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EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WITH THANKS TO SUSAN POJER.

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Presentation on theme: "EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WITH THANKS TO SUSAN POJER."— Presentation transcript:

1 EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WITH THANKS TO SUSAN POJER

2 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: TODAY:  WHY AND HOW DID THE U.S. BECOME AN IMPERIALIST POWER?  WHAT WAS THE EXTENT OF THE U.S. EMPIRE?  WHAT POLITICAL ISSUES DID U.S. IMPERIALISM CREATE? BROAD:  HOW DID THE U.S. BECOME A SUPERPOWER? (YOU SHOULD HAVE A PRETTY GOOD IDEA BY THE END OF THIS UNIT!)

3  WHY DID THE U.S. BECOME AN IMPERIALIST POWER? 1. MAIN REASON: U.S. BECAME A MAJOR INDUSTRIAL POWER IN SECOND HALF OF 19 TH CENTURY – NEEDED FOREIGN MARKETS (AND RAW MATERIALS NOT AVAILABLE HERE)

4 2. MILITARY-STRATEGIC INTERESTS ALFRED THAYER MAHAN, NAVY OFFICE AND PROFESSOR AT NAVAL WAR COLLEGE -- THE INFLUENCE OF SEA POWER ON HISTORY 1660 – 1783  ALFRED THAYER MAHAN, NAVY OFFICE AND PROFESSOR AT NAVAL WAR COLLEGE -- THE INFLUENCE OF SEA POWER ON HISTORY 1660 – 1783  CONTROL OF SEAS THE BASIS OF NATIONAL POWER (BASED ON BRITISH EMPIRE)  VERY INFLUENTIAL BOOK WITH POLITICIANS AND MILITARY

5 3. INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL DARWINISM  "WHITE" (EURO) NATIONS "FITTEST," BIOLOGICALLY DESTINED TO CONQUER OTHERS (RACISM!) HIERARCHY OF RACES"THE WHITE MAN'S BURDEN"  AND TO LEAD OTHERS TO THE "BENEFITS" OF "CIVILIZATION"

6 4. MISSIONARY INTERESTS  CHRISTIANITY IS A PROSELYTIZING RELIGION, NEEDS NEW "MARKETS" AS MUCH AS INDUSTRIES DO. TO BRING NON-CHRISTIANS THE "BENEFITS" OF CHRISTIANITY (ALSO RACIST)

7 5. THE CLOSING OF THE AMERICAN FRONTIER – NO MORE TO CONQUER ON THIS CONTINENT!

8 EARLY BEGINNINGS

9  EARLIEST U.S. IMPERIALISM: LIBERIA, ESTABLISHED BY AMERICAN COLONIAL COLONY AS PLACE TO SEND FREED SLAVES, 1822  U.S. NEVER ANNEXED LIBERIA, BUT CONTROLLED IT, 1822 – 1980  LIBERIA'S MAIN NATURAL RESOURCE WAS RUBBER WHICH U.S. NEEDED FOR TIRES AND OTHER THINGS (BEFORE PLASTIC). LIBERIAN RUBBER WENT TO U.S. HOWEVER U.S. DID NOT COMPETE WITH EUROPE IN THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA

10 SO THE U.S. BUILT ITS EMPIRE IN THE PACIFIC AND CARIBBEAN

11 HAWAII – "THE CROSSROADS OF THE PACIFIC" THE BRITISH GOT THERE FIRST IN 1788 (CAPTAIN COOK) AND MANY EUROPEAN VISITS – SO NATIVE HAWAIIANS WERE DECIMATED BY SMALLPOX, MEASLES BEFORE AMERICANS ARRIVED THE BRITISH GOT THERE FIRST IN 1788 (CAPTAIN COOK) AND MANY EUROPEAN VISITS – SO NATIVE HAWAIIANS WERE DECIMATED BY SMALLPOX, MEASLES BEFORE AMERICANS ARRIVED  PACIFIC OCEAN TOO BIG FOR SHIPS TO CROSS WITHOUT REFUELING AND RESUPPLYING

12  FIRST AMERICANS TO ARRIVE IN HAWAII WERE MISSIONARIES (ALL VARIETIES OF CHRISTIANS INCLUDING MORMONS)  NEXT TO ARRIVE, BY 1830S, WERE AMERICAN PLANTERS  SUGAR  FRUIT (INCLUDING PINEAPPLES) IMIOLA CHURCH, HILO © 1820

13  HAWAIIAN KING KAMEHAMEHA III (REIGNED 1824 – 1854) WAS CHRISTIAN AND ESTABLISHED A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY  HE ALSO GRANTED FOREIGNERS THE RIGHT TO OWN LAND IN HAWAII (UNFORTUNATELY FOR HIS DESCENDANTS!)

