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Arches National Park (Moab, Utah) By Andrew Farrell, James Sullivan, and Stephen Fung.

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Presentation on theme: "Arches National Park (Moab, Utah) By Andrew Farrell, James Sullivan, and Stephen Fung."— Presentation transcript:

1 Arches National Park (Moab, Utah) By Andrew Farrell, James Sullivan, and Stephen Fung

2 Geology (How the Arches Formed) Type of rock Sandstone: made of grains of sand cemented together by minerals. The Entrada Sandstone was once a massive desert, full of shifting dunes of fine-grained sand. When packed together, they formed a rock that is very porous (full of tiny spaces). In contrast, the Carmel layer just beneath the Entrada contains a mix of sand and clay. Clay particles are much smaller than sand grains; making the rock denser and less porous than a purer sandstone.

3 Geology (Erosion) On average, the park receives 8-10 inches (18-23cm) of precipitation a year. Drops of rainwater soak into the porous Entrada sandstone easily and then slowly dissolve the calcite bonding the sand together – in other words, rotting the rock from the inside out. Water puddles just above the denser Carmel layer where it erodes a cavity. In winter, water trapped between the two layers expands when it freezes and pries the rock apart.

4 Geology (Formation of the Arches) Deep beneath the surface lies a thick layer of salts. Squeezed by the tons of rock above it, the salt flowed and bulged upward, creating long domes. The rock layers covering these domes were forced to crack, into a series of more-or- less parallel lines.

5 Ecological History (Climate) Climate data for Arches National Park Headquarters (1981–2010 normals) MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Average high °F (°C) 43.1 (6.2) 50.7 (10.4) 62.2 (16.8) 70.7 (21.5) 81.5 (27.5) 92.7 (33.7) 99.3 (37.4) 96.3 (35.7) 87.2 (30.7) 72.9 (22.7) 56.7 (13.7) 43.9 (6.6) 71.4 (21.9) Average low °F (°C) 21.4 (−5.9 ) 27.9 (−2.3) 36.3 (2.4) 43.5 (6.4) 52.4 (11.3) 62.1 (16.7) 69.1 (20.6) 67.5 (19.7) 57.3 (14.1) 43.8 (6.6) 32.3 (0.2) 23.5 (−4.7) 44.8 (7.1) Precipita tionPrecipita tion inch es (mm) 0.58 (14.7 ) 0.50 (12.7) 0.78 (19.8) 0.74 (18.8) 0.68 (17.3) 0.44 (11.2) 0.83 (21.1) 0.96 (24.4) 0.84 (21.3) 1.24 (31.5) 0.60 (15.2) 0.55 (14) 8.74 (222) Snowfall inches (cm) 1.9 (4.8).9 (2.3).7 (1.8) 0 (0).6 (1.5) 2.5 (6.4) 6.6 (16.8) Avg. prec ipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) Avg. sno wy days (≥ 0.1 in) 1.44.3 Source: NOAA (extremes 1893–present) [8] [8]

6 Ecological History (Biome/Dominant wildlife) Main biome in the arches is Desserts. About one-third of the area's mammals are rodents, which include squirrels, packrats, chipmunks and porcupines. Largest predators are the coyotes, bobcats and mountain lions.

7 Endemic Species Desert Bighorn Sheep- no longer endangered Mule Deer Western Collard Lizard Kangaroo Rats Datura (plant) Cacti

8 Human History Hunter and Gatherers first entered the area 10,000 years ago after the Ice Age About 2,000 years ago was when people first started cultivating the land Around 700 years ago the people started leaving the area Europeans first visited the lands in the 1840’s

9 Protection of the Park National Parks Service is the government organization protecting the Park It is beautiful and one of the most unique places on earth The biggest collections of Arches on Earth

10 Threats and cures Biggest Threat: Humans Extreme sports Traffic congestion Lack of Budget Non-native species Russian Knapweed English sparrows Largest Rope Swing

11 Bibliography National Parks Service. U.S. Department of The Interior, 16 Feb. 2014. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. "Arches National Park." National Geographic. National Geographic, 2012. Web. 18 Feb. 2014 Google Images Gantenbein, Douglas. "Our National Parks Are in Danger." Travel + Leisure. Time Inc., Aug. 2004. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.

12 Webquest Denis Julien was a - explorer that was the first recorded European to visit the area. Which President made this area an official national park? What species once had its population reduced to 1,000? The Arches are composed of what type of rock? What is the biggest threat to Arches?

13 Webquest How much precipitation does Arches National Park average each year? True or False: It has snowed in Arches National Park About of all mammals in Arches National Park are rodents. True or False: Arches National Park is the only place on earth with natural arches Tourists in Arches National Park increase the rate of in the park.

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