2What is Globalization? Economic, social, political Horizontal and vertical expansionIs a cause and an effect of spatial interactionFive factorsGlobal marketsTechnologyLower costsMobility of capitalPolicy
3Membership in the WTO, World Trade Organization Source: wto.org
4The Global Flow of Capital MNCs/TNCsFDIToday:82,000 MNCs with 810,000 foreignaffiliates1990s:37,000 MNCs with 170,000 foreign
5Globalization & Popular Culture Defining Culture: material & nonmaterialWhat is popular culture?What is folk culture?Traditional views have seen these two as separate and distinct from one another. Are they?Cultural Landscapes
15Spatial Interaction—Edward Ullman, 1954 Connections, relations that develop among places and regions as aresult of the movement or flow of people, goods, or information
16Intervening opportunities ComplementarityShort or long distancesOil from Saudi Arabia to markets in North AmericaYour journey to a movie theaterSpatial variability: not all places on earth have oil, not every corner has a movie theaterSpatial variability may also be influenced by cost—where is it cheaper to produce a good/service?TransferabilityThe cost of moving an item, and its relative value determine its transferabilityWhat types of goods have high transferability?What types have low transferability?What has changed to reduce the friction of distance?Intervening opportunitiesNew location arises that can provide a good more economicallyWhere do you go to fill up your car with gasoline?How is this impacted by accessibility? Is distance always the primary determinant of accessibility?
17Time-Space Convergence Distance DecayWhat has reduced the friction of distance?How does globalization alter accessibility and create time-space convergence?
18Impacts of Globalization on Culture Homogenization—The Geography of NowherePlacelessness—Edward Relph
19Homogenization due to Americanization Americanization a function of global capitalism and American economic dominanceSpread of values too?McDonaldization: spread of American fast food as a standard for how the world eats.Television, entertainmentClothingCoca-ColonizationGlobal capitalism re-establishing colonial relationshipsMNCs create a hegemony with inherent power relationsMNCs benefit from their global spread, not the individual countries
21Criticism of Polarization & Homogenization Theories Globalization has destabilized societiesBacklash to the homogenizationRise of ethnic separatism, battles over identityDangerous—global terrorism, criminal networksCriticism of Polarization & Homogenization TheoriesIs uniformity inevitable?Is it really this simple?Neolocalism—renewed local awarenessFlow of ideas and practices is not unilateral
22Flow is not always from the U. S. to other countries Flow is not always from the U.S. to other countries. The popularity of Japanese anime in North America,Europe and Australia is evidence of this.Resisting homogeneity—localordinances require buildingsto conform with local aestheticsin Santa Fe, NM
23Glocalization The local-global nexus Both are changed Dynamic nature of local and global relationsLocal forces become globalized & global forces become localized!True heterogeneity or disguise for business as usual?