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22.05.08Fanie Tsiamita Aston Corpus PG Conference 22 May 2008 Taking a ‘Drive’ Fanie Tsiamita University of Liverpool

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Presentation on theme: "22.05.08Fanie Tsiamita Aston Corpus PG Conference 22 May 2008 Taking a ‘Drive’ Fanie Tsiamita University of Liverpool"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fanie Tsiamita Aston Corpus PG Conference 22 May 2008 Taking a ‘Drive’ Fanie Tsiamita University of Liverpool

2 Fanie Tsiamita Introduction (I) Polysemy: The case of one lexical item having two or more related senses, all going back to a single etymological root. Examples: mouth; tail; fork Lexical Priming “Every word is primed for use in discourse as a result of the cumulative effects of an individual’s encounters with the word” (Hoey, 2005)

3 Fanie Tsiamita Introduction (III) Lexical Priming – Its implications for polysemy The senses of a polysemous lexical item will be disambiguated by their primings. -The more common sense may use the primings of the less common sense. The less common sense never will. -Two similarly common senses will avoid each other’s primings. -Where neither of the above applies, the effect will be humour, ambiguity or a new meaning combining the two senses.

4 Fanie Tsiamita Introduction (III) Lexical Priming – Its implications for polysemy The senses of a polysemous lexical item will be disambiguated by their primings. -The more common sense may use the primings of the less common sense. The less common sense never will. -Two similarly common senses will avoid each other’s primings. -Where neither of the above applies, the effect will be humour, ambiguity or a new meaning combining the two senses.

5 Fanie Tsiamita Methodology BNC subcorpus -844 instances in a total of 432 texts (  17,000,000 words) Instances were grouped according to senses -dictionaries provided guidelines for the grouping -12 senses found Determination of the primings of the two most frequent senses of drive: ›“journey in a car or other vehicle” (26%) ›“wide piece of hard ground or private road leading from the road to a person’s house” (47%)

6 Fanie Tsiamita Drive (=journey) & drive (=private road) + determiners. Why? 1. The vast majority of instances of both senses co- occur with the definite / indefinite article:

7 Fanie Tsiamita Proportion of instances of drive (=journey) and drive (=private road) occurring with an article Nr of occurrences of drive Nr of instances occurring with a determiner Percentage of instances occurring with a determiner Drive (=journey) % Drive (=private road) %

8 Fanie Tsiamita And 2. While the instances of drive (=journey) show equal distribution between the two determiners, drive (=private road) co-occurs 9 times more frequently with the definite than with the indefinite article:

9 Fanie Tsiamita Distribution of the instances of drive (=journey) and drive (=private road) between the definite and the indefinite article Definite articleIndefinite article No. of % occurrences Drive (=journey) 200 conc.lines % Drive (=private road) 382 conc.lines % 39 10%

10 Fanie Tsiamita Potential Primings (I) Semantic preferences of drive (=journey) and drive (=private road) when preceded by the sequence determiner + pre-modification

11 Fanie Tsiamita Results (I) Determiner + pre-mod. + drive (=journey)

12 Fanie Tsiamita Results (I) Determiner + pre-mod. + drive (=journey)

13 Fanie Tsiamita Results (I) Determiner + pre-mod. + drive (=journey) -Evaluation -Distance / Duration -Duration -Distance -Time-of-day -Classifier -Shape

14 Fanie Tsiamita Results (I) Determiner + pre-mod. + drive (=journey) -Evaluation -Distance / Duration -Duration -Distance -Time-of-day -Classifier -Shape

15 Fanie Tsiamita Results (I) Determiner + pre-mod. + drive (=journey) -Evaluation -Distance / Duration -Duration -Distance -Time-of-day -Classifier -Shape

