# The Scientific Method ♫A Way to Solve a Problem♫

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The Scientific Method ♫A Way to Solve a Problem♫

Know how to use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions. Use the scientific method to solve a problem. Develop a hypothesis. Identify the control, independent variable, and dependent variable in an experiment. Organize and interpret data and recognize patterns or trends. Understand the difference between an observation and an inference. Develop a conclusion based on the data obtained during the experiment.

Vocabulary Conclusion: summary of results at the end of an experiment
Constants: factors that are kept the same during an experiment Control: the experiment performed without the variable for comparison Data: information recorded during an experiment Dependent Variable: (Responding Variable) the factor that changes and you can not control during an experiment (how you measure your results)

Vocabulary Hypothesis: an educated guess to answer a problem
Independent Variable: (Manipulated Variable) the factor that you control and change during an experiment Inference: making a prediction based on observations and data Observation: anything obtained using your senses Scientific Method: a systematic (step by step) approach to problem solving Variable: factor you are testing in an experiment

Scientific Method problem Systematic approach to ___________
_______________ It is the steps someone takes to identify a question, develop a hypothesis, design and carry out steps or procedures to test the hypothesis, and document observations and findings to share with someone else. solving The Scientific Method (Lyrical Life Science) audio clip

1. Problem (Question) Stated as a clear question
What you want to find out

2. Research Gather information about the problem
Use books, internet, past experiences and experts in the field

3. Formulate a Hypothesis
An educated guess to answer the problem Based on research Use the correct format starting with “I hypothesize”

4. Design an Experiment Step by step procedure to test the hypothesis
Needs a control group for comparison and an experimental group to be tested

5. Record Data Write down all observations and measurements taken throughout the experiment

6. Analyze Data Organize data into charts and graphs
Look for patterns and trends

7. State a Conclusion Summarize the results Repeat the experiment for
accurate

Scientists share their experiments and findings with others.
Because they share their experiments and findings, scientists can learn from each other and often use someone else’s experiences to help them with what they are studying or doing.

______________ the problem Answer the _____________ Explain ______ you believe this is the answer I hypothesize if (restate the question) then (your educated guess), because (why this could be the answer). Restate problem why

Practice Writing a Hypothesis
What will happen if plants are given fertilizer? _____________________________________________ 2. What will happen if a plant does not receive sunlight? I hypothesize if plants are given fertilizer then they will grow taller because fertilizer contains nutrients. I hypothesize if plants do not receive sunlight then they will die because sunlight gives the plant energy needed.

Practice Writing a Hypothesis
3. What will happen if I put a glass over a lit candle? _____________________________________________ What will happen if you only eat fast fried food? I hypothesize if I put a glass over a lit candle then the flame will go out because fire needs oxygen. I hypothesize if you only eat fast fried food then you will gain weight because fried food has a lot of calories.

1. Independent Variable manipulated tested one control
Also called the __________________ variable Factor being _________________ Can only have ______ per experiment, otherwise you do not know which factor caused your results Factor that you ________________ manipulated tested one control

2. Dependent Variable responding can’t
Also called the __________________ variable Depends on the independent variable (factor you measure to determine the affect of the independent variable) Factor that you _______ control responding can’t

Variables

Control variable comparison Experiment run without the ____________
Needed for _____________________ variable comparison

Constants or Controls same same fertilizer soil water
Factors held the __________ during the experiment Example: If you were to see the affects of sunlight on plants (diagram above), each plant would: Be the _________ type Receive the same amount of ______________ Have the same type of _____________ Be kept at the same temperature same fertilizer soil water

Facts, Theories, and Laws
Fact - basic _____________ Theory - most logical explanation based on _____________________ of many experiments, they can change as new information is obtained Law - based on experimental ___________ that has been repeatedly tested and accepted as true, can change truth observations data

Group B without the juice
Smithers thinks that a special juice will increase the productivity of workers. He creates two groups of 50 workers each and assigns each group the same task (in this case, they're supposed to staple a set of papers). Group A is given the special juice to drink while they work. Group B is not given the special juice. After an hour, Smithers counts how many stacks of papers each group has made. Group A made 1,587 stacks, Group B made 2,113 stacks. Identify the: 1. Control Group 2. Independent Variable 3. Dependent Variable 4. What should Smithers' conclusion be? Group B without the juice Special Juice Productivity – number of stapled papers The juice did not work it actually slowed the workers.

