Presentation on theme: "Humayun Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun was the second Mughal Emperor who ruled present day Afghanistan,Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1530–1540."— Presentation transcript:
Humayun Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun was the second Mughal Emperor who ruled present day Afghanistan,Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1530–1540 and again from 1555–1556. Like his father,Babur, he lost his kingdom early, but with Persian aid, he eventually regained an even larger one. On the eve of his death in 1556, the power. Humayun lost his Indian territories to the Pashtun (Afghan) noble, Sher Shah Suri, and, with Persian aid, regained them fifteen years later. Humayun's return from Persia, accompan ied by a large retinue of Persian noblemen, signaled an important change in Mughal court culture, as theCentral Asian origins of the dynasty were largely overshadowed by the influences of Persian art,architecture, language and literature. Mughal empire spanned almost one million square kilometers. He succeeded his father in India in 1530, while his half-brother Kamran Mirza, who was to become a rather bitter rival, obtained the sovereignty of Kabul and Lahore, the more northern parts of their father's empire. He originally ascended the throne at the age of 22 and was somewhat inexperienced when he came to
Humayun Personal Traits Humayun was portrayed in the biography "Humāyūn-nāma" written by his sister Gulbadan Begum, as being extraordinarily lenient, constantly forgiving acts which were deliberately aimed at angering him. In one instance the biography records that his youngest brother Hindal killed Humayun's most trusted advisor, an old Sheikh, and then marched an army out of Agra. Humayun, rather than seek retribution, went straight to his mother's home where Gulbadan Begbear no grudge against his younger brother, and insisted he return home. His many documented acts of mercy may have stemmed largely from weakness, but he does seem to have been a gentle and humane man by the standards of the day. He lacked his father’s craftiness and athleticism. Though he could be a formidable warrior when he chose to be, he was more laid back and indolent. He was also deeply superstitious, and fascinated by Astrology and the Occult. Upon his accession as Padishah (Emperor), he began to re-oerganis the administration upon mystically determined principles. The public offices were divided into four distinct groups, for the four elements. The department of Earth was to be in charge of Agriculture and the agricultural sciences, Fire was to be in charge of the Military, Water was the department of the Canals and waterways while Air seemed to have responsibility for everything else. His daily routine was planned in accordance with the movements of the planets, so too was his wardrobe. He refused to enter a house with his left foot going forward, and if anyone else did they would be told to leave and re-enter. His servant, Jauhar, records in the Tadhkirat al-Waqiat that he was known to shoot arrows to the sky marked with either his own name, or that of the Shah of Persia and, depending on how they landed, interpreted this as an indication of which of them would grow more powerful. He was a heavy drinker, and also took pellets of Opium, after which he was known to recite poetry. He was, however, not enamoured of warfare, and after winning a battle would spend months at a time indulging himself within the walls of a captured city even as a larger war was taking place outside.
Humayun's tomb is a complex of buildings built as the Mughal Emperor Humayun's tomb, commissioned by Humayun's wife Hamida Banu Begum in 1562 CE, and designed by Mirak Mirza Ghiyath, a Persian architect. It was the first garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent, and is located in Nizamuddin East, Delhi, India, close to the din-e- panah citadel also known as Purana Qila, that Humayun founded in 1533. It was also the first structure to use red sandstone at such a scale  The complex was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1993, and since then has undergone extensive restoration work, which is still underway. The complex encompasses the main tomb of the Emperor Humayun, which houses the graves of his wife, Hamida Begum, and also Dara Shikoh, son of the later Emperor Shah Jahan, as well as numerous other subsequent Mughals, including Emperor Jahandar Shah,Farrukhsiyar, Rafi Ul-Darjat, Rafi Ud- Daulat and Alamgir II. It represented a leap inMughal architecture, and together with its accomplished Charbagh garden, typical ofPersian gardens, but never seen before in India, it set a precedent for subsequent Mughal architecture. It is seen as a clear departure from the fairly modest mausoleum of his father, the first Mughal Emperor, Babur, called Bagh-e Babur (Gardens of Babur) in Kabul(Afghanistan). Though the latter was the first Emperor to start the tradition of being buried in a paradise garden. Modelled on Gur-e Amir, the tomb of his ancestor and Asia's conqueror Timur in Samarkand, it created a precedent for future Mughal architecture of royal mausolea, which reached its zenith with the Taj Mahal, at Agra.  The site was chosen on the banks of Yamuna river, due to its proximity to Nizamuddin Dargah, the mausoleum of the celebrated Sufi saint of Delhi, Nizamuddin Auliya, who was much revered by the rulers of Delhi, and whose residence, Chilla Nizamuddin Auliya lies just north-east of the tomb. In later Mughal history, the last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar took refuge here, during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, along with three princes, and was captured by Captain Hodson before being exiled to Rangoon. At the time of the Slave Dynasty this land was under the 'KiloKheri Fort' which was capital of Sultan Kequbad, son of Nasiruddin (1268-1287).
In 1555, after a long campaign, Humayun won back Delhi and recovered his lost throne. His subjects were extremely happy and excited that the Emperor had returned victorious. The whole kingdom turned out to cheer him, lining the streets to the palace. All his subjects wanted to touch his feet In 1555, after and sing his praises. When the Emperor reached the palace, he said to his army, "We have won, but it is all due to Allah's Grace. Otherwise, we would not have won. Let me go to the mosque and offer my gratitude to Allah." In the mosque, Humayun offered his soulful prayer and heart's gratitude to Allah: "OAllah, You have always been kind to me. Even my own brothers, not to speak of kith and kin, have deceived and betrayed me many times. But I promised my father on his deathbed that I would be kind to them. Therefore, I have forgiven them every time. I myself have also done so many wrong things in this life, and You have forgiven me as I have forgiven my own brothers and relatives. You have always taught me that forgiveness is the answer and not revenge. To satisfy oneself, forgiveness is the only answer. Allah, accept my gratitude-life and my gratitude-heart for this great victory." Unfortunately, Humayun was not able to enjoy his victory for long. One day, as the sunset call to prayer was heard, Humayun fell down the steep steps leading from the tower he used as a library and fractured his skull. Shocked and horrified, his attendants rushed to his side. Humayun whispered, "Allah, this is my last prayer to You. Soon I am going to be with You. My father died while praying toYou. I was dying and he prayed that You would take his life instead of mine. You listened to his prayer. He died in my place and I was cured. Now I am dying while praying to You. I pray for my kingdom, for my people and for my son. I know there is only one way togain victory and that way is through prayer. Without prayer, there is no success and noglory. No prayer, no satisfaction. "Allah, Allah, may Your Glory be praised in all human hearts throughout Your creation. I leave my son here on earth in Your Care. Do save him and protect him. Do give him world-glory. My last prayer is not the prayer of the great Emperor Humayun, but the prayer of a soulful Muslim mendicant-seeker who needs no one but Allah for eternal peace and eternal satisfaction. Satisfaction is what I have always needed and what I shall always need, forever and forever. "Allah, You have given me that satisfaction now—not in the victory of the battlefield, but in allowing me to utter Your compassionate Name. Your Name is all peace. Satisfaction abides in peace and peace is satisfaction, satisfaction alone. Allah, Allah, Allah!"