16 Fanie Tsiamita Semantic preferences of drive (=journey) when preceded by determiner + premodification

17 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) ho had suggested the ill-fated drive to Burford, the man who I've had the most embarrassing drive of my life! The car fad nd and make the slow, crawling drive across town to his home and plentiful. After the long drive a good soak was just wh cate herself. During the short drive back to the inn they we rivin'." He dozed on the short drive, but unfortunately he w ich to make the fifteen-minute drive to the campus each day. ad tormented him for the whole drive back to Perugia. How co ly that the fourteen-kilometre drive from the airport was so bus for the thirteen-kilometre drive to the city. She was fo efence. During the twenty-mile drive, once he had left his o peak much during the afternoon drive. And they didn't stop t e exhaustion of the long night drive up the coast, but I sud arily, as he began the curving drive down the east side of t

18 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) ho had suggested the ill-fated drive to Burford, the man who I've had the most embarrassing drive of my life! The car fad nd and make the slow, crawling drive across town to his home and plentiful. After the long drive a good soak was just wh cate herself. During the short drive back to the inn they we rivin'." He dozed on the short drive, but unfortunately he w ich to make the fifteen-minute drive to the campus each day. ad tormented him for the whole drive back to Perugia. How co ly that the fourteen-kilometre drive from the airport was so bus for the thirteen-kilometre drive to the city. She was fo efence. During the twenty-mile drive, once he had left his o peak much during the afternoon drive. And they didn't stop t e exhaustion of the long night drive up the coast, but I sud arily, as he began the curving drive down the east side of t

19 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) ho had suggested the ill-fated drive to Burford, the man who I've had the most embarrassing drive of my life! The car fad nd and make the slow, crawling drive across town to his home and plentiful. After the long drive a good soak was just wh cate herself. During the short drive back to the inn they we rivin'." He dozed on the short drive, but unfortunately he w ich to make the fifteen-minute drive to the campus each day. ad tormented him for the whole drive back to Perugia. How co ly that the fourteen-kilometre drive from the airport was so bus for the thirteen-kilometre drive to the city. She was fo efence. During the twenty-mile drive, once he had left his o peak much during the afternoon drive. And they didn't stop t e exhaustion of the long night drive up the coast, but I sud arily, as he began the curving drive down the east side of t

20 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) ho had suggested the ill-fated drive to Burford, the man who I've had the most embarrassing drive of my life! The car fad nd and make the slow, crawling drive across town to his home and plentiful. After the long drive a good soak was just wh cate herself. During the short drive back to the inn they we rivin'." He dozed on the short drive, but unfortunately he w ich to make the fifteen-minute drive to the campus each day. ad tormented him for the whole drive back to Perugia. How co ly that the fourteen-kilometre drive from the airport was so bus for the thirteen-kilometre drive to the city. She was fo efence. During the twenty-mile drive, once he had left his o peak much during the afternoon drive. And they didn't stop t e exhaustion of the long night drive up the coast, but I sud arily, as he began the curving drive down the east side of t

21 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) ho had suggested the ill-fated drive to Burford, the man who I've had the most embarrassing drive of my life! The car fad nd and make the slow, crawling drive across town to his home and plentiful. After the long drive a good soak was just wh cate herself. During the short drive back to the inn they we rivin'." He dozed on the short drive, but unfortunately he w ich to make the fifteen-minute drive to the campus each day. ad tormented him for the whole drive back to Perugia. How co ly that the fourteen-kilometre drive from the airport was so bus for the thirteen-kilometre drive to the city. She was fo efence. During the twenty-mile drive, once he had left his o peak much during the afternoon drive. And they didn't stop t e exhaustion of the long night drive up the coast, but I sud arily, as he began the curving drive down the east side of t

22 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) ho had suggested the ill-fated drive to Burford, the man who I've had the most embarrassing drive of my life! The car fad nd and make the slow, crawling drive across town to his home and plentiful. After the long drive a good soak was just wh cate herself. During the short drive back to the inn they we rivin'." He dozed on the short drive, but unfortunately he w ich to make the fifteen-minute drive to the campus each day. ad tormented him for the whole drive back to Perugia. How co ly that the fourteen-kilometre drive from the airport was so bus for the thirteen-kilometre drive to the city. She was fo efence. During the twenty-mile drive, once he had left his o peak much during the afternoon drive. And they didn't stop t e exhaustion of the long night drive up the coast, but I sud arily, as he began the curving drive down the east side of t