Shower sprayed with water
Homer notices that his shower is covered in a strange green slime. His friend Barney tells him that coconut juice will get rid of the green slime. Homer decides to check this this out by spraying half of the shower with coconut juice. He sprays the other half of the shower with water. After 3 days of "treatment" there is no change in the appearance of the green slime on either side of the shower. Identify the: 5. Control Group 6. Independent Variable 7. Dependent Variable 8. What should Homer’s conclusion be? Shower sprayed with water Coconut Juice Amount of Green Slime Coconut juice doesn’t clean green slime any better than water.

New Itching Powder Length of Itches Yes. 30 = 15 2
Krusty was told that a certain itching powder was the newest best thing on the market, it even claims to cause 50% longer lasting itches. Interested in this product, he buys the itching powder and compares it to his usual product. One test subject (A) is sprinkled with the original itching powder, and another test subject (B) was sprinkled with the Experimental itching powder. Subject A reported having itches for 30 minutes. Subject B reported to have itches for 45 minutes. Identify the: 9. Control Group 10. Independent Variable 11. Dependent Variable 12. Explain whether the data supports the advertisements claims about its product. Subject A with original itching powder New Itching Powder Length of Itches Yes. 30 = 15 2 = 45 minutes

Will Flower Power fertilizer cause plants to produce more flowers?
Sponge Bob loves to garden and wants to grow lots of pink flowers for his pal Sandy. He bought a special Flower Power fertilizer to see if will help plants produce more flowers. He plants two plants of the same size in separate containers with the same amount of potting soil. He places one plant in a sunny window and waters it every day with fertilized water. He places the other plant on a shelf in a closet and waters it with plain water every other day. (1) What did Sponge Bob do wrong in this experiment? Explain. (2) What should Sponge Bob do to test the effectiveness of Flower Power fertilizer? Write an experiment. Include the following in your experimental design: a.) Problem: b.) Hypothesis (as an if then statement) Too many variables - Didn’t put both in the same location and didn’t water them both at the same times. Will Flower Power fertilizer cause plants to produce more flowers? I hypothesize if plants are given Flower Power fertilizer then they will produce more flowers because fertilizer contains nutrients for the plant.

Get two of the same type of plants.
Flower Power Sponge Bob loves to garden and wants to grow lots of pink flowers for his pal Sandy. He bought a special Flower Power fertilizer to see if will help plants produce more flowers. He plants two plants of the same size in separate containers with the same amount of potting soil. He places one plant in a sunny window and waters it every day with fertilized water. He places the other plant on a shelf in a closet and waters it with plain water every other day. c.) Procedure (at least 5 good steps) Get two of the same type of plants. Place both plants on the same windowsill. Give Plant A 5 ml of water daily. Give Plant B 5 ml of water with Flower Power fertilizer daily. Record the number of flowers on each plant weekly.

Clean-O detergent doesn’t clean any better than water.
Sponge Bob Clean Pants Sponge Bob noticed that his favorite pants were not as clean as they used to be. His friend Sandy told him that he should try using Clean-O detergent, a new laundry soap she found at Sail-Mart. Sponge Bob made sure to wash one pair of pants in plain water and another pair in water with the Clean-O detergent. After washing both pairs of pants a total of three times, the pants washed in Clean-O detergent did not appear to be any cleaner than the pants washed in plain water. (3) What was the problem Sponge Bob wanted to investigate? (4) What is the independent variable? (5) What is the dependent variable? (6) What should Sponge Bob’s conclusion be? Does Clean-O detergent clean clothes better than water? Clean-O Detergent How clean the pants are Clean-O detergent doesn’t clean any better than water.

