2Know how to use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.Use the scientific method to solve a problem.Develop a hypothesis.Identify the control, independent variable, and dependent variable in an experiment.Organize and interpret data and recognize patterns or trends.Understand the difference between an observation and an inference.Develop a conclusion based on the data obtained during the experiment.
3Vocabulary Conclusion: summary of results at the end of an experiment Constants: factors that are kept the same during an experimentControl: the experiment performed without the variable for comparisonData: information recorded during an experimentDependent Variable: (Responding Variable) the factor that changes and you can not control during an experiment (how you measure your results)
4Vocabulary Hypothesis: an educated guess to answer a problem Independent Variable: (Manipulated Variable) the factor that you control and change during an experimentInference: making a prediction based on observations and dataObservation: anything obtained using your sensesScientific Method: a systematic (step by step) approach to problem solvingVariable: factor you are testing in an experiment
5Scientific Method problem Systematic approach to ___________ _______________It is the steps someone takes to identify a question, develop a hypothesis, design and carry out steps or procedures to test the hypothesis, and document observations and findings to share with someone else.solvingThe Scientific Method (Lyrical Life Science) audio clip
61. Problem (Question) Stated as a clear question What you want to find out
72. Research Gather information about the problem Use books, internet, past experiences and experts in the field
83. Formulate a Hypothesis An educated guess to answer the problemBased on researchUse the correct format starting with “I hypothesize”
94. Design an Experiment Step by step procedure to test the hypothesis Needs a control group for comparison and an experimental group to be tested
105. Record DataWrite down all observations and measurements taken throughout the experiment
116. Analyze Data Organize data into charts and graphs Look for patterns and trends
127. State a Conclusion Summarize the results Repeat the experiment for accurate
13Scientists share their experiments and findings with others. Because they share their experiments and findings, scientists can learn from each other and often use someone else’s experiences to help them with what they are studying or doing.
14Hypothesis hypothesize Start with “I _______________” ______________ the problemAnswer the _____________Explain ______ you believe this is the answerI hypothesize if (restate the question) then (your educated guess), because (why this couldbe the answer).Restateproblemwhy
15Practice Writing a Hypothesis What will happen if plants are given fertilizer?_____________________________________________2. What will happen if a plant does not receive sunlight?I hypothesize if plants are givenfertilizer then they will grow tallerbecause fertilizer contains nutrients.I hypothesize if plants do not receivesunlight then they will die becausesunlight gives the plant energy needed.
16Practice Writing a Hypothesis 3. What will happen if I put a glass over a lit candle?_____________________________________________What will happen if you only eat fast fried food?I hypothesize if I put a glass over alit candle then the flame will go outbecause fire needs oxygen.I hypothesize if you only eat fastfried food then you will gain weightbecause fried food has a lot of calories.
171. Independent Variable manipulated tested one control Also called the __________________ variableFactor being _________________Can only have ______ per experiment, otherwise you do not know which factor caused your resultsFactor that you ________________manipulatedtestedonecontrol
182. Dependent Variable responding can’t Also called the __________________ variableDepends on the independent variable (factor you measure to determine the affect of the independent variable)Factor that you _______ controlrespondingcan’t
20Control variable comparison Experiment run without the ____________ Needed for _____________________variablecomparison
21Constants or Controls same same fertilizer soil water Factors held the __________ during the experimentExample: If you were to see the affects of sunlight on plants (diagram above), each plant would:Be the _________ typeReceive the same amount of ______________Have the same type of _____________Be kept at the same temperaturesamefertilizersoilwater
23Facts, Theories, and Laws Fact - basic _____________Theory - most logical explanation based on _____________________ of many experiments, they can change as new information is obtainedLaw - based on experimental ___________ that has been repeatedly tested and accepted as true, can changetruthobservationsdata
24Group B without the juice Smithers thinks that a special juice will increase the productivity of workers. He creates two groups of 50 workers each and assigns each group the same task (in this case, they're supposed to staple a set of papers). Group A is given the special juice to drink while they work. Group B is not given the special juice. After an hour, Smithers counts how many stacks of papers each group has made. Group A made 1,587 stacks, Group B made 2,113 stacks.Identify the:1. Control Group2. Independent Variable3. Dependent Variable4. What should Smithers' conclusion be?Group B without the juiceSpecial JuiceProductivity – number of stapled papersThe juice did not work it actually slowed the workers.
