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Chapter 22 Urinary Elimination Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22 Urinary Elimination Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 22 Urinary Elimination Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Urinary Elimination  Eliminating waste is a physical need.  Common terms include: urination, micturition, voiding, peeing, passing water, making water  The urinary system:  Removes waste products from the blood  Maintains the body’s water balance Slide 2 Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

3 Urinary System Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 3

4  The healthy adult produces about 1500 mL (milliliters), or 3 pints, of urine a day.  Factors affecting urine production include:  Age  Disease  Amount and kinds of fluid ingested  Dietary salt  Body temperature and perspiration  Drugs  Frequency of urination is affected by:  Amount of fluid intake, habits, and available toilet facilities  Activity, work, and illness Slide 4 Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Normal Urination

5 Normal Urination (cont’d)  Observations  Normal urine: Is pale yellow, straw-colored, or amber Is pale yellow, straw-colored, or amber Is clear with no particles Is clear with no particles Has a faint odor Has a faint odor  Observe urine for color, clarity, odor, amount, particles, and blood.  Report complaints of urgency, burning on urination, or painful or difficult urination- may signal kidney stones etc. Slide 5 Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

6 Urine Slide 6

7 Kidney Stones Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 7

8 Urinary Problems  Dysuria-difficult or painful (dys) urination (uria)  Nocturia-frequent urination (uria) at night (noct)  Hematuria-blood (hemat) in the urine (uria)  Oliguria-scant amount (olig) or urine (uria) Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 8

9  Bedpans are used by:  Persons who cannot be out of bed  Women for voiding and bowel movements  Men for bowel movements  Standard bedpans and fracture pans are used.  Fracture pans are used by patients with: Casts, in traction, limited back movement Casts, in traction, limited back movement After spinal cord injury, surgery After spinal cord injury, surgery After a hip fracture or replacement After a hip fracture or replacement Slide 9 Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Normal Urination (cont’d)

10  Men use urinals to void.  The man stands if possible.  Some sit on the side of the bed or lie in bed.  Some men need support when standing.  You may have to place and hold the urinal for some men.  Remind men:  To hang urinals on bed rails and signal after use  Not to place urinals on overbed tables and bedside stands Slide 10 Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Normal Urination (cont’d)

11  Persons unable to walk to the bathroom often use bedside commodes.  The commode allows a normal position for elimination.  The commode arms and back provide support and help prevent falls.  Some commodes are wheeled into bathrooms and placed over toilets. They are useful for persons who need support when sitting or need an elevated seat. Slide 11 Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Normal Urination (cont’d)

12 Urinary Incontinence  The basic types of incontinence are:  Stress  Urge  Overflow  Functional  Reflex  Mixed incontinence  Transient incontinence  If incontinence is a new problem, tell the nurse at once. Slide 12 Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

13  The following may be needed:  Good skin care and dry garments and linens  Promoting normal urinary elimination  Bladder training  Catheters  Incontinence is linked to abuse, mistreatment, and neglect.  Remember, incontinence is beyond the person’s control.  If you are becoming short-tempered and impatient, talk to the nurse at once.  The person has the right to be free from abuse, mistreatment, and neglect. Slide 13 Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Urinary Incontinence (cont’d)

14 Catheters  Inserted through the urethra into the bladder, a urinary catheter drains urine into a drainage bag.  A straight catheter drains the bladder and then is removed.  An indwelling catheter (retention or Foley catheter) is left in the bladder.  Catheterization is the process of inserting a catheter. Slide 14 Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

15  Catheters are used:  Before, during, and after surgery  For people who are too weak or disabled to use the bedpan, urinal, commode, or toilet  To protect wounds and pressure ulcers from contact with urine  To allow hourly urinary output measurements  To collect sterile urine specimens  For measuring residual urine  When caring for persons with indwelling catheters, the risk of infection is high. Slide 15 Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Catheters (cont’d)

16  Drainage systems  A closed drainage system is used for indwelling catheters. Nothing can enter the system from the catheter to the drainage bag. Nothing can enter the system from the catheter to the drainage bag.  Some people wear leg bags that attach to the thigh or calf when standing up.  The drainage bag is always kept lower than the bladder to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs).  The catheter bag is attached to the bed frame when the patient is in bed. Slide 16 Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Catheters (cont’d)

17  If the drainage system is disconnected accidentally, tell the nurse at once.  Do not touch the ends of the catheter or tubing.  Practice hand hygiene and put on gloves.  Wipe the end of the tube with an antiseptic wipe.  Wipe the end of the catheter with another antiseptic wipe.  Do not put the ends down. Do not touch the ends after you clean them. Do not touch the ends after you clean them.  Connect the tubing to the catheter.  Discard the wipes into a biohazard bag.  Remove the gloves and practice hand hygiene. Slide 17 Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Catheters (cont’d)

18  Leg bags are changed to drainage bags when the person is in bed.  You open the closed drainage system. Prevents microbes from entering the system. Prevents microbes from entering the system.  Drainage bags are emptied and urine is measured: At the end of every shift At the end of every shift When changing from a leg bag to a drainage bag When changing from a leg bag to a drainage bag When changing from a drainage bag to a leg bag When changing from a drainage bag to a leg bag When the bag is becoming full When the bag is becoming full Nothing should touch the drain when emptying! Nothing should touch the drain when emptying! Slide 18 Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Catheters (cont’d)

19  Removing indwelling catheters  An indwelling catheter has two lumens (passage- ways). Sterile water is injected through one lumen to inflate the balloon. Sterile water is injected through one lumen to inflate the balloon. Urine drains from the bladder through the other lumen. Urine drains from the bladder through the other lumen.  A physician’s order is needed to remove a catheter.  Most people need bladder training first-the purpose is to regain control of urination  Dysuria and urinary frequency are common after removing catheters. Slide 19 Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Catheters (cont’d)

20  Condom catheters (external catheters, Texas catheters, urinary sheaths) are often used for incontinent men.  A condom catheter is a soft sheath that slides over the penis.  To apply a condom catheter: Follow the manufacturer’s instructions. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions. Thoroughly wash the penis with soap and water. Thoroughly wash the penis with soap and water. Dry the penis before applying the catheter. Dry the penis before applying the catheter.  Condom catheters are self-adhering or applied with elastic tape. Never use adhesive tape to secure catheters. Never use adhesive tape to secure catheters. Slide 20 Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Catheters (cont’d)

21 Condom catheter Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 21

22  Control of urination is the goal.  The person uses the toilet, commode, bedpan, or urinal at certain times.  The rules for normal elimination are followed.  The normal position for urination is assumed if possible.  Privacy is important.  Four methods are:  Bladder retraining  Prompted voiding  Habit training/scheduled voiding  Catheter clamping Slide 22 Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Bladder Training


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