Presentation on theme: "American Foreign Trade: 1870-1914 1. Economic Interests U.S. wants to open up new markets that will import U.S. goods. U.S. wants to gain access to new."— Presentation transcript:
American Foreign Trade: Economic Interests U.S. wants to open up new markets that will import U.S. goods. U.S. wants to gain access to new raw materials to feed growing U.S. industries.
2. Military/Strategic Interests U.S. should build up its merchant fleet To protect the merchant fleet, the U.S. needed refueling stations and bases throughout the world
3. Social Darwinist Thinking The White Man’s Burden The Hierarchy of Race There are superior and inferior races in the world. As the greatest race, it is the white man’s burden (job) to educate, civilize, and uplift the “lesser” races of the world.
4. Religious/Missionary Interests American Missionaries in China, 1905 Believed it was their Christian duty to spread the faith to “heathen” lands around the world.
5. Closing the American Frontier All land on the North American is claimed. America would have to look elsewhere to find new markets and sources of raw materials.
Purchase of Alaska In 1867 William Seward bought Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million Critics dubbed this “Seward’s folly”
U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s Missionaries were the first Americans to establish a presence in Hawaii. Goal: Bring Christianity to the “savage” island people.
Sugarcane in Hawaii Other Americans arrive in Hawaii to become sugar plantation owners. Hawaii’s economy flourishes with 1875 treaty that allows sale of Hawaiian sugar without a duty. White planters force Bayonet Constitution on Hawaiians Only wealthy white planters can vote Pearl Harbor is given to U.S.
Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Liliuokalani comes to power and states she will get rid of the Bayonet Constitution. Hawaii for Hawaiians!!!
U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii McKinley Tariff hurts Sugarcane planters Desire to become U.S. territory to avoid tariffs American businessmen led an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani 1893 – American businessmen led an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani Sanford Ballard Dole becomes the President of the Republic of Hawaii
Bill Clinton signs a formal apology to the Hawaiians on November 23, 1993
Spheres of Influence Great Britain, Russia, France, Germany and Japan carved out spheres of influence. U.S. is the last imperial power to arrive in China.
The Open Door Policy Secretary John Hay. Give all nations equal access to trade in China. Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by any one foreign power.
The Boxer Rebellion: 1900 The Righteous and Harmonious Fists. Disliked foreign imperialists.
Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Up Japan: 1853 The Japanese were isolated for hundreds of years. Everything changes when Commodore Matthew Perry arrives.
Treaty of Kanagawa: 1854 Perry’s modern fleet and weapons intimidate Japan. They realize that resistance is futile. Japan’s ports open to U.S. trade.
Background of Cuba Cuba is one of Spain’s last colonies in the western hemisphere.Cuba is one of Spain’s last colonies in the western hemisphere. Want independence and begin revolting.Want independence and begin revolting. Leaders are exiled and some come to the U.S.Leaders are exiled and some come to the U.S.
Valeriano Weyler’s “Reconcentration” Policy Real and exaggerated reports of Spanish misrule. Americans become sympathetic for Cuban cause.
“Yellow Journalism” Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst “You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!” “You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!”
De Lôme Letter Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S. Criticized President McKinley as weak Insult to national pride Leads to increasing tension between Spain and U.S.
In 1898 battleship Maine exploded in Havana, CubaIn 1898 battleship Maine exploded in Havana, Cuba 266 Americans die & ship sunk266 Americans die & ship sunk It was there to protect Americans and their investmentsIt was there to protect Americans and their investments
Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain! Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
The Spanish-American War (1898): “That Splendid Little War” The “Rough Riders”
Dewey Captures Manila!
The Treaty of Paris: 1898 Cuba was freed from Spanish rule. Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island of Guam to the U.S. The U. S. paid Spain $20 mil. for the Philippines.
Platt Amendment (1903) 1.Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence. 2.The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt. 3.Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station. 4.Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt. Cuban Independence? Senator Orville Platt Teller Amendment to war resolution promised Cuba would not become a colony, BUT Cuba essentially becomes a U.S. colony in every way but in name
Dewey in the Philippines Despite U.S. promises to Filipinos during the Spanish-American War, the island nation is not granted independence. Philippine resistance against U.S. begins. Dewey and U.S. adopt same methods of control as Spain had used (concentration camps).
Emilio Aguinaldo L eader of the Filipino Uprising. U.S. supported his independence movement against Spain, then declared him an outlaw.
Aftermath of the War U.S. appointed a governor, who would appoint the upper house of the legislatureU.S. appointed a governor, who would appoint the upper house of the legislature Filipinos would select lower houseFilipinos would select lower house The Philippines did not become an independent country until July 4 th, 1946.The Philippines did not become an independent country until July 4 th, 1946.