Presentation on theme: "1 “ ESTER BASED TECHNOLOGY ” To make fuels Self Cleaning and Self Lubricating ETHOS FR."— Presentation transcript:
1 “ ESTER BASED TECHNOLOGY ” To make fuels Self Cleaning and Self Lubricating ETHOS FR
2 WHAT IS AN “ESTER”? An Ester is a product of the reaction of an Acid and an Alcohol. Synthetic Esters
3 ESTERS IN NATURE The most common esters found in nature are fats and vegetable oils. Many esters have distinctive odors, which led to their widespread use as artificial flavorings and fragrances.
4 Some Common Esters Methyl Butanoate smells like Pineapple Ethyl Methanoate smells of Raspberry Pentyl Ethanoate smells like Banana Pentyl Pentanoate smells like Apple Pentyl Butanoate smells like Apricot Octyl Ethanoate smells like Orange Source - Wikipedia Encyclopedia
6 Different Varieties of Biodiesel RME – Rapeseed Methyl Ester, from Rapeseed Products PME – Vegetable Methyl Ester, purely from vegetable products FME – Fat Methyl Ester, from vegetable AND animal products FAME - Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Source - Wikipedia Encyclopedia
7 SOY METHYL ESTER BIO-DIESEL Derived from Soybean Oil The most common Bio Diesel source in the US Has a lower energy content than #2 Diesel 89% less efficient fuel Has a higher viscosity range than #2 Diesel (1.9-6.0 centistokes vs 1.3-5.8 centistokes) This helps offset the lower energy content through reduced barrel/plunger leakage resulting in slightly improved injection efficiency.
8 HISTORY OF BIODIESEL 1853 - Scientists E. Duffy and J. Patrick were successful in the transesterification of a vegetable oil. Metzner,Jim.”Transesterification: Turning Used Vegetable Oil Into Clear-Burning Biodiesel Fuel.”
9 HISTORY OF BIODIESEL 1898 – Rudolf Diesel’s first Diesel engine with a flywheel at it’s base ran at the Paris, France Expo. It was powered by peanut oil. Rudolph Christian Carl Diesel Born 1858 – Died 1913
10 HISTORY OF BIODIESEL One of the first uses of trans-esterified vegetable oil was powering heavy duty vehicles in South Africa before World War II.
11 HISTORY OF BIODIESEL During the 1920’s Diesel manufacurers altered their engines to utilize the lower viscosity of Petro-diesel, which was much cheaper to produce than biomass fuel. Since that time until the present day, Biodiesel just about disappeared as an alternate fuel. Source - Wikipedia Encyclopedia
12 HISTORY OF BIODIESEL 1990’s – France launched local production of biodiesel fuel (known as Diester)
13 July 13, 2001 BBI International Car makers and petroleum companies prize the rapeseed fuel for its high level of oxygen and absence of sulphur, which give it a lubricating capacity seen as its main advantage. Diester also helps reduce engines' carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, thus cutting harmful greenhouse effects, Nicol said. Diester is the best answer to reduce CO2 emissions,'' said Beatrice Perrier, an engineer at the French car maker PSA Peugeot Citroen, which produces engines that can use up to 30 percent diester without having to be overhauled. The European Commission said last month that it planned to present proposals later this year requiring that all oil refineries mix a percentage of biofuel with petrol.
14 HISTORY OF BIODIESEL From 1978 to 1996, the US National Renewable Energy Lab experimented with using Algae as a Biodiesel source in the “Aquatic Species Program ”
15 ADVANTAGES OF BIODIESEL Pure Biodiesel has a very low Toxicity Rating of greater of 50ML per KG. This means that 3 liters would have to be consumed for an average person to cause death 50% of the time. This makes Biodiesel ten times less toxic than table salt. Biodiesel can extend our Petrodiesel reserve
16 ADVANTAGES OF BIODIESEL Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel to have fully completed the health effects testing requirements of the Clean Air Act. The use of biodiesel in a conventional diesel engine results in substantial reduction of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter compared to emissions from diesel fuel. The exhaust emissions of sulfur oxides and sulfates (major components of acid rain) from biodiesel are essentially eliminated compared to diesel. Source – National Biodiesel Board
17 DISADVANTAGES OF BIODIESEL Biodiesel may degrade rubber gaskets and hoses in older vehicles (prior to 1992). Fuel filters may become clogged with particulates due to the fact that biodiesel is a better solvent than petrodiesel and quickly cleans out lines and tanks. Biodiesel has less energy than Petrodiesel.
18 DISADVANTAGES OF BIODIESEL Biodiesel does produce more NOX emissions when it is burned because Nitrogen is more compressed in the organic form.
19 DISADVANTAGES OF BIODIESEL The cost of Biodiesel is currently much higher than Petrodiesel. Even at a low 5% ratio, there currently isn’t enough supply of biodiesel being produced in this country to meet the demand, which will probably keep the price inflated for several years.
20 ETHOS to the Rescue! Synthetic Esters CLEAN, just like Biodiesel, and: They are non-toxic They are non-hazardous They will also extend Petro- Diesel reserves by Cleaning and Lubricating engines.
21 Dr. Morton Fainman & Dr. Fred Chorney Early 1980 Chemists created an ester based formulae consisting of two straight chain carboxylic acid esters, one having a low molecular weight and the other having a higher molecular weight. They discovered that the low molecular weight esters cleaned, and the high molecular weight esters lubricated, the inside of any reciprocating engine.
22 THE FAINMAN THEORY Fuels can be improved to decrease deposits inside engines. While at the same time increasing fuel lubricity.
23 US PATENT No. May 1, 1990 a Utility Patent was registered with the United States Patent office. 4,920,691
24 How much is enough? It was discovered that only a small amount of esters were required to be present in an engine to clean and lubricate it. Less than 800 parts per million. That’s less than 1 tenth of 1 percent.