No, because there wasn’t a big improvement for all.
Super Snails Gary is not the smartest snail in Bikini Bottom and believes he can improve his brain power by eating Super Snail Snacks. In order to test this hypothesis, he recruits Sponge Bob and several snail friends to help him with the experiment. The snails ate one snack with each meal every day for three weeks. Sponge Bob created a test and gave it to the snails before they started eating the snacks as well as after three weeks. Analyze the data in the chart and determine whether or not the Super Snail Snacks create smarter snails! (7) Based on the data provided, do the Super Snail Snacks work? Explain your answer. (8) What is the independent variable? (9) What is the dependent variable? No, because there wasn’t a big improvement for all. Super Snail Snacks Brain Power – Test Scores

Group B with the regular breath mint
Krusty Krab’s Breath Mints Mr. Krabs created a secret ingredient for a breath mint that he thinks will “cure” the bad breath people get from eating crabby patties at the Krusty Krab. He asked 100 customers with a history of bad breath to try his new breath mint. He had 50 customers (Group A) eat a breath mint after they finished eating a crabby patty. The other 50 (Group B) also received a breath mint after they finished the sandwich, however it was just a regular breath mint and did not have the secret ingredient. Both groups were told that they were getting the breath mint that would cure their bad breath. Two hours after eating the crabby patties, thirty customers in Group A and ten customers in Group B reported having better breath than they normally had after eating crabby patties. (10) Which people are in the control Group? (11) What is the independent variable? (12) What is the dependent variable? Group B with the regular breath mint Secret Ingredient Breath Mint Smell of their breath

Krusty Krab’s Breath Mints
Mr. Krabs created a secret ingredient for a breath mint that he thinks will “cure” the bad breath people get from eating crabby patties at the Krusty Krab. He asked 100 customers with a history of bad breath to try his new breath mint. He had 50 customers (Group A) eat a breath mint after they finished eating a crabby patty. The other 50 (Group B) also received a breath mint after they finished the sandwich, however it was just a regular breath mint and did not have the secret ingredient. Both groups were told that they were getting the breath mint that would cure their bad breath. Two hours after eating the crabby patties, thirty customers in Group A and ten customers in Group B reported having better breath than they normally had after eating crabby patties. (13) What should Mr. Krab’s conclusion be? (14) Why do you think 10 people in Group B reported fresher breath? The secret ingredient breath mint cures bad breath better than regular breath mints. They may have thought their breath was better when it may not have been because they thought they were also getting the secret ingredient mint.

Both the guitar and clarinet attract the most jellyfish.
Squidward’s Symphony Squidward loves playing his clarinet and believes it attracts more jellyfish than any other instrument he has played. In order to test his hypothesis, Squidward played a song on his clarinet for a total of 5 minutes and counted the number of jellyfish he saw in his front yard. He played the song for a total of 3 times on his clarinet and repeated the experiment using a flute and a guitar. He also recorded the number of jellyfish he observed when he was not playing an instrument. The results are shown in the chart. (15) What is the independent variable? (16) What is the dependent variable? (17) What should Squiward’s conclusion be? (18)Are the results reliable? Why or why not? Musical Instruments Number of Jellyfish Both the guitar and clarinet attract the most jellyfish. Avg Yes because the experiment was repeated a few times.

Size of the Bubbles - Diameter of the Bubbles
Super Bubbles Patrick and Sponge Bob love to blow bubbles! Patrick found some Super Bubble Soap at Sail-Mart. The ads claim that Super Bubble Soap will produce bubbles that are twice as big as bubbles made with regular bubble soap. Patrick and Sponge Bob made up two samples of bubble solution. One sample was made with 5 oz. Of Super Bubble Soap and 5 oz. Of water, while the other was made with the same amount of water and 5 oz. Of regular bubble soap. Patrick and Sponge Bob used their favorite bubble wands to blow 10 different bubbles and did their best to measure the diameter of each one. The results are shown in the chart. (19) What did the Super Bubble ads claim? (20) What is the independent variable? (21) What is the dependent variable? Super Bubble Soap will produce bubbles twice as big as regular bubble soap Super Bubble Soap Size of the Bubbles - Diameter of the Bubbles

Yes because the experiment was repeated a multiple times.
(22) Look at the results in the chart. Calculate the average diameter for each bubble solution. Super Bubble= ___________cm Regular Soap= ___________cm b) What should their conclusion be? (23)Are the results reliable? Why or why not? 11.5 x2 ____ 23.0 15.1 11.5 Super Bubble Soap produces bigger bubbles but not twice as big as regular soap. Yes because the experiment was repeated a multiple times.