reported speeds was given—from fastest to slowest—by people in the smashed, collided, bumped, hit, and contacted groups.People reported the fastest speeds if the researchers had used the word “smashed” in the questionFrom fastest to slowest reported speeds: smashed, collided, bumped, hit, and contacted groups
122Loftus and Palmer: Results One week later, the researchers asked the subjects whether they recalled seeing broken glass in the film. Subjects who had been asked the smashed question were more than twice as likely (32%) to report having seen broken glass as subjects who had been asked the hit question (14%).One week later, subjects were asked if they had seen broken glass32% of subjects asked the “smashed” question said yes; 14% of subjects asked the “hit” question said yes
123Loftus and Palmer: Results and Implications Loftus and Palmer’s results show that memories can be altered when people receive language prompts regarding an event they’ve witnessed. In this case, the subjects were asked leading questions that altered their memories of the car crash. Although the accident was staged and subjects avoided the trauma that might be associated with witnessing an accident in person, the researchers’ questions had a significant effect on subjects’ memories.The subjects experienced a “misinformation effect,” which means that people’s memories became skewed when they were presented with some slight misinformation (e.g., the word “smashed,” which exaggerated what really happened in the film).Think about your own memory. Have you ever disagreed with a friend about how something occurred, even though you were both present for the event? Have you ever had trouble remembering exactly how something happened? These phenomena are very common and will undoubtedly occur throughout your life.People remember things differently depending on the language used to describe an event (e.g., “smashed” versus “hit”)Misinformation effect
124Misinformation and Imagination Effects Eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned about the event.OBJECTIVE 23| Explain how misinformation and imagination can distort our memory of an event.Depiction of the actual accident.
125MisinformationGroup A: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?Group B: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?
126Memory ConstructionA week later they were asked: Was there any broken glass? Group B (smashed into) reported more broken glass than Group A (hit).
127Loftus Results Word Used in Question Average Speed Estimate smashed collidedbumpedhitcontacted41 m.p.h.39 m.p.h.38 m.p.h.34 m.p.h.32 m.p.h.Hockenbury slides (Schulman)
128Memory Construction We filter information and fill in missing pieces Source Amnesiaattributing to the wrong source an event that we experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined (misattribution)
130False Memories Repressed or Constructed? Some adults actually do forget childhood episodes of abuse.False Memory SyndromeA condition in which a person’s identity and relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of a traumatic experience, which is sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists.
131Children’s Eyewitness Recall Children’s eyewitness recall can be unreliable if leading questions are posed. However, if cognitive interviews are neutrally worded, the accuracy of their recall increases. In cases of sexual abuse, this usually suggests a lower percentage of abuse.OBJECTIVE 26| Give arguments supporting and rejecting the position that very young children's reports are reliable.
132Are memories of abuse repressed or constructed? Many psychotherapists believe that early childhood sexual abuse results in repressed memories.However, other psychologists question such beliefs and think that such memories may be constructed.OBJECTIVE 27| Discuss the controversy over reports of repressed and recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse.
133Constructed MemoriesLoftus’ research shows that if false memories (lost at the mall or drowned in a lake) are implanted in individuals, they construct (fabricate) their memories.
134Consensus on Childhood Abuse Leading psychological associations of the world agreeon the following concerning childhood sexual abuse:Injustice happens.Incest and other sexual abuse happens.People may forget.Recovered memories are commonplace.Recovered memories under hypnosis or drugs are unreliable.Memories of things happening before 3 years of age are unreliable.Memories, whether real or false, are emotionally upsetting.
135Improving Memory Study repeatedly to boost long-term recall. Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material.Make material personally meaningful.Use mnemonic devices:associate with peg words — something already storedmake up a storychunk — acronymsOBJECTIVE 28| Explain how an understanding of memory can contribute to effective study techniques.
139CHRISTMAS CAROLS FOR THE PSYCHIATRICALLY CHALLENGED Schizophrenia: Do You Hear What I Hear?Multiple Personality Disorder: We Three QueensDisoriented AreAmnesia: I Don't Know if I'll be Home for ChristmasNarcissistic: Hark the Herald Angels Sing About MeManic: Deck the Halls and Walls and House and Lawn andStreets and Stores and Office and Town and Cars andBuses and Trucks and Trees and Fire Hydrants and ...Paranoid: Santa Claus is Coming to Get MeBorderline Personality Disorder: Thoughts of Roastingon an Open FirePersonality Disorder: You Better Watch Out, I'm GonnaCry, I'm Gonna Pout, Maybe I'll tell You WhyObsessive Compulsive Disorder: Jingle Bells, JingleBells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells,Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells...Agoraphobia: I Heard the Bells on Christmas Day ButWouldn't Leave My HouseAutistic: Jingle Bell Rock and Rock and Rock and RockSenile Dementia: Walking in a Winter Wonderland MilesFrom My House in My Slippers and RobeOppositional Defiant Disorder: I Saw Mommy KissingSanta Claus So I Burned Down the HouseSocial Anxiety Disorder: Have Yourself a Merry LittleChristmas While I Sit Here and Hyperventilate