25 ADDITIVE VS REFORMULATOR ADDITIVE MEANS: A substance added in small amounts to something else to improve, strengthen, or otherwise alter it. OR a substance added to another in relatively small amounts to effect a desired change in properties.
26 ADDITIVE VS REFORMULATOR REFORMULATOR MEANS: To Re-Formulate or develop again, To improve a theory or hypothesis. THE DIFFERENCE IS: An Additive changes the specifications of the base it is added to, whereas a Re-Formulator does not.
27 CARBON BUILDUP Causes pre-ignition and detonation Causes loss of efficiency Causes emissions to increase Is harmful to the engine Costs money
28 NO CARBON BUILDUP Engine runs smoother, more efficiently Lower Emissions Engine lasts longer Saves money
29 DECARBONIZATION PROCESS % CO Begin Within First Few Minutes After Initial De-Carbonization Complete de-carbonization of the engine takes time. Each engine could respond differently.
30 IS ETHOS FR BETTER THAN BIODIESEL? USING SYNTHETIC ESTERS IN PETRODIESEL: Gives all the cleaning and lubricating benefits of Biodiesel. Less expensive than even 5% Biodiesel. Results in even lower emissions when used with CLEAN Biodiesel.
31 CLEAN FUEL MEANS LESS EMISSIONS Water and contaminants cause 95% of injector and pump failures. Filtration removes contaminants to less than 1 Micron in size. Most fuels exceed the set limit of 2 milligrams of contamination per liter.
32 DAVIE, FLORIDA Filters were installed on the diesel pump for the town of Davie, Florida. Two days later, as fire trucks were being refueled, very little fuel was flowing from the pump. Upon investigation, it was discovered that a water leak had developed and contaminated the fuel in the main storage tank. Since water cannot pass through most filters, only a very small quantity of diesel fuel was passing through. If the filters had not been installed, the fire trucks would have been filled with water contaminated diesel fuel. Had they attempted to operate the fire trucks with the contaminated fuel, it could have required the engines to be overhauled.
33 Southwest Research Institute September 2004 - National Biodiesel Board tested Ester Based Technology product, Ethos Fuel Reformulator, along with Biodiesel and got these results:
34 Using ECD-1 Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel HC output.090 g/hp-hr CO2.600 g/hp-hr NOX4.370 g/hp-hr PM.214 g/hp-hr Source- National Biodiesel Board
36 ECD-1 + B20 Biodiesel + Ethos HC output.050 g/hp-hr -28.6% CO2.420 g/hp-hr -4.35% NOX4.650 g/hp-hr No Change PM.175 g/hp-hr -3.3% Source – National Biodiesel Board
37 Emissions Recap ECD-1 only ECD-1+B20 ECD-1+B20+ Ethos HC.090.070.050 CO 2.600 2.530 2.420 NOX 4.370 4.650 4.650 PM.214.181.175 All results are in g/hp-hr Source – National Biodiesel Board
38 CASTROL USA SAYS May 28, 2004 Press release: “The polarized ester molecules in Castrol GTX Start Up cling to an engine’s metal surfaces to provide advanced anti-wear protection.” Castrol Spokesperson Kimberly Lancaster (401) 792-7080
39 OTHER FACTORS Preventative Maintenance costs keep going up every year, ETHOS should stabilize this. ETHOS protects engine parts from internal wear and tear. ETHOS can increase the interval between oil changes and transmission overhauls. This makes the total savings hard to estimate, but should exceed fuel savings alone.
40 Does ETHOS save fuel? Millions of test miles show that fuel economy increases in fleets from 9% to 19% How much savings is determined by how old the fleet is, the current mechanical condition of vehicles, etc.
41 ESTIMATED SAVINGS Fleets using 50 gal per day per vehicle: 50 X $1.80 = $90 fuel costs X 10% = $9 $9 savings X 200 vehicles = $1,800 per day $9,000 per wk $468,000 per yr PLUS lower costs for maintenance and repairs
42 GASOLINE TOO? ETHOS works in Gasoline fuel as well. Hybrid Vehicles should also benefit. Emissions are usually reduced by 50% on vehicles older than 10 years. Mileage usually increases 5% to 25% ETHOS raises Octane rating of Gasoline by 5 to 10 points, depending on the ratio used. ETHOS can make regular gas work in aircraft.
43 ETHOS in EVERYTHING? Fuels Crankcases Transmissions Power Steering Units Hydraulic Systems Gear Boxes 2 Cycle Engines
44 Disadvantages to ETHOS Gas and oil companies Sell less fuel, therefore They make less profit. That will probably make them angry, and we don’t want to see anyone angry, but..….
46 DATELINE Oct 8, 2004 With a haze of pollution reaching dangerous levels over Paris, France’s government banned half of all cars from the nation’s capital on Wednesday. Only cars with a serial number ending in an odd digit are permitted into the City of Lights, since the experimental ban started on an odd- numbered day, Oct 1. Emergency vehicles, electric-powered cars and cars with at least 3 people also are allowed.
47 WHAT IS POSSIBLE? During the Super Mileage Car Contest held in August 2003 in Hiroshima, Japan, Team Fancy Carol from Japan achieved a record fuel efficiency of 11,193 miles per gallon. While the high fuel economy sounds great, most consumers would find the car less than desirable due to the top speed just over 15 miles per hour, the cramped position of the driver, and the lack of amenities such as a radio, air conditioning, or roll- down windows.
48 ETHOS is available Today! Pays for itself, and More! Reduces Emissions Vehicles last longer, lower PM costs Satisfies Environmentalists concerns “The Day After Tomorrow” never happens Soon we can drive in Paris again!