23 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) ho had suggested the ill-fated drive to Burford, the man who I've had the most embarrassing drive of my life! The car fad nd and make the slow, crawling drive across town to his home and plentiful. After the long drive a good soak was just wh cate herself. During the short drive back to the inn they we rivin'." He dozed on the short drive, but unfortunately he w ich to make the fifteen-minute drive to the campus each day. ad tormented him for the whole drive back to Perugia. How co ly that the fourteen-kilometre drive from the airport was so bus for the thirteen-kilometre drive to the city. She was fo efence. During the twenty-mile drive, once he had left his o peak much during the afternoon drive. And they didn't stop t e exhaustion of the long night drive up the coast, but I sud arily, as he began the curving drive down the east side of t

24 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) ho had suggested the ill-fated drive to Burford, the man who I've had the most embarrassing drive of my life! The car fad nd and make the slow, crawling drive across town to his home and plentiful. After the long drive a good soak was just wh cate herself. During the short drive back to the inn they we rivin'." He dozed on the short drive, but unfortunately he w ich to make the fifteen-minute drive to the campus each day. ad tormented him for the whole drive back to Perugia. How co ly that the fourteen-kilometre drive from the airport was so bus for the thirteen-kilometre drive to the city. She was fo efence. During the twenty-mile drive, once he had left his o peak much during the afternoon drive. And they didn't stop t e exhaustion of the long night drive up the coast, but I sud arily, as he began the curving drive down the east side of t

25 Fanie Tsiamita Indefinite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) e pillion. It was a hard, fast drive through the congested s ot. No. I want a nice peaceful drive across the fields, than ime for a pleasant comfortable drive to Carpendens Court. Sh his back on her. It was a long drive from the airport, made uting now, "It'll be a longish drive; ask Mary to put someth he belonged to. It was a short drive from the city. Harvey h holiday more than a three-hour drive from here, he thought, house was only a few minutes' drive away from the river. Fr the cab. It was a thirty-mile drive. They took the side roa ndscreen after a thousand-mile drive, stained with the black wished to go for an afternoon drive around the local villag ore you set off for an evening drive?&equo; He shook his hea e took me out in it for a test drive. Yes, that's it. We wer n it!" He took them for a test drive and then Mrs Lomax drov

26 Fanie Tsiamita Indefinite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) e pillion. It was a hard, fast drive through the congested s ot. No. I want a nice peaceful drive across the fields, than ime for a pleasant comfortable drive to Carpendens Court. Sh his back on her. It was a long drive from the airport, made uting now, "It'll be a longish drive; ask Mary to put someth he belonged to. It was a short drive from the city. Harvey h holiday more than a three-hour drive from here, he thought, house was only a few minutes' drive away from the river. Fr the cab. It was a thirty-mile drive. They took the side roa ndscreen after a thousand-mile drive, stained with the black wished to go for an afternoon drive around the local villag ore you set off for an evening drive?&equo; He shook his hea e took me out in it for a test drive. Yes, that's it. We wer n it!" He took them for a test drive and then Mrs Lomax drov

27 Fanie Tsiamita Indefinite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) e pillion. It was a hard, fast drive through the congested s ot. No. I want a nice peaceful drive across the fields, than ime for a pleasant comfortable drive to Carpendens Court. Sh his back on her. It was a long drive from the airport, made uting now, "It'll be a longish drive; ask Mary to put someth he belonged to. It was a short drive from the city. Harvey h holiday more than a three-hour drive from here, he thought, house was only a few minutes' drive away from the river. Fr the cab. It was a thirty-mile drive. They took the side roa ndscreen after a thousand-mile drive, stained with the black wished to go for an afternoon drive around the local villag ore you set off for an evening drive?&equo; He shook his hea e took me out in it for a test drive. Yes, that's it. We wer n it!" He took them for a test drive and then Mrs Lomax drov