25Shower sprayed with water Homer notices that his shower is covered in a strange green slime. His friend Barney tells him that coconut juice will get rid of the green slime. Homer decides to check this this out by spraying half of the shower with coconut juice. He sprays the other half of the shower with water. After 3 days of "treatment" there is no change in the appearance of the green slime on either side of the shower.Identify the:5. Control Group6. Independent Variable7. Dependent Variable8. What should Homer’s conclusion be?Shower sprayed with waterCoconut JuiceAmount of Green SlimeCoconut juice doesn’t clean green slime any better than water.
26New Itching Powder Length of Itches Yes. 30 = 15 2 Krusty was told that a certain itching powder was the newest best thing on the market, it even claims to cause 50% longer lasting itches. Interested in this product, he buys the itching powder and compares it to his usual product. One test subject (A) is sprinkled with the original itching powder, and another test subject (B) was sprinkled with the Experimental itching powder. Subject A reported having itches for 30 minutes. Subject B reported to have itches for 45 minutes.Identify the:9. Control Group10. Independent Variable11. Dependent Variable12. Explain whether the data supports the advertisements claims about its product.Subject A with original itching powderNew Itching PowderLength of ItchesYes.30 = 152= 45 minutes
27Will Flower Power fertilizer cause plants to produce more flowers? Sponge Bob loves to garden and wants to grow lots of pink flowers for his pal Sandy. He bought a special Flower Power fertilizer to see if will help plants produce more flowers. He plants two plants of the same size in separate containers with the same amount of potting soil. He places one plant in a sunny window and waters it every day with fertilized water. He places the other plant on a shelf in a closet and waters it with plain water every other day.(1) What did Sponge Bob do wrong in this experiment? Explain.(2) What should Sponge Bob do to test the effectiveness of Flower Power fertilizer? Write an experiment. Include the following in your experimental design: a.) Problem:b.) Hypothesis (as an if then statement)Too many variables - Didn’t put both in the same location and didn’t water them both at the same times.Will Flower Power fertilizer cause plants to produce more flowers?I hypothesize if plants are given Flower Power fertilizer then they will produce more flowers because fertilizer contains nutrients for the plant.
28Get two of the same type of plants. Flower PowerSponge Bob loves to garden and wants to grow lots of pink flowers for his pal Sandy. He bought a special Flower Power fertilizer to see if will help plants produce more flowers. He plants two plants of the same size in separate containers with the same amount of potting soil. He places one plant in a sunny window and waters it every day with fertilized water. He places the other plant on a shelf in a closet and waters it with plain water every other day.c.) Procedure (at least 5 good steps)Get two of the same type of plants.Place both plants on the same windowsill.Give Plant A 5 ml of water daily.Give Plant B 5 ml of water with Flower Power fertilizer daily.Record the number of flowers on each plant weekly.
29Clean-O detergent doesn’t clean any better than water. Sponge Bob Clean PantsSponge Bob noticed that his favorite pants were not as clean as they used to be. His friend Sandy told him that he should try using Clean-O detergent, a new laundry soap she found at Sail-Mart. Sponge Bob made sure to wash one pair of pants in plain water and another pair in water with the Clean-O detergent. After washing both pairs of pants a total of three times, the pants washed in Clean-O detergent did not appear to be any cleaner than the pants washed in plain water.(3) What was the problem Sponge Bob wanted to investigate?(4) What is the independent variable?(5) What is the dependent variable?(6) What should Sponge Bob’s conclusion be?Does Clean-O detergent clean clothes better than water?Clean-O DetergentHow clean the pants areClean-O detergent doesn’t clean any better than water.
30No, because there wasn’t a big improvement for all. Super SnailsGary is not the smartest snail in Bikini Bottom and believes he can improve his brain power by eating Super Snail Snacks. In order to test this hypothesis, he recruits Sponge Bob and several snail friends to help him with the experiment. The snails ate one snack with each meal every day for three weeks. Sponge Bob created a test and gave it to the snails before they started eating the snacks as well as after three weeks. Analyze the data in the chart and determine whether or not the Super Snail Snacks create smarter snails!(7) Based on the data provided, do the Super Snail Snacks work? Explain your answer.(8) What is the independent variable?(9) What is the dependent variable?No, because there wasn’t a big improvement for all.Super Snail SnacksBrain Power – Test Scores
31Group B with the regular breath mint Krusty Krab’s Breath MintsMr. Krabs created a secret ingredient for a breath mint that he thinks will “cure” the bad breath people get from eating crabby patties at the Krusty Krab. He asked 100 customers with a history of bad breath to try his new breath mint. He had 50 customers (Group A) eat a breath mint after they finished eating a crabby patty. The other 50 (Group B) also received a breath mint after they finished the sandwich, however it was just a regular breath mint and did not have the secret ingredient. Both groups were told that they were getting the breath mint that would cure their bad breath. Two hours after eating the crabby patties, thirty customers in Group A and ten customers in Group B reported having better breath than they normally had after eating crabby patties.(10) Which people are in the control Group?(11) What is the independent variable?(12) What is the dependent variable?Group B with the regular breath mintSecret Ingredient Breath MintSmell of their breath
32Krusty Krab’s Breath Mints Mr. Krabs created a secret ingredient for a breath mint that he thinks will “cure” the bad breath people get from eating crabby patties at the Krusty Krab. He asked 100 customers with a history of bad breath to try his new breath mint. He had 50 customers (Group A) eat a breath mint after they finished eating a crabby patty. The other 50 (Group B) also received a breath mint after they finished the sandwich, however it was just a regular breath mint and did not have the secret ingredient. Both groups were told that they were getting the breath mint that would cure their bad breath. Two hours after eating the crabby patties, thirty customers in Group A and ten customers in Group B reported having better breath than they normally had after eating crabby patties.(13) What should Mr. Krab’s conclusion be?(14) Why do you think 10 people in Group B reported fresher breath?The secret ingredient breath mint cures bad breath better than regular breath mints.They may have thought their breath was better when it may not have been because they thought they were also getting the secret ingredient mint.
33Both the guitar and clarinet attract the most jellyfish. Squidward’s SymphonySquidward loves playing his clarinet and believes it attracts more jellyfish than any other instrument he has played. In order to test his hypothesis, Squidward played a song on his clarinet for a total of 5 minutes and counted the number of jellyfish he saw in his front yard. He played the song for a total of 3 times on his clarinet and repeated the experiment using a flute and a guitar. He also recorded the number of jellyfish he observed when he was not playing an instrument. The results are shown in the chart.(15) What is the independent variable?(16) What is the dependent variable?(17) What should Squiward’s conclusion be?(18)Are the results reliable? Why or why not?Musical InstrumentsNumber of JellyfishBoth the guitar and clarinet attract the most jellyfish.AvgYes because the experiment was repeated a few times.
34Size of the Bubbles - Diameter of the Bubbles Super BubblesPatrick and Sponge Bob love to blow bubbles! Patrick found some Super Bubble Soap at Sail-Mart. The ads claim that Super Bubble Soap will produce bubbles that are twice as big as bubbles made with regular bubble soap. Patrick and Sponge Bob made up two samples of bubble solution. One sample was made with 5 oz. Of Super Bubble Soap and 5 oz. Of water, while the other was made with the same amount of water and 5 oz. Of regular bubble soap. Patrick and Sponge Bob used their favorite bubble wands to blow 10 different bubbles and did their best to measure the diameter of each one. The results are shown in the chart.(19) What did the Super Bubble ads claim?(20) What is the independent variable?(21) What is the dependent variable?Super Bubble Soap will produce bubbles twice as big as regular bubble soapSuper Bubble SoapSize of the Bubbles - Diameter of the Bubbles
35Yes because the experiment was repeated a multiple times. (22) Look at the results in the chart.Calculate the average diameter for each bubble solution.Super Bubble= ___________cmRegular Soap= ___________cmb) What should their conclusion be?(23)Are the results reliable? Why or why not?11.5x2____23.015.111.5Super Bubble Soap produces bigger bubbles but not twice as big as regular soap.Yes because the experiment was repeated a multiple times.
366th Grade Review Material VolumeAmount of space an object takes upMeasured with a graduated cylinder or rulerUnits: liters, ml, or cm3MassAmount of matter in an objectMeasured with a triple beam balanceUnits: gramsDensityAmount of mass per volumeUsed to identify an unknown substanceUnits: g/ml or g/cm3Less dense objects float and more dense sink