14 THE AMERICAN VIEW OF HAWAIIANS  1849: FIRST OF SERIES OF "RECIPROCITY" TREATIES MAKING HAWAII "PROTECTORATE" OF U.S.  1875 RECIPROCITY TREATY: HAWAII FORCED TO CEDE PEARL HARBOR TO U.S.  1890 – MCKINLEY TARIFF IMPOSED TARIFF ON HAWAIIAN SUGAR AMERICAN SUGAR PLANTERS IN HAWAII WANT U.S. TO ANNEX IT AMERICAN SUGAR PLANTERS IN HAWAII WANT U.S. TO ANNEX IT

15  AMERICANS FORCE KING DAVID KALAKAU TO SIGN CONSTITUTION OF 1887 AKA "THE BAYONET CONSTITUTION STRIPPED KING OF HIS POWERS STRIPPED KING OF HIS POWERS ESTABLISHED LEGISLATURE – PROPERTY QUALIFICATION FOR VOTING SO HIGH THAT MOSTLY ONLY AMERICANS COULD VOTE ESTABLISHED LEGISLATURE – PROPERTY QUALIFICATION FOR VOTING SO HIGH THAT MOSTLY ONLY AMERICANS COULD VOTE "KING'S" CABINET CONSISTED OF AMERICAN LAWYERS AND PLANTERS "KING'S" CABINET CONSISTED OF AMERICAN LAWYERS AND PLANTERS

16  1893: QUEEN LILIUOKALANI, AN ADVOCATE OF "HAWAII FOR HAWAIIANS" ANNOUNCED NEW CONSTITUTION ELIMINATING FOREIGNERS IN GOVERNMENT AMERICAN BUSINESSMEN AND PLANTERS, LED BY SANFORD P. DOLE, FORMED "COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY"

17  U.S MINISTER TO HAWAII CALLED OUT THE MARINES (SEEN HERE IN FRONT OF HAWAIIAN ROYAL PALACE)  QUEEN LILIUOKALANI WAS DEPOSED BY "HAWAIIAN PEOPLE"

18  1894 – 1898: "REPUBLIC OF HAWAII" LED BY DOLE GROVER CLEVELAND BLOCKED ANNEXATION (HE WAS ANTI-IMPERIALIST) GROVER CLEVELAND BLOCKED ANNEXATION (HE WAS ANTI-IMPERIALIST)  1898: MC KINLEY PRESIDENT, U.S. ANNEXED HAWAII (CELEBRATION BELOW AT FORMER ROYAL PALACE)

19 JAPAN  JAPAN SINCE LATE 17 TH CENTURY HAD BEEN ISOLATIONIST AND ANTI-WESTERN (HIDEYOSHI, TOKUGAWA SHOGUNATE)  1853: "OPENING OF JAPAN" -- U.S. COMMODORE MATTHEW PERRY ARRIVES IN EDO (TOKYO) WITH FOUR BATTLESHIPS, TO "NEGOTIATE" TRADE TREATY

20 TOP IS THE U.S.S. MISSISSIPPI, ONE OF THE BATTLESHIPS PERRY HAD AT TOKYO. RIGHT IS U.S.S. CONGRESS, IN SAME CLASS AS ANOTHER OF PERRY’S SHIPS. NOTE THE GUN PORTS. THE BROADSIDE WAS DEVASTATING TO HARBOR CITIES AND TOWNS. PERRY DIDN’T HAVE TO FIRE ON EDO – HE JUST HAD TO FIRE AS DEMONSTRATION – THAT’S ALL IT TOOK. GUNBOAT DIPLOMACY

21 PERRY’S “BLACK SHIPS”: JAPANESE VIEW PERRY’S “BLACK SHIPS”: JAPANESE VIEW

22 1854 – TREATY OF KANAGAWA – “PEACE AND AMITY” BETWEEN U.S. AND JAPAN = JAPAN FORCES TO ALLOW U.S. EXPORTS

23 PERRY – THE JAPANESE AND AMERICAN POINTS OF VIEW

24  REMINDER FROM AP WORLD & EURO: 1868 – JAPAN'S MEIJI REVOLUTION – ABOLISHED FEUDALISM, BEGAN WESTERNIZATION AND INDUSTRIALIZATION PROGRAM 1868 – JAPAN'S MEIJI REVOLUTION – ABOLISHED FEUDALISM, BEGAN WESTERNIZATION AND INDUSTRIALIZATION PROGRAM JAPAN WAS A MAJOR INDUSTRIAL NATION BY END OF 19 TH CENTURY AND LIKE ALL INDUSTRIAL POWERS, WANTED EMPIRE FOR NEW MARKETS AND RAW MATERIALS (COAL AND WOOD): JAPAN WAS A MAJOR INDUSTRIAL NATION BY END OF 19 TH CENTURY AND LIKE ALL INDUSTRIAL POWERS, WANTED EMPIRE FOR NEW MARKETS AND RAW MATERIALS (COAL AND WOOD): : SINO-JAPANESE WAR. JAPAN GOT "SPHERE OF INFLUENCE IN LOWER MANCHURIA, HAD ITS EYE ON KOREA (AND ALL ASIA AND THE PACIFIC!) : SINO-JAPANESE WAR. JAPAN GOT "SPHERE OF INFLUENCE IN LOWER MANCHURIA, HAD ITS EYE ON KOREA (AND ALL ASIA AND THE PACIFIC!)

25 MEANWHILE IN CHINA (ANOTHER VAST MARKET)_  OPIUM WARS  "UNEQUAL TREATIES" W/ EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, CHINA CARVED INTO "SPHERES OF INFLUENCE" IN LATE 19 TH CENTURY U.S. HAD TRADE TREATY WITH CHINA, BUT NO TERRITORY IN ASIA (YET)

26 ALASKA  PURCHASED FROM RUSSIA, 1867, FOR $7.2 MILLION (ABOUT 2 CENTS PER ACRE)

27  DERIDED AS "SEWARD'S FOLLY" AND "SEWARD'S ICEBOX" - - THERE TURNS OUT TO BE SOME GOLD IN ALASKA BUT UNTIL OIL WAS DISCOVERED ON NORTH SLOPE IN 1968, IT WAS MOSTLY JUST A "FRONTIER" PLACE (ATTRACTED LIBERTARIAN NUTS, SECESSIONISTS LIKE THE PALINS, ETC.)

28 MC KINLEY: "THE IMPERIALIST TAILOR"

29 CUBA: THE PEARL OF THE ANTILLES – AND THE LAST SPANISH COLONY IN AMERICA  SUGAR! FRUIT!  RECALL OSTEND MANIFESTO

30  AND SPAIN'S PHILIPPINES BECKONED – U.S. WANTED OWN NAVAL BASE AND TERRITORY IN ASIA, JUST LIKE THE EUROPEAN POWERS

31 CUBA LIBRE (?) "THE DUTY OF THE HOUR – TO SAVE HER NOT ONLY FROM SPAIN BUT FROM A WORSE FATE"

32  CUBAN REBELLION BEGAN 1868 BEGAN 1868 SPAIN BRUTALLY REPRESSED SPAIN BRUTALLY REPRESSED 1895 – ORGANIZED UPRISING/ INVASION LED BY JOSÉ MARTI, THE GREAT CUBAN NATIONALIST, REVOLUTIONARY AND POET ("GUANTANAMERA") – HE WAS KILLED IN BATTLE, – ORGANIZED UPRISING/ INVASION LED BY JOSÉ MARTI, THE GREAT CUBAN NATIONALIST, REVOLUTIONARY AND POET ("GUANTANAMERA") – HE WAS KILLED IN BATTLE, 1895 FOUGHT FOR "LOS POBRES DE LA TIERRA"

33  RECONCENTRADOS (CONCENTRATION CAMPS) – SPANISH GOVERNOR VALERIANO ("BUTCHER") WEYLER PUT ABOUT 500,000 GUAJIROS IN THEM TO QUASH SUPPORT FOR REVOLUTION

34 JOSEPH PULITZER WILLIAM RANDOLPH HEARST HEARST TO FREDERICK REMINGTON: "YOU FURNISH THE PICTURES, AND I’LL FURNISH THE WAR!"  YELLOW JOURNALISM AND JINGOISM: THE MEDIA WAR MACHINE BUT MC KINLEY DIDN'T WANT WAR!

35 DUPUY DE LÔME, SPANISH AMBASSADOR TO THE U.S. CRITICIZED PRESIDENT MCKINLEY AS WEAK AND A BIDDER FOR THE ADMIRATION OF THE CROWD, ANGLING FOR SUPPORT OF BOTH JINGOES AND ANTI- IMPERIALISTS U.S. POPULAR REACTION = "HOW DARE THAT SPIC DISS OUR PRESIDENT?" U.S. POPULAR REACTION = "HOW DARE THAT SPIC DISS OUR PRESIDENT?"  DE LÔME LETTER – PUBLISHED IN HEARST PAPERS, 1898

36 A SPANISH CARTOON

37  THEODORE ROOSEVELT – NOT VERY LOYAL ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE NAVY IN THE MCKINLEY ADMINISTRATION. IMPERIALIST AND AMERICAN NATIONALIST. CRITICIZED PRESIDENT MCKINLEY AS HAVING THE BACKBONE OF A CHOCOLATE ÉCLAIR! RESIGNS HIS POSITION TO FIGHT IN CUBA.

38  THE U.S.S. MAINE INCIDENT, FEBRUARY 15, 1898  JANUARY 1998: MCKINLEY SENT THE MAINE TO HAVANA HARBOR TO "PROTECT AMERICAN CITIZENS"

39  AROUND 9:30 P.M. ON FEBRUARY 15, THE MAINE EXPLODED AND SANK IN HAVANA HARBOR – 266 SAILORS KILLED

40  VERY YELLOW JOURNALISM: HEARST PAPERS REPORTED SPAIN HAD BOMBED MAINE (NO EVIDENCE FOR THAT!) MCKINLEY SEND PROVOCATIVE DEMAND TO SPAIN (WITHDRAW!) – SPAIN DECLARED WAR ON U.S. – HURRAY! NOW U.S. COULD DECLARE WAR ON SPAIN

41  FIRST PRIORITY: THE PHILIPPINES  MAY 1, 1898: IN A FEW HOURS, COMMODORE GEORGE DEWEY AND U.S. FAR EAST FLEET DEFEATS SPAIN AT MANILA

42 "IS HE TO BECOME A DESPOT?"

43  DEWEY BROUGHT EXILED FILIPINO REVOLUTIONARY LEADER EMILIO AGUINALDO BACK TO MOBILIZE FILIPINOS TO FIGHT WITH U.S. AGAINST SPAIN  WHICH THEY DID, AND AGUINALDO DECLARED REPUBLIC OF PHILIPPINES  BUT U.S. ANNEXED PHILIPPINES  U.S. PHILIPPINE WAR

44

45  FIRST U.S. GOVERNOR OF PHILIPPINES, WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT (L); THEN-MAJOR JOHN ("BLACK JACK" PERSHING (R) MAIN MILITARY HERO OF U.S. – PHILIPPINE WAR, WHICH FEATURED: CONCENTRATION CAMPS CONCENTRATION CAMPS WATERBOARDING (T.R. CONDEMNED AS TORTURE WATERBOARDING (T.R. CONDEMNED AS TORTURE FORCING MUSLIM PRISONERS TO EAT PORK FORCING MUSLIM PRISONERS TO EAT PORK

46  CUBAN ARENA, ALSO FAST

47 TEDDY ROOSEVELT AND HIS "ROUGH RIDERS" (INSPIRATION FOR THE CUB SCOUTS) – TR GOT VICE- PRESIDENCY AS RESULT (THEN PRESIDENCY)

48 OUR SPHERE OF INFLUENCE

49 CUBA WAS INDEPENDENT (OF SPAIN) SPAIN GAVE UP PUERTO RICO AND GUAM. THE U. S. PAID SPAIN $20 MIL. FOR THE PHILIPPINES. THE U. S. WAS AN IMPERIAL POWER!  TREATY OF PARIS, 1898

50 FOUNDED IN MARK TWAIN, ANDREW CARNEGIE, WILLIAM JAMES, AND WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN AMONG THE LEADERS. CAMPAIGNED AGAINST THE ANNEXATION OF THE PHILIPPINES AND OTHER ACTS OF IMPERIALISM.  THE ANTI-IMPERIALIST LEAGUE

51  TELLER AMENDMENT (1898): PROVISO ON DECLARATION OF WAR: U.S. COULD NOT ANNEX CUBA  PLATT AMENDMENT (1903) 1.CUBA WAS NOT TO ENTER INTO ANY AGREEMENTS WITH FOREIGN POWERS THAT WOULD ENDANGER ITS INDEPENDENCE. 2.THE U.S. COULD INTERVENE IN CUBAN AFFAIRS IF NECESSARY TO MAINTAIN AN EFFICIENT, INDEPENDENT GOVERNMENT. 3.CUBA MUST LEASE GUANTANAMO BAY TO THE U.S. FOR NAVAL AND COALING STATION. 4.CUBA MUST NOT BUILD UP AN EXCESSIVE PUBLIC DEBT. CUBA LIBRE AHORA?

52 A JAPANESE NOTE AGREEING TO DENY PASSPORTS TO LABORERS ENTERING THE U.S. JAPAN RECOGNIZED THE U.S. RIGHT TO EXCLUDE JAPANESE IMMIGRANTS HOLDING PASSPORTS ISSUED BY OTHER COUNTRIES. THE U.S. GOVERNMENT GOT THE SCHOOL BOARD OF SAN FRANCISCO TO RESCIND THEIR ORDER TO SEGREGATE ASIANS IN SEPARATE SCHOOLS.  1908 "GENTLEMEN'S AGREEMENT

53 FORAKER ACT FORAKER ACT.  PR BECAME AN “UNINCORPORATED TERRITORY.”  CITIZENS OF PR, NOT OF THE US.  IMPORT DUTIES ON PR GOODS  THE INSULAR CASES.  CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS WERE NOT AUTOMATICALLY EXTENDED TO TERRITORIAL POSSESSIONS.  CONGRESS HAD THE POWER TO DECIDE THESE RIGHTS.  IMPORT DUTIES LAID DOWN BY THE FORAKER ACT WERE LEGAL ! PUERTO RICO

54 1917 – JONES ACT.  GAVE FULL TERRITORIAL STATUS TO PR.  REMOVED TARIFF DUTIES ON PR GOODS COMING INTO THE US.  PRS ELECTED THEIR OWN LEGISLATORS & GOVERNOR TO ENFORCE LOCAL LAWS.  PRS COULD NOT VOTE IN U.S. PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS.  A RESIDENT COMMISSIONER WAS SENT TO WASHINGTON TO VOTE FOR PR IN THE HOUSE ("SHADOW" VOTE)

55 PANAMA  1850: CLAY-BULWER TREATY WITH BRITAIN: NEITHER PARTY WOULD BUILD CANAL ACROSS NICARAGUA (IN EFFECT)  1895: GROVER CLEVELAND AND SECRETARY OF STATE RICHARD OLNEY ATTEMPT TO DICTATE TO BRITAIN ABOUT VENEZUELAN BORDER DISPUTE (U.S. "LAW IS FIAT" IN AMERICAS)  VERY TENSE RELATIONS WITH BRITAIN BUT  BRITAIN'S PROBLEMS W/ GERMANY  "GREAT RAPPROCHEMENT"

56  1901: HAY-PAUNCEFORT TREATY CEDED U.S. RIGHT TO BUILD CANAL ACROSS PANAMA (STARTED BY FRENCH LED BY DE LESSUPS, BUT YELLOW FEVER STOPPED THEM)  ONLY PROBLEM = PANAMA WAS PART OF COLOMBIA  NO PROBLEM! HAY-BUNAU-VARILLA TREATY: U.S. WOULD PAY PANAMA FOR CANAL ZONE, PANAMA WOULD BE INDEPENDENT OF COLOMBIA (WHICH WASN'T PARTY TO THE TREATY!)  U.S. TOOK PANAMA, CREATED A NEW COUNTRY THERE, AND GOT THE CANAL ZONE – BIG STICK

57 TR IN PANAMA (CONSTRUCTION BEGINS IN 1904) THE PANAMA CANAL

58 WE COULD DO IT THANKS TO DR. WALTER REED, WHO FIGURED OUT THAT MOSQUITOS CARRY YELLOW FEVER, WE COULD DO IT THANKS TO DR. WALTER REED, WHO FIGURED OUT THAT MOSQUITOS CARRY YELLOW FEVER,

59 CHRONIC WRONGDOING… MAY IN AMERICA, AS ELSEWHERE, ULTIMATELY REQUIRE INTERVENTION BY SOME CIVILIZED NATION, AND IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE THE ADHERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES TO THE MONROE DOCTRINE MAY FORCE THE UNITED STATES, HOWEVER RELUCTANTLY, IN FLAGRANT CASES OF SUCH WRONGDOING OR IMPOTENCE, TO THE EXERCISE OF AN INTERNATIONAL POLICE POWER POWER.  ROOSEVELT COROLLARY TO MONROE DOCTRINE

60 SPEAK SOFTLY, BUT CARRY A BIG STICK!

61  CHINA – BOXER REBELLION, 1898 – 1901  “ SOCIETY OF RIGHTEOUS FISTS OF HARMONY” – ANTI-WESTERN, ANTI-IMPERIALIST  "55 DAYS AT PEKING": BOXERS HELD WESTERN DIPLOMATICS AND MISSIONARIES CAPTIVE IN THE LEGATION DISTRICT FOR 55 DAYS, 1900  RESCUE BY TROOPS OF "EIGHT-NATION GROUP" = EUROPEAN COUNTRIES PLUS U.S. THAT TAKES OVER PEKING

62 IMPERIALISM, PRO AND CON. PAINTING OF U.S. SOLDIERS VALIANTLY SCALING WALLS OF PEKING, AND POLITICAL CARTOON

63 U.S. SOLDIERS IN PEKING, 1900

64 SECRETARY JOHN HAY. GIVE ALL NATIONS EQUAL ACCESS TO TRADE IN CHINA. GUARANTEED THAT CHINA WOULD NOT BE TAKEN OVER BY ANY ONE FOREIGN POWER – MEANING, NOT JAPAN.  U.S. OPEN DOOR POLICY IN CHINA, 1899

65

66 U.S. PACIFIC POWER – WAR WITH JAPAN ALMOST INEVITABLE!

67 THE FLEDGLING SUPERPOWER

68 "THE CARES OF A GROWING FAMILY"

69 CONSTABLE OF THE WORLD

70  TREATY OF PORTSMOUTH, NEW HAMPSHIRE, 1905: TEDDY MEDIATED TREATY IN RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR

71 THE U.S. ROLE - AS SEEN IN U.S., AND IN FRANCE  NOBEL PEACE PRIZE (AND SOME MOCKERY) FOR TEDDY

72  THE GREAT WHITE FLEET, 1907: AROUND THE WORLD TO DEMONSTRATE U.S. NAVAL POWER

73 A JAPANESE NOTE AGREEING TO DENY PASSPORTS TO LABORERS ENTERING THE U.S. JAPAN RECOGNIZED THE U.S. RIGHT TO EXCLUDE JAPANESE IMMIGRANTS HOLDING PASSPORTS ISSUED BY OTHER COUNTRIES. THE U.S. GOVERNMENT GOT THE SCHOOL BOARD OF SAN FRANCISCO TO RESCIND THEIR ORDER TO SEGREGATE ASIANS IN SEPARATE SCHOOLS.  1908 "GENTLEMEN'S AGREEMENT WITH JAPAN

74  ROOT-TAKAHIRA AGREEMENT, 1908  MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF TERRITORIAL STATUS QUO: JAPAN RECOGNIZED U.S. CLAIM TO HAWAII JAPAN RECOGNIZED U.S. CLAIM TO HAWAII U.S. RECOGNIZED JAPAN'S CLAIM TO MANCHURIA AND KOREA U.S. RECOGNIZED JAPAN'S CLAIM TO MANCHURIA AND KOREA  BUT JAPAN ALSO RECOGNIZED U.S. OPEN-DOOR POLICY IN CHINA EFFORTS TO EASE TENSIONS WITH JAPAN

75  ELIHU ROOT: SECRETARY OF WAR AND STATE TO T.R., THEN U.S. SENATOR  1912: WON NOBEL PEACE PRIZE FOR ENCOURAGING DIPLOMACY AND INTERNATIONAL COURT TO RESOLVE DISPUTES AMONG NATIONS (BUT 1914 – WWI!)

76  THE GREAT WHITE FLEET, 1907: AROUND THE WORLD TO DEMONSTRATE U.S. NAVAL POWER

77 TAFT’S “DOLLAR DIPLOMACY” IMPROVE FINANCIAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR AMERICAN BUSINESSES. USE PRIVATE CAPITAL TO FURTHER U. S. INTERESTS OVERSEAS. THEREFORE, THE U.S. SHOULD CREATE STABILITY AND ORDER ABROAD THAT WOULD BEST PROMOTE AMERICA’S COMMERCIAL INTERESTS.

78 U.S. FOREIGN INVESTMENTS,

79 U.S. EXPORTS AND IMPORTS,

80

81 THE U. S. SHOULD BE THE CONSCIENCE OF THE WORLD. SPREAD DEMOCRACY. PROMOTE PEACE. CONDEMN COLONIALISM.  WOODROW WILSON'S "MORAL DIPLOMACY"

82  WILSON’S MORAL DIPLOMACY IN MEXICO  MEXICAN REVOLUTION, (AGAINST DICTATOR PORFIRIO DIAZ, THEN CIVIL WAR)  1914: WILSON SENT U.S. TROOPS TO VERACRUZ TO PREVENT GERMAN SHIP FROM DELIVERING ARMS TO FORCES OF VICTORIANO HUERTA (ALSO DICTATOR!) WHY? U.S. CITIZENS OWNED ABOUT 40% OF LAND IN MEXICO WHY? U.S. CITIZENS OWNED ABOUT 40% OF LAND IN MEXICO TAMPICO AFFAIR (MINOR NON-DEADLY CONFRONTATION BETWEEN 9 U.S. SAILORS ON WHALEBOAT AND MEXICAN FEDERALES  TAMPICO AFFAIR (MINOR NON-DEADLY CONFRONTATION BETWEEN 9 U.S. SAILORS ON WHALEBOAT AND MEXICAN FEDERALES  WILSON GOT CONGRESS TO AUTHORIZE OCCUPATION OF VERACRUZ (1 ST STEP TO ANNEXATION?) WILSON GOT CONGRESS TO AUTHORIZE OCCUPATION OF VERACRUZ (1 ST STEP TO ANNEXATION?)

83  ABC CONFERENCE 1914, NIAGARA FALLS, NY (ARGENTINA, BRAZIL, CHILE): SOUTH-AMERICAN COUNTRIES CONDEMN U.S. IMPERIALISM   ABC PACT (NON-AGRESSION, MEDIATION: U.S. WITHDREW, BUT...

84  1916: U.S. (PERSHING) BACK IN MEXICO TO HUNT DOWN PANCHO VILLA (FOR RAID ON COLUMBUS, N.M.) PERSHING AND VILLA IN 1914, WHEN WE SUPPORTED HIM – U.S. REMAINED IN MEXICO UNTIL 1917 (WWI!)

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86 U. S. GLOBAL INVESTMENTS & INVESTMENTS IN LATIN AMERICA, 1914 THE MONROE DOCTRINE FULFILLED!

87 U.S. MILITARY INTERVENTIONS IN LATIN AMERICA s AND THAT WAS JUST THE BEGINNING!


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