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Chapter 2: Globalization & Culture

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1 Chapter 2: Globalization & Culture

2 What is Globalization? Economic, social, political
Horizontal and vertical expansion Is a cause and an effect of spatial interaction Five factors Global markets Technology Lower costs Mobility of capital Policy

3 Membership in the WTO, World Trade Organization

4 The Global Flow of Capital
MNCs/TNCs FDI Today: 82,000 MNCs with 810,000 foreign affiliates 1990s: 37,000 MNCs with 170,000 foreign

5 Globalization & Popular Culture
Defining Culture: material & nonmaterial What is popular culture? What is folk culture? Traditional views have seen these two as separate and distinct from one another. Are they? Cultural Landscapes


7 FIGURE 4-1


9 FIGURE 4-4b

10 FIGURE 4-5

11 Spatial Diffusion Relocation diffusion Contagious diffusion
Hierarchical diffusion Stimulus diffusion Reverse hierarchical From larger to smaller cities From CEO to other employees

12 Reverse hierarchical diffusion:
The first Walmart opened in 1962 in Rogers, Arkansas (pop 6000). Walmart openings

13 His Lai Temple, Hacienda Heights


15 Spatial Interaction—Edward Ullman, 1954
Connections, relations that develop among places and regions as a result of the movement or flow of people, goods, or information

16 Intervening opportunities
Complementarity Short or long distances Oil from Saudi Arabia to markets in North America Your journey to a movie theater Spatial variability: not all places on earth have oil, not every corner has a movie theater Spatial variability may also be influenced by cost—where is it cheaper to produce a good/service? Transferability The cost of moving an item, and its relative value determine its transferability What types of goods have high transferability? What types have low transferability? What has changed to reduce the friction of distance? Intervening opportunities New location arises that can provide a good more economically Where do you go to fill up your car with gasoline? How is this impacted by accessibility? Is distance always the primary determinant of accessibility?

17 Time-Space Convergence
Distance Decay What has reduced the friction of distance? How does globalization alter accessibility and create time-space convergence?

18 Impacts of Globalization on Culture
Homogenization—The Geography of Nowhere Placelessness—Edward Relph

19 Homogenization due to Americanization
Americanization a function of global capitalism and American economic dominance Spread of values too? McDonaldization: spread of American fast food as a standard for how the world eats. Television, entertainment Clothing Coca-Colonization Global capitalism re-establishing colonial relationships MNCs create a hegemony with inherent power relations MNCs benefit from their global spread, not the individual countries


21 Criticism of Polarization & Homogenization Theories
Globalization has destabilized societies Backlash to the homogenization Rise of ethnic separatism, battles over identity Dangerous—global terrorism, criminal networks Criticism of Polarization & Homogenization Theories Is uniformity inevitable? Is it really this simple? Neolocalism—renewed local awareness Flow of ideas and practices is not unilateral

22 Flow is not always from the U. S. to other countries
Flow is not always from the U.S. to other countries. The popularity of Japanese anime in North America, Europe and Australia is evidence of this. Resisting homogeneity—local ordinances require buildings to conform with local aesthetics in Santa Fe, NM

23 Glocalization The local-global nexus Both are changed
Dynamic nature of local and global relations Local forces become globalized & global forces become localized! True heterogeneity or disguise for business as usual?




27 Commodification of Culture
What processes define cultural preferences? Who owns culture? How is culture connected to identity?


29 Commodification of the past: heritage industry Dissonance—inconsistent
Generates conflict, contestation Opposing uses of heritage (sacred site vs. tourism) Particularism – whose heritage?

30 Is there a Global Heritage? UNESCO World Heritage List
Native Americans protest at the 100 year celebration of Oklahoma statehood (2007). Is there a Global Heritage? UNESCO World Heritage List

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