Background In business, rapid distribution of knowledge and global use of ‘Best practices’ are absolute musts. To survive the competition among top There is no way that people would share knowledge willingly in our company Knowledge should be shared and distributed within an organization Isolated information or experience can be used by the whole company
Basic principle of knowledge sharing & Distribution Presence of Knowledge Knowledge should exist Difficulty of knowledge distribution Distribute knowledge to the right people Make organizational knowledge available at the point where it is needed Meaning of ‘Knowledge sharing & distribution’
The right conditions for knowledge sharing and distribution Knowledge distribution as an economic necessity Trend towards group work Virtual teams and offices Virtual companies Approaches Organizational and technical approaches Space management
Dangers to Cultural Knowledge Abrupt Changes Threat to effective distribution of knowledge Acquisition and disinvestment Destroy accustomed channels for the spread of knowledge Necessitate completely new infrastructure Excessive growth Difficult to maintain consistency in the internal flow of organizational knowledge Lost of natural contexts for sharing
Leverage through Knowledge Sharing Time and Quality Time-based management Total quality management Distributing knowledge to co-ordinate processes Second time right TQM => First time right Second time right => good measure of successful knowledge distribution Direct benefits Yield direct customer value Consistent image through knowledge distribution Importance for use of knowledge
Second time right concept Sharing and distribution of knowledge as an indirect effect on customer satisfaction Speed of performance Quality of performance Customer satisfaction Shared knowledge + + + +
Principles of knowledge sharing Deciding which kinds of knowledge should be distributed and which should not. Limited provision of knowledge Economic limits on knowledge distribution Confidentiality and secrecy Relationship with organizational structure Human barriers
Replication of Knowledge Is centrally controlled form of intervention Its function is to distribute certain knowledge assets quickly among a large number of employees Cara untuk melakukan ‘Replication of Knowledge’: Creating a knowledge Network Socialization
Methods of socialization Professional training Personnel development measures Documentation Preserving knowledge
Creating Knowledge Network Controlling knowledge distribution Moulding the infrastructure Push strategies Creating infrastructure Advantages of horizontal infrastructure Permit selective access to organizational knowledge according to need Distribution will organize itself The information overloads that can result from automatic distribution are thus avoided
Organization support for sharing and distribution of knowledge Parallel structures examples from business consultancy Experience groups and learning arenas Central Structuring Support through employee development
Knowledge distribution via computer networks Things to notice Compatibility Simple solution Data networks and groupware Intranets Groupware as a catalyst Problem: Consistency and co-ordination
Types of groupware application Work flow management Lotus notes Complementary technology
Encouraging willingness to share knowledge Individual willingness to share knowledge Influence of company culture Power Management
Transferring ‘Best-Practices’ – Today’s Challenge Transfer of managers; information tips regular contact with the different company locations Increases transparency of knowledge Create the conditions for identifying and transferring best practice Benchmarking teams and best practice teams Prepare the ground by looking for the best practices outside the company Provide continuous support for the transfer if internal best practices Giving priority to the core process of the organization Best Practice network based on informal exchanges among the members of a ‘community practice’ Internal Audit
Ground rule of best practice Internal and external benchmarking are useful techniques for creating pressure that can trigger best practice transfer Critical business processes where there is high potential for increasing efficiency should be given priority for best transfers Best practice transfer programmes should not be so large or numerous that it is impossible to keep track of them all Evaluation is necessary. However, attempts to measure and evaluate individual practices too accurately can lead to measurement becoming an end it self, and may hold up the actual transfer process. System of pay and incentives must be consistent with the goals of best practice transfer Technology can act as a catalyst, but it is not a solution in itself Motivation and the support of top management are deciding factors
Background thinking of contact centre in deploying a KM Using KM technologies, organizations make it possible for their customers to obtain information just by searching for it, enabling them to satisfy their own demands around the clock. KM solutions make it possible to deliver expert knowledge to all departments and geographic locations within an organization. Help mitigate the effects of personnel turnover and job changes since captured knowledge remains accessible at all times. Deliver the latest and most-up-to-date answers and information across the enterprise
Background thinking of contact centre in deploying a KM The main hurdle to implementing a KM solution lies in the cultural changes needed to make KM really work To make KM technology effective require management support proper training and a committed effort to make implicit knowledge explicit companies can successfully implement KM technology by choosing the right people, processes, technology and knowledge to implement a KM solution.
Background thinking of contact centre in deploying a KM Today's business models depend greatly on maximizing resources eliminating redundancy and automating processes to meet business goals. Furthermore, it's also clear that e-business has become an essential part of the equation. Critical Issues Facing Customer Service Organizations
Issues of new e-business model Organizations struggle with the broad implications of new e-business models. Among those concerns are the following issues that are related to the KM discussion. Growth in on-line customer base – As successful businesses continue to build their customer bases it is not unreasonable to expect that ecommerce could generate a tremendous increase in on-line customer activities. High expectations – Today's customers are increasingly conditioned to expect superior customer service or they can easily move to a more satisfying competitor. Costly and complex – The cost and complexity of maintaining an effective level of customer satisfaction grows in dramatic proportion to the size and sophistication of the customer base. Significant challenges – There are real challenges to maintaining a high level of customer satisfaction
Significant challenges Increased call volumes cause mounting delays, which drive customers away: When the competition is never more than a mouse click or a phone call away, frustrated customers can – and do go elsewhere to satisfy their needs when they get "stuck on hold." Ratio of customers to agents: The difficulty in maintaining a traditional ratio of contact center agents to customers is exacerbated by a fast – growing customer population. In a business environment in which Internet access can multiply the customer base by several orders of magnitude it is simply not possible to maintain traditional agent-to- customer ratios. Developing experienced and effective agents takes time and money: Developing the all-important human resources to succeed at customer service requires an investment. Good people are often hard to find and organizations can be hard-pressed to find and develop sufficient support staff, and to cultivate their expertise.
Significant challenges (cont) Turnover and job changes can mean knowledge gets lost: If hard-earned knowledge about support issues remains locked in key agents' heads, it walks out the door when they do. Organizations that invest heavily in developing service and support staff can easily lose their investments when agents leave or move into other positions. New agents need extensive training to become productive: Entry-level agents must learn and master large amounts of information while developing communications and relationship skills. It takes time and effort for service and support agents to come up to speed and assume a full workload, even though their expense goes straight to the bottom line. Identical queries must be repeatedly researched and answered: When knowledge isn't shared, agents duplicate research efforts when replying to the same questions. This causes a considerable waste of effort and resources. Information accessible to some agents may not be accessible to all agents: In traditional labor-intensive support organizations expertise grows over time and is related to ability, background knowledge and problem-solving skills. Some agents know more than others and can therefore handle a wider range of queries. This leads to inconsistent and unsatisfying service and support encounters for some customers.
Knowledge Management Is the Solution Knowledge Management solutions attempt to make vast, implicit bodies of corporate knowledge as explicit as possible. KM enables companies to organize, search, use, and adapt any explicit body of knowledge in response to changing customer needs, circumstances, and technologies. Make a huge difference in resolving the issues
Issues that can be solved The ratio of call agents to customers can be controlled and the interaction can be made more efficient helps agents solve cases faster self-service aspects reduce the number of incoming calls. organization leverage its service and support staff to concentrate on more complex calls provide faster escalation and resolution. Increasing call volumes can be handled via Web self-service Offering customers, partners, and end-users self-service access to support knowledge permits consumers of knowledge to handle many of their own queries. they get the convenience of all the time 365 access to information via the Web the cost of Web service transactions is much less than a traditional phone interaction.
Issues that can be solved (cont) Expertise can be shared: captures scarce expertise makes that expertise available to all support and service agents uniformly. organizations can leverage their knowledge and make it much more broadly and consistently available to their customers, partners, or end- users. Turnover and job changes do not cripple the system: capture knowledge and make it accessible to all service and support agents. knowledge no longer stays with those who hold or discover it; it becomes an organizational asset available to all who need it. making the job more effective and satisfying so that key people stay with the company keep the knowledge in the company if a key person does leave. Reduce turnover and minimize the impact when it does occur.
Issues that can be solved (cont) Training time for agents to become productive is reduced: quickly become productive. much more efficient and are ready to consistently and accurately deal with whatever customer queries may come their way. Identical queries can be answered from already-discovered solutions: readily accessible to all agents. once a question is researched and answered, the benefits of that work are available to anyone who needs access to that information. increased productivity, allowing agents more time to deal with new queries and improve customer satisfaction. Information is accessible to all agents: individual agents can reach the same level of expertise by building on each other's experience and knowledge. ensuring consistent, right answers.
Implementing Knowledge Management The phases that a KM effort goes through when capturing knowledge, and the activities related to completing each phase are: Document knowledge: Analyze all possible sources of organizational knowledge to build a taxonomy of knowledge types Decide what attributes and values should be associated with each type examine all possible sources to uncover existing knowledge elements make it possible to discover new knowledge elements. Share knowledge: Start by recording all known knowledge elements from documents, communications, and subject matter expert interviews. Analyze the collection to classify knowledge elements by type, and to establish a hierarchy or organization among types. tag the knowledge elements and hierarchy information to make it possible to search the knowledge base by keyword, explicit match, or relationships to one or more named problems. At each step along the way, include input forms to elicit feedback from KM system users about knowledge elements, element organization, element search and retrieval, and element relevancy.
Implementing Knowledge Management (cont) Apply knowledge: This is where customers and support staff interact with the knowledge base to locate and use relevant knowledge. At this stage it is essential to refine the contents of knowledge elements and to adapt the structure of the knowledge base in response to such interaction. The ability to make and suggest useful relationships between problems and solutions is powerful enough to enlist a strong buy – in from support staff and knowledge management professionals when they see that a dynamic system can improve search results, agent productivity and customer satisfaction.
crucial functions for a successful KM implementation (KM vendors must provide) Capture and organize knowledge elements for identification and relevance ranking. Apply contents of the knowledge base to incoming queries to look for matches and establish relevance between knowledge elements and query contents. Maximize re-use of knowledge elements Represent any workflow or organizational process with its own application-specific sources of knowledge within the KM system Solicit continuous feedback on the applicability of existing knowledge elements to new situations, new problems and new scenarios.
Checklist: What Knowledge Management Systems Should Deliver Support for multiple channels of user access, including Web, e-mail, chat, and phone Personalized, self-service end-user experience (whether access from inside or outside an organization) Support for unassisted service (self-service) and assisted service with equal facility Robust search technology that learns and organizes with use Automated knowledge acquisition tools Ability to support multiple audiences from a central knowledge base
Checklist: What Knowledge Management Systems Should Deliver (cont) Rapid solution development with proactive service for end- users, so that any unsolved problem is solved as soon as possible Robust Reporting tools to measure usage and success Mechanisms to capture feedback from end-users, customers and support staff, Costs that scale effectively as services needs grow and expand Training and consulting support, so you can take full advantage of the system, and build effective knowledge bases A proven ROI model to project and benchmark success Ability to track interactions from the unassisted to assisted service, so support staff can put a customer's problems into context
Enablers and constraints in successfull Knowledge Management system implementation
Controls that constrain knowledge management Keeping the centralized knowledge base and its custodians (managers) continuously current with the discontinuously changing external environment Continually updating the employees on the latest changes in their outputs (goals) and changes in procedure to achieve those outputs
Success factors for KM: Contrasting stable and ‘wicked’ environment
For Predictable Organizational Environment Knowledge utilization as the antecedent External control as the consequent Stable environment Incremental change Continuous, predictable nature of change Single loop learning Static view of knowledge: Rules, Procedures & Policies Knowledge resides with the management Complexity is removed from lower level jobs
For ‘Wicked’ organizational environment Self control as the antecedent Knowledge creation as the consequent ‘Wicked environment’ Increasing pace of continual change Discontinuous, unpredictable nature of change Double loop learning with self adaptation Dynamic view of knowledge More equitable distribution of knowledge Complexity is handled at grassroots level