28 Fanie Tsiamita Indefinite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) e pillion. It was a hard, fast drive through the congested s ot. No. I want a nice peaceful drive across the fields, than ime for a pleasant comfortable drive to Carpendens Court. Sh his back on her. It was a long drive from the airport, made uting now, "It'll be a longish drive; ask Mary to put someth he belonged to. It was a short drive from the city. Harvey h holiday more than a three-hour drive from here, he thought, house was only a few minutes' drive away from the river. Fr the cab. It was a thirty-mile drive. They took the side roa ndscreen after a thousand-mile drive, stained with the black wished to go for an afternoon drive around the local villag ore you set off for an evening drive?&equo; He shook his hea e took me out in it for a test drive. Yes, that's it. We wer n it!" He took them for a test drive and then Mrs Lomax drov

29 Fanie Tsiamita Indefinite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) e pillion. It was a hard, fast drive through the congested s ot. No. I want a nice peaceful drive across the fields, than ime for a pleasant comfortable drive to Carpendens Court. Sh his back on her. It was a long drive from the airport, made uting now, "It'll be a longish drive; ask Mary to put someth he belonged to. It was a short drive from the city. Harvey h holiday more than a three-hour drive from here, he thought, house was only a few minutes' drive away from the river. Fr the cab. It was a thirty-mile drive. They took the side roa ndscreen after a thousand-mile drive, stained with the black wished to go for an afternoon drive around the local villag ore you set off for an evening drive?&equo; He shook his hea e took me out in it for a test drive. Yes, that's it. We wer n it!" He took them for a test drive and then Mrs Lomax drov

30 Fanie Tsiamita Indefinite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) e pillion. It was a hard, fast drive through the congested s ot. No. I want a nice peaceful drive across the fields, than ime for a pleasant comfortable drive to Carpendens Court. Sh his back on her. It was a long drive from the airport, made uting now, "It'll be a longish drive; ask Mary to put someth he belonged to. It was a short drive from the city. Harvey h holiday more than a three-hour drive from here, he thought, house was only a few minutes' drive away from the river. Fr the cab. It was a thirty-mile drive. They took the side roa ndscreen after a thousand-mile drive, stained with the black wished to go for an afternoon drive around the local villag ore you set off for an evening drive?&equo; He shook his hea e took me out in it for a test drive. Yes, that's it. We wer n it!" He took them for a test drive and then Mrs Lomax drov

31 Fanie Tsiamita Indefinite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) e pillion. It was a hard, fast drive through the congested s ot. No. I want a nice peaceful drive across the fields, than ime for a pleasant comfortable drive to Carpendens Court. Sh his back on her. It was a long drive from the airport, made uting now, "It'll be a longish drive; ask Mary to put someth he belonged to. It was a short drive from the city. Harvey h holiday more than a three-hour drive from here, he thought, house was only a few minutes' drive away from the river. Fr the cab. It was a thirty-mile drive. They took the side roa ndscreen after a thousand-mile drive, stained with the black wished to go for an afternoon drive around the local villag ore you set off for an evening drive?&equo; He shook his hea e took me out in it for a test drive. Yes, that's it. We wer n it!" He took them for a test drive and then Mrs Lomax drov

32 Fanie Tsiamita Indefinite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) e pillion. It was a hard, fast drive through the congested s ot. No. I want a nice peaceful drive across the fields, than ime for a pleasant comfortable drive to Carpendens Court. Sh his back on her. It was a long drive from the airport, made uting now, "It'll be a longish drive; ask Mary to put someth he belonged to. It was a short drive from the city. Harvey h holiday more than a three-hour drive from here, he thought, house was only a few minutes' drive away from the river. Fr the cab. It was a thirty-mile drive. They took the side roa ndscreen after a thousand-mile drive, stained with the black wished to go for an afternoon drive around the local villag ore you set off for an evening drive?&equo; He shook his hea e took me out in it for a test drive. Yes, that's it. We wer n it!" He took them for a test drive and then Mrs Lomax drov

33 Fanie Tsiamita Results (II) Determiner + pre-mod. + drive (=private road)

34 Fanie Tsiamita Results (II) Determiner + pre-mod. + drive (=private road)

35 Fanie Tsiamita Results (II) Determiner + pre-mod. + drive (=private road) -Size -Material -Attribute -Shape -Classifier -Part-of -Position -Possession

