Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

PUBLIC GOODS Chapter 4. Characteristics of Goods Excludable vs. Nonexcludable – Excludable – preventing anyone from consuming the good is relatively easy.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "PUBLIC GOODS Chapter 4. Characteristics of Goods Excludable vs. Nonexcludable – Excludable – preventing anyone from consuming the good is relatively easy."— Presentation transcript:

1 PUBLIC GOODS Chapter 4

2 Characteristics of Goods Excludable vs. Nonexcludable – Excludable – preventing anyone from consuming the good is relatively easy – Nonexcludable – preventing anyone from consuming the good is either very expensive or impossible Rival vs. Nonrival – Rival – once provided, the additional resource cost of another person consuming the good is positive – Nonrival – once provided, the additional resource cost of another person consuming the good is zero 4-2

3 Types of Goods EXCLUDABLE RIVAL YESNO YES NO PRIVATE GOODS PUBLIC GOODS COMMON RESOURCES NATURAL MONOPOLY 4-3

4 Noteworthy Aspects of Public Goods Even though everyone consumes the same quantity of the good, it need not be valued equally by all Classification as a public good is not absolute; it depends on market conditions and the state of technology – A commodity can satisfy one part of the definition of a public good but not the other – Impure public good: rival or excludable Some things that are not conventionally thought of as commodities have public good characteristics Private goods are not always provided only by the private sector – publicly provided private goods: rival and excludable goods provided by govt Public provision of a good does not necessarily mean that it is also produced by the public sector (e.g. garbage collection) 4-4

5 Some Public Goods Basic research Programs to fight poverty Uncongested non-toll roads Fireworks display Honesty National Defense 4-5

6 Efficient Provision of Private Goods PriceAdam (D f A ) Eve (D f E ) Market (D f A+E ) $11516 $97310 $79514 $ $ $

7 DfADfA DfEDfE D f A+E SfSf $ Quantity of Pizza 4-7

8 Pareto Efficiency – Private Goods Case MRS fa = P f /P a Set P a = $1 MRS fa = P f D f A shows MRS fa for Adam D f E shows MRS fa for Eve S f shows MRT fa Necessary condition for Pareto efficiency: MRS fa Adam = MRS fa Eve = MRT fa 4-8

9 Efficient Provision of Public Goods Units of Fireworks 1234 Adam (D r A) $300$250$200$150 Eve (D f E ) Market (D f A+E ) $550$450$350$

10 DrADrA Dr E D r A+E Sr Quantity of Fireworks $ 4-10

11 Pareto Efficiency – Public Goods Case MRS fa = P f /P a Set P a = $1 MRS fa = P f D f A shows MRS fa for Adam D f E shows MRS fa for Eve S f shows MRT fa Necessary condition for Pareto efficiency: MRS fa Adam + MRS fa Eve = MRT fa 4-11

12 Problems Achieving Efficiency The Free-Rider Problem Solutions to the free-rider problem – Perfect price discrimination Policy Perspective: GPS is non-rival but excludable since technology exist to scramble signals 4-12

13 Laboratory Experiments: Do People Free-Ride? How a typical experiment works Typical results – People contribute about 50% of resources to provision of public good – Contributions fall the more often the game is repeated – Cooperation fostered by prior communication – Contribution rates decline when opportunity cost of giving goes up “Warm-glow” giving 4-13

14 The Privatization Debate Privatization – taking services supplied by government and turning them over to the private sector Public Sector v Private Sector Provision: What is the right mix? – Relative wage and materials costs: less expensive sector preferred on efficiency grounds – Administrative costs: large fixed adm costs can be spread over a large group under public sector – Diversity of tastes: larger diversity better handled by private sector – Commodity egalitarianism: some commodities ought to be made available to everyone better achieved under public sector 4-14

15 Public vs Private Production Debate Which sector is more efficient? – Theory that public sector managers have little incentive to be efficient – However, problems in comparing cost differences since quality of services offered by public and private sectors can differ. (e.g., hospitals) Incomplete contracts Competition to supply good or service Reputation building Ultimately depends on Market Environment facing the providers 4-15

16 Chapter 4 Summary Public goods are nonrival and nonexcludable in consumption – Impure public goods exhibit some qualities of private and public goods Efficient provision of public goods: – ∑MRS i xy = MRT xy i=person i…..n An incentive exists to free-ride in the payment of public goods Public goods can be provided privately; private goods can be provided publicly 4-16

17 Appendix: Preference Revelation Mechanisms for Public Goods ∆T Eve = MRT ra – (MRS ra Total – MRS ra Eve ) Eve’s choice: ∆T Eve = MRS ra Eve By substitution: MRT ra – (MRS ra Total – MRS ra Eve ) = MRS ra Eve Add (MRS ra Total – MRS ra Eve ) to both sides: MRT ra = MRS ra Total 4-17


Download ppt "PUBLIC GOODS Chapter 4. Characteristics of Goods Excludable vs. Nonexcludable – Excludable – preventing anyone from consuming the good is relatively easy."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google