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Design tools. T Square A t-square is one of the most basic drafting tools The primary purpose of the t-square is to create horizontal parallel lines T-squares.

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Presentation on theme: "Design tools. T Square A t-square is one of the most basic drafting tools The primary purpose of the t-square is to create horizontal parallel lines T-squares."— Presentation transcript:

1 design tools

2 T Square A t-square is one of the most basic drafting tools The primary purpose of the t-square is to create horizontal parallel lines T-squares are typically wood with clear plastic edges, but they can be made of metal for cutting

3 Parallel Straightedge/Parallel Bar Replaces the t-square for most applications Because it is wired down, it cannot move The angle can be adjusted and locked to created parallel lines that are not at the horizontal

4 Triangles Triangles are used to create vertical lines Triangles come in two forms, 30-60-90 and 45-45-90 Basic geometry skills can help you create other angles (a 30 on a 45 gets you a 75 degree angle, for example) Triangles are typically clear as seeing the edge of the triangle is extremely important to lining up your drawing instrument (drawings must be precise!) Inking triangles are undercut (on one side or two) so that ink will not smear

5 Adjustable Triangles Adjustable triangles can create odd angles By using your 30 and 45 triangles, the upper and lower sides of your parallel bar/t-square, you can create 360 degrees

6 Metal Triangles Metal triangles are typically not used by architects or draftspersons, except when cutting Metal is harder to clean than plastic, and consequently the drawings become more smudged with metal triangles

7 Templates Templates come in a variety of scales and shapes Templates are used for common shapes in design and can be found to represent circles, ellipses, squares, etc. Templates can also have specialized shapes such as toilets, dryers, beds, etc. Templates are typically done in plan view, but can also have section or elevation views Inking templates have small bumps on the bottom to prevent capillary action and smearing Templates

8 Fixtures Template Templates indicate the scale in which they are intended to be used

9 Lettering Guide Proper lettering is extremely important in drafting All letters should be capital, all letters should be the same height

10 Lettering Template Letting Guides can help you keep letters the same height and templates can help you shape letters (Although commonly called a stencil, the stencil is actually the part cut out, and the plastic remaining is known as the template)

11 Lettering Guides/Title Block Vellum can be purchased with title blocks already added

12 French Curve French curves are a template that can create curves of varying radii Hyperbolas, parabola, eilipses and other shapes are created using French curves (although they take some skill to master) Digital drafting has replaced French curve use, although most students are still expected to understand how to manipulate French curves

13 Flexible Curve The flexi-curve is used as a last resort when a French curve cannot approximate the curve Flexi-curves can also be used to approximate a curve in a rough drawing, and then a French curve is used to make the curve accurate

14 Scales Architect’s scales have six edges with twelve measuring scales The ends of the scale go beyond zero (unlike a standard ruler) so that it is easier to measure with (Rulers measure distance in real space, scales create a ratio or proportion of actual distance) (Engineer’s scales measure decimal values of an inch – 1:100, 1:200, 1:300, etc.) ¼ (3”=1’) 1/8 (1 ½”=1’) 1/12 (1”=1’) 1/24 (1/2”=1’) 1/16 (3/4”=1’) 1/32 (3/8”=1’) 1/48 (1/4”=1’) 1/96 (1/8=1’) 1/64 (3/16”=1’) 1/128 (3/32”=1’)

15 Scales Be careful not to confuse with how scale is used in common speech (one eighth scale means that something is an eighth of the size of the original) If you draw something at ¼” = 1’, then it is 1/48 th actual size – it would take 48 1/4 th s to equal a food (12 inches X 4 1/4 th s per inch = 48 1/4 th s) You can also say 1/4 th inch equals one inch – then it would take 3 inches to equal a foot (4 1/4 th s per inch X = 12 1/4 th s or one foot)

16 Metal Straightedge Metal straight edges are used for cutting, not drawing Some have cork or rubber backing so that they don’t slide when making cuts

17 Lead Holder and Lead Pointer Lead holders carry a wide lead (2mm) and provide a greater range of marks that the pencil can make on the paper Lead pointers are the sharpeners used for lead holders When drawing a line, always rotate your pencil

18 Lead Pencil/Mechanical Pencils Lead widths run from 0.03mm to 0.07mm Not as much control as the lead holder Pencil leads run from 9B (the softest lead) to 9H (the hardest lead) 9B, 7B, 6B, 5B, 4B, 3B, 2B, B, HB, F, H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 5H, 6H, 7H, 8H, 9H (The American system – not used in most drafting/art supply stores even in America, has a different system of numbers 1=B, 2=HB, 2.5=F, 3=H, 4=2H) Hard leads make very light lines, last a long time, and also groove your vellum (9H are 41.5% graphite, 53.5% clay and 5% wax) Soft leads make very dark lines, don’t last as long, and are harder to erase (9B are 90.5% graphite, 4.5% clay and 5% wax) Standard pencils are #2 (HB), which makes them dark, but also able to be erased completely

19 Drafting Pencils Don’t have erasers because standard pencil erasers are awful on vellum and doubly awful for inking over (most drawings are inked after being done in pencil)

20 Sandpaper Pad Used to sharpen pencils

21 Erasers

22 Dry Cleaning Eraser Pad (Scum Bag) Bag contains grit-free erasing powder that cleans drawings Instruments often smudge pencil drawings and the bag keeps the underside of instruments clean as well

23 Electric Eraser Electric erasers contain an eraser stick that can be for ink or pencil The sticks are replaceable Mechanical erasers use the same sticks and can be quite convenient

24 Eraser Shield Lines on drafting documents should be precise, and erasing even the slightest cross-overs is important (since drawings are used to construct buildings from) (“Construction lines” can remain, and are decidedly lighter than drafting lines)

25 Drafting Brush It’s essential that drawings remain clean Brushes should be used – replace them once they become too full of eraser dust

26 Pens Technical pens are used for ink drawings and come in a range of sizes Pens must be cleaned and maintained after each use Nibs can be stainless steel or gold (gold nibs are more resistant to “attacking” by ink)

27 Drafting Tape

28 Mylar and Vellum The preferred paper for drafting is vellum – it can be used for pencil or ink Mylar is a clear plastic that comes in varying weights – pencil will not work on mylar Presentation drawings are also frequently done on illustration board (it’s extremely unforgiving, however)

29 Illustration Board

30 Drafting Machine

31 Light Table

32 X-acto Knife Used heavily in model-making Also, before digital graphics, most graphic art and advertisements were prepared using x-acto knives

33 Foam Core/Foam Board Common material for architectural models, originally developed by Monsanto Many types of glues and paints will dissolve foam core, so it’s often used in study models

34 Foam Core Although a basic tool for design students, you’ll also see foam core used in very professional models

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