36 Fanie Tsiamita Results (II) Determiner + pre-mod. + drive (=private road) -Size -Material -Attribute -Shape -Classifier -Part-of -Position -Possession

37 Fanie Tsiamita Results (II) Determiner + pre-mod. + drive (=private road) -Size -Material -Attribute -Shape -Classifier -Part-of -Position -Possession

38 Fanie Tsiamita Semantic preferences of drive (=private road) when preceded by determiner + premodification

39 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) &equo; They drove up the short drive, past a lodge with a ro d outside on the wide circular drive carriages would have lo hing in plastic? The gravelled drive split into two; one bra ed loudly on the frozen gravel drive. An orderly at the door squealing on the loose gravel drive. Tight-lipped, she drov walked with her down the dark drive and took her as far as isurely fashion down the shady drive. Suddenly Cora-Beth sto aring out into the sun-dappled drive flanked by swaying tree nockglen, along the tree-lined drive of the convent through a turned down the long curving drive of the house, pulled th d the Porsche down the winding drive to Tavey Grange. Leonor slope. Besides the long access drive that climbed into the t rtible nipped into the private drive to the apartment block

40 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) &equo; They drove up the short drive, past a lodge with a ro d outside on the wide circular drive carriages would have lo hing in plastic? The gravelled drive split into two; one bra ed loudly on the frozen gravel drive. An orderly at the door squealing on the loose gravel drive. Tight-lipped, she drov walked with her down the dark drive and took her as far as isurely fashion down the shady drive. Suddenly Cora-Beth sto aring out into the sun-dappled drive flanked by swaying tree nockglen, along the tree-lined drive of the convent through a turned down the long curving drive of the house, pulled th d the Porsche down the winding drive to Tavey Grange. Leonor slope. Besides the long access drive that climbed into the t rtible nipped into the private drive to the apartment block

41 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) &equo; They drove up the short drive, past a lodge with a ro d outside on the wide circular drive carriages would have lo hing in plastic? The gravelled drive split into two; one bra ed loudly on the frozen gravel drive. An orderly at the door squealing on the loose gravel drive. Tight-lipped, she drov walked with her down the dark drive and took her as far as isurely fashion down the shady drive. Suddenly Cora-Beth sto aring out into the sun-dappled drive flanked by swaying tree nockglen, along the tree-lined drive of the convent through a turned down the long curving drive of the house, pulled th d the Porsche down the winding drive to Tavey Grange. Leonor slope. Besides the long access drive that climbed into the t rtible nipped into the private drive to the apartment block

42 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) &equo; They drove up the short drive, past a lodge with a ro d outside on the wide circular drive carriages would have lo hing in plastic? The gravelled drive split into two; one bra ed loudly on the frozen gravel drive. An orderly at the door squealing on the loose gravel drive. Tight-lipped, she drov walked with her down the dark drive and took her as far as isurely fashion down the shady drive. Suddenly Cora-Beth sto aring out into the sun-dappled drive flanked by swaying tree nockglen, along the tree-lined drive of the convent through a turned down the long curving drive of the house, pulled th d the Porsche down the winding drive to Tavey Grange. Leonor slope. Besides the long access drive that climbed into the t rtible nipped into the private drive to the apartment block

43 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) &equo; They drove up the short drive, past a lodge with a ro d outside on the wide circular drive carriages would have lo hing in plastic? The gravelled drive split into two; one bra ed loudly on the frozen gravel drive. An orderly at the door squealing on the loose gravel drive. Tight-lipped, she drov walked with her down the dark drive and took her as far as isurely fashion down the shady drive. Suddenly Cora-Beth sto aring out into the sun-dappled drive flanked by swaying tree nockglen, along the tree-lined drive of the convent through a turned down the long curving drive of the house, pulled th d the Porsche down the winding drive to Tavey Grange. Leonor slope. Besides the long access drive that climbed into the t rtible nipped into the private drive to the apartment block

44 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) &equo; They drove up the short drive, past a lodge with a ro d outside on the wide circular drive carriages would have lo hing in plastic? The gravelled drive split into two; one bra ed loudly on the frozen gravel drive. An orderly at the door squealing on the loose gravel drive. Tight-lipped, she drov walked with her down the dark drive and took her as far as isurely fashion down the shady drive. Suddenly Cora-Beth sto aring out into the sun-dappled drive flanked by swaying tree nockglen, along the tree-lined drive of the convent through a turned down the long curving drive of the house, pulled th d the Porsche down the winding drive to Tavey Grange. Leonor slope. Besides the long access drive that climbed into the t rtible nipped into the private drive to the apartment block

45 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) ho had suggested the ill-fated drive to Burford, the man who I've had the most embarrassing drive of my life! The car fad nd and make the slow, crawling drive across town to his home and plentiful. After the long drive a good soak was just wh cate herself. During the short drive back to the inn they we rivin'." He dozed on the short drive, but unfortunately he w ich to make the fifteen-minute drive to the campus each day. ad tormented him for the whole drive back to Perugia. How co ly that the fourteen-kilometre drive from the airport was so bus for the thirteen-kilometre drive to the city. She was fo efence. During the twenty-mile drive, once he had left his o peak much during the afternoon drive. And they didn't stop t e exhaustion of the long night drive up the coast, but I sud arily, as he began the curving drive down the east side of t

46 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) ho had suggested the ill-fated drive to Burford, the man who I've had the most embarrassing drive of my life! The car fad nd and make the slow, crawling drive across town to his home and plentiful. After the long drive a good soak was just wh cate herself. During the short drive back to the inn they we rivin'." He dozed on the short drive, but unfortunately he w ich to make the fifteen-minute drive to the campus each day. ad tormented him for the whole drive back to Perugia. How co ly that the fourteen-kilometre drive from the airport was so bus for the thirteen-kilometre drive to the city. She was fo efence. During the twenty-mile drive, once he had left his o peak much during the afternoon drive. And they didn't stop t e exhaustion of the long night drive up the coast, but I sud arily, as he began the curving drive down the east side of t

47 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=journey) ho had suggested the ill-fated drive to Burford, the man who I've had the most embarrassing drive of my life! The car fad nd and make the slow, crawling drive across town to his home and plentiful. After the long drive a good soak was just wh cate herself. During the short drive back to the inn they we rivin'." He dozed on the short drive, but unfortunately he w ich to make the fifteen-minute drive to the campus each day. ad tormented him for the whole drive back to Perugia. How co ly that the fourteen-kilometre drive from the airport was so bus for the thirteen-kilometre drive to the city. She was fo efence. During the twenty-mile drive, once he had left his o peak much during the afternoon drive. And they didn't stop t e exhaustion of the long night drive up the coast, but I sud arily, as he began the curving drive down the east side of t

48 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) &equo; They drove up the short drive, past a lodge with a ro d outside on the wide circular drive carriages would have lo hing in plastic? The gravelled drive split into two; one bra ed loudly on the frozen gravel drive. An orderly at the door squealing on the loose gravel drive. Tight-lipped, she drov walked with her down the dark drive and took her as far as isurely fashion down the shady drive. Suddenly Cora-Beth sto aring out into the sun-dappled drive flanked by swaying tree nockglen, along the tree-lined drive of the convent through a turned down the long curving drive of the house, pulled th d the Porsche down the winding drive to Tavey Grange. Leonor slope. Besides the long access drive that climbed into the t rtible nipped into the private drive to the apartment block

49 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) &equo; They drove up the short drive, past a lodge with a ro d outside on the wide circular drive carriages would have lo hing in plastic? The gravelled drive split into two; one bra ed loudly on the frozen gravel drive. An orderly at the door squealing on the loose gravel drive. Tight-lipped, she drov walked with her down the dark drive and took her as far as isurely fashion down the shady drive. Suddenly Cora-Beth sto aring out into the sun-dappled drive flanked by swaying tree nockglen, along the tree-lined drive of the convent through a turned down the long curving drive of the house, pulled th d the Porsche down the winding drive to Tavey Grange. Leonor slope. Besides the long access drive that climbed into the t rtible nipped into the private drive to the apartment block

50 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) ry was coming down the factory drive. But behind the wheel w At the bottom, where the hotel drive met the highway, he hal toy, coming fast up the house drive before turning sharply is walk home where the rectory drive curved and the bushes g as they drove up the adjoining drive and felt a surge of ver he strolled out into the front drive, Mr McWhirter was being On his way he passed the main drive, and he could see that a carriage came round the rear drive of the Hall and, after er driving up the Dersingham's drive on Saturday morning? Mi via turned into the Fourniers' drive she saw that she had be fter appearing in the Julians' drive on Friday night? The sa refully up the twisting canyon drive, and began to die insi

51 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) ry was coming down the factory drive. But behind the wheel w At the bottom, where the hotel drive met the highway, he hal toy, coming fast up the house drive before turning sharply is walk home where the rectory drive curved and the bushes g as they drove up the adjoining drive and felt a surge of ver he strolled out into the front drive, Mr McWhirter was being On his way he passed the main drive, and he could see that a carriage came round the rear drive of the Hall and, after er driving up the Dersingham's drive on Saturday morning? Mi via turned into the Fourniers' drive she saw that she had be fter appearing in the Julians' drive on Friday night? The sa refully up the twisting canyon drive, and began to die insi

52 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) ry was coming down the factory drive. But behind the wheel w At the bottom, where the hotel drive met the highway, he hal toy, coming fast up the house drive before turning sharply is walk home where the rectory drive curved and the bushes g as they drove up the adjoining drive and felt a surge of ver he strolled out into the front drive, Mr McWhirter was being On his way he passed the main drive, and he could see that a carriage came round the rear drive of the Hall and, after er driving up the Dersingham's drive on Saturday morning? Mi via turned into the Fourniers' drive she saw that she had be fter appearing in the Julians' drive on Friday night? The sa refully up the twisting canyon drive, and began to die insi

53 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) ry was coming down the factory drive. But behind the wheel w At the bottom, where the hotel drive met the highway, he hal toy, coming fast up the house drive before turning sharply is walk home where the rectory drive curved and the bushes g as they drove up the adjoining drive and felt a surge of ver he strolled out into the front drive, Mr McWhirter was being On his way he passed the main drive, and he could see that a carriage came round the rear drive of the Hall and, after er driving up the Dersingham's drive on Saturday morning? Mi via turned into the Fourniers' drive she saw that she had be fter appearing in the Julians' drive on Friday night? The sa refully up the twisting canyon drive, and began to die insi

54 Fanie Tsiamita Definite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) ry was coming down the factory drive. But behind the wheel w At the bottom, where the hotel drive met the highway, he hal toy, coming fast up the house drive before turning sharply is walk home where the rectory drive curved and the bushes g as they drove up the adjoining drive and felt a surge of ver he strolled out into the front drive, Mr McWhirter was being On his way he passed the main drive, and he could see that a carriage came round the rear drive of the Hall and, after er driving up the Dersingham's drive on Saturday morning? Mi via turned into the Fourniers' drive she saw that she had be fter appearing in the Julians' drive on Friday night? The sa refully up the twisting canyon drive, and began to die insi

55 Fanie Tsiamita Indefinite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) inted cream, with a wide dusty drive approaching from the le use Ruth had ever seen. A long drive curved towards a three- and latticed windows. A narrow drive ran through a garden th narrow approach lane a gravel drive swung round to the side, "Georgian" windows, a tarmac drive and double garage, a bu e slowly down a narrow asphalt drive between the southern wa n gates up a steeply ascending drive past lawns on several d as an entrance to a tree-lined drive. She turned in, then fe a sopping weed-infested gravel drive, and pulled up in the s road, approached by a winding drive flanked by poplars, it t yellow rape. A flat concrete drive on the left of the hous ding smoothly up a huge curved drive towards a house whose l, was in fact almost a private drive used by the Rector and

56 Fanie Tsiamita Indefinite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) inted cream, with a wide dusty drive approaching from the le use Ruth had ever seen. A long drive curved towards a three- and latticed windows. A narrow drive ran through a garden th narrow approach lane a gravel drive swung round to the side, "Georgian" windows, a tarmac drive and double garage, a bu e slowly down a narrow asphalt drive between the southern wa n gates up a steeply ascending drive past lawns on several d as an entrance to a tree-lined drive. She turned in, then fe a sopping weed-infested gravel drive, and pulled up in the s road, approached by a winding drive flanked by poplars, it t yellow rape. A flat concrete drive on the left of the hous ding smoothly up a huge curved drive towards a house whose l, was in fact almost a private drive used by the Rector and

57 Fanie Tsiamita Indefinite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) inted cream, with a wide dusty drive approaching from the le use Ruth had ever seen. A long drive curved towards a three- and latticed windows. A narrow drive ran through a garden th narrow approach lane a gravel drive swung round to the side, "Georgian" windows, a tarmac drive and double garage, a bu e slowly down a narrow asphalt drive between the southern wa n gates up a steeply ascending drive past lawns on several d as an entrance to a tree-lined drive. She turned in, then fe a sopping weed-infested gravel drive, and pulled up in the s road, approached by a winding drive flanked by poplars, it t yellow rape. A flat concrete drive on the left of the hous ding smoothly up a huge curved drive towards a house whose l, was in fact almost a private drive used by the Rector and

58 Fanie Tsiamita Indefinite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) inted cream, with a wide dusty drive approaching from the le use Ruth had ever seen. A long drive curved towards a three- and latticed windows. A narrow drive ran through a garden th narrow approach lane a gravel drive swung round to the side, "Georgian" windows, a tarmac drive and double garage, a bu e slowly down a narrow asphalt drive between the southern wa n gates up a steeply ascending drive past lawns on several d as an entrance to a tree-lined drive. She turned in, then fe a sopping weed-infested gravel drive, and pulled up in the s road, approached by a winding drive flanked by poplars, it t yellow rape. A flat concrete drive on the left of the hous ding smoothly up a huge curved drive towards a house whose l, was in fact almost a private drive used by the Rector and

59 Fanie Tsiamita Indefinite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) inted cream, with a wide dusty drive approaching from the le use Ruth had ever seen. A long drive curved towards a three- and latticed windows. A narrow drive ran through a garden th narrow approach lane a gravel drive swung round to the side, "Georgian" windows, a tarmac drive and double garage, a bu e slowly down a narrow asphalt drive between the southern wa n gates up a steeply ascending drive past lawns on several d as an entrance to a tree-lined drive. She turned in, then fe a sopping weed-infested gravel drive, and pulled up in the s road, approached by a winding drive flanked by poplars, it t yellow rape. A flat concrete drive on the left of the hous ding smoothly up a huge curved drive towards a house whose l, was in fact almost a private drive used by the Rector and

60 Fanie Tsiamita Indefinite article + pre-modification + drive (=private road) inted cream, with a wide dusty drive approaching from the le use Ruth had ever seen. A long drive curved towards a three- and latticed windows. A narrow drive ran through a garden th narrow approach lane a gravel drive swung round to the side, "Georgian" windows, a tarmac drive and double garage, a bu e slowly down a narrow asphalt drive between the southern wa n gates up a steeply ascending drive past lawns on several d as an entrance to a tree-lined drive. She turned in, then fe a sopping weed-infested gravel drive, and pulled up in the s road, approached by a winding drive flanked by poplars, it t yellow rape. A flat concrete drive on the left of the hous ding smoothly up a huge curved drive towards a house whose l, was in fact almost a private drive used by the Rector and

61 Fanie Tsiamita Conclusions (I)  The semantic associations of drive (=journey) are different to those of drive (=private road) and vice versa: -Drive (=journey) co-occurs predominantly with members of the categories of DISTANCE / DURATION and EVALUATION ; also of DISTANCE and DURATION, while -Drive (=private road) co-occurs predominantly with members of the categories of SIZE and MATERIAL ; also of SHAPE and ATTRIBUTE.

62 Fanie Tsiamita Potential Primings (II) As a next step I checked what tends to immediately precede the sequence determiner + (pre-modification) + