9What type of tissue is composed of cells embedded in a matrix What type of tissue is composed of cells embedded in a matrix? a) nervous b) epithelial c) muscle d) connective e) None of the above are correct.
10Which of the following is a main benefit of multicellularity? a) Each cell can perform all of the necessary physiological processes needed by the body.b) Each cell can dump its waste directly into the environment.c) Only some body cells need to make ATP. d) Cells can divide up the labor of performing essential physiological processes.e) Each cell has direct access to nutrients in the environment.
11Body OrganizationDifferent types of tissues working together for a common function = organDifferent organs working together for a common function = organ system
20Which organ system(s) control or regulate body activities? a) nervous system b) endocrine system c) circulatory system d) immune system e) Both a) and b) control or regulate body activity.
21What is the function of the respiratory system? a) exchange gases between the internal and external environmentb) recycling fluids that leak from the circulatory systemc) transport gases to and from tissues in the bodyd) make ATP from glucose and other energy-rich moleculese) purify the blood by filtering out wastes
22Homeostasis – Maintaining a stable internal environment
25Various methods for maintaining body temperature: physical such as fat insulation, behavior such as body position or nest orientation to max absorbing radiation from sun, physiological such as panting or sweating to gain evaporative cooling, Cellular such as metabolic processes that generate heat and warm body.
26Excretory System 2 main functions: Maintains the proper water balance for bodyCleans blood of waste bi-products
27What is osmosis?The diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membraneWhy should we care?Our cells are sacs with semi-permeable membranesWithout the proper balance of water in cells, life systems shut down
28Osmosis con’tWater will move from a dilute solution to a concentrated solutionSalt concentration - # water molecules/# salt ions
29Relative Osmotic Pressure Demonstrated in the last slideConcentration of solutions relative to adjoining solutions (one cell to the next cell or body relative to surroundings, etc.)Ex. Red Blood Cell in different solutionsWhich one is in a saltwater solution (hypertonic), saline (isotonic), freshwater (hypotonic)Cell membrane will allow water to cross membrane freely but not other ions or molecules.ABC
30Real world problems relative to this issue: Different environments present different problemsMarine – tendency to gain salt + lose waterFreshwater – opposite – gain water, lose saltTerrestrial – dry – very hypertonicHumans drink ml/dayget from metabolismgainUrinate ml/dayLost due to evaporation: 1000 ml/day
31Solutions to water balance problems: Physical barriers to water movementScales on fish, cuticle, hair, feathersPump water or salt from bodyUrinate, flame cells of PlanariaSalt glands of marine birds and reptilesPump water or salt into bodyDrinkFreshwater fish have gill pumps that take in salt and concentrates it in the blood
322nd Function: Waste Removal Waste – what is it?Ammonia (NH3) is the most toxicBiproduct of protein breakdownIf eliminated in its pure form – needs to be with lots of water – ex. Freshwater animalsIf terrestrial and need to conserve water –Ammonia is changed to a less toxic formChemical change requires energyUrea – 2 ammonia + CO2 (fish, amphibians, mammals, some invertebrates)Uric Acid – ring structure = powdery product (terrestrial organisms in dry locations)
33Other Wastes: Excess Ions Toxins Excess vitamins Other unneeded breakdown productsIons = Na, H, K, Cl, Mg, Ca
34Systems vary among animals Single celled animals – contractile vacuolesEarthworms – tube with cilia filters coelomic fluid and blood vessels associated with tube give off waste from blood
35Mammals – ex. Human Body has different fluid compartments: Blood - 5% body wtInterstitial -15% body wt(lymph collects and returns to blood)Intracellular (inside cells of body) – 50% body wtAll accumulates waste and needs to be filtered and cleaned. Cell waste dumped into interstitial, lymph puts that into blood. Blood is filtered and cleaned.
36Parts of Excretory System Urethra has a sphincter that allows voluntary control up to a point. Kidney = mj osmoregulatory + excretory organ in mammals.
38Secrete molecules/ions into nephron Filter bloodSecrete molecules/ions into nephronReabsorb some ions/moleculesRegulate amount of water lostEliminate urine1. Blood pressure high in glomerulus due to control of muscle control of walls of afferent and efferent blood vessels1/5 of blood plasma is forced into Bowman’s capsule from glomerulus capillaries. All but larges molecules.
39Secretion (2) Reabsorption (3) Selective (requires energy) transport of additional molecules in blood into proximal tubuleReabsorption (3)Selective (requires energy) transport of needed substances back into bloodMost of water, solutes such as sodium, amino acids and glucoseProximal tubule
40Osmoregulation (4) Loop of Henle Salt gradient in cortex and medulla of kidneyMedulla high concWater removed from tubesBottom of loop – inside tube = hypertonicUpward arm of Loop – membrane not permeable to waterSalts pulled outMore water pulled out through wall of collecting ductProximal tubule – isotonic; Loop moves down into medulla
41Distal Tubule (2 +3) Collecting Duct Drugs and toxins removed from bloodAgain much by active transport (requires energy)Collecting DuctEliminates urine (5)Proximal tubule – isotonic; Loop moves down into medulla
42What is the correct order of flow through the parts of a nephron? Bowman’s capsule, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, collecting ductLoop of Henle, Bowman’s capsule, proximal and distal tubules, collecting ductProximal tubule, loop on Henle, distal tubule, collecting duct, Bowman’s capsule
43High blood pressure needed for whole system to work High blood pressure needed for whole system to work. If lose blood pressure for any reason, kidneys can fail, body rapidly becomes poisoned by accumulating waste. Also high energy requirements for proper function.HCO3 = bicarbonate.
44High blood pressure medication can be simply a diuretic High blood pressure medication can be simply a diuretic. How would this work to lower blood pressure?Diuretic = makes collecting ducts less permeable to water, so more is lost in urine. What could be the body’s response to a drop in blood pressure? – Vein walls contract – correct volume in heart and arteries.
45Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Drop in blood pressure detected by heart sensorsSensor information stimulates hypothalamus to secrete ADHADH makes collecting ducts more permeable to waterMore water reabsorbed and retained by body, blood volume increases, blood pressure increasesFeedback loop – increased in blood pressure turns off hypothalamus secretion. ETOH inhibits ADH release. Caffine dialates blood vessels, lowers blood pressure, causing ADH secretion and water retention.
47________________ gain most of their heat from their environment, while _________________ can use metabolic heat to regulate their body temperature. a) Endotherms; ectotherms b) Plants; animals c) Fungi; animals d) Birds, lizards e) Ectotherms; endotherms
48Which is the correct order of the processes used by the kidney in forming urine? a) reabsorption > filtration > excretion b) filtration > reabsorption > excretion c) excretion > filtration > reabsorption d) filtration > excretion > reabsorption e) excretion > reabsorption > filtrationWhat are the parts of the nephron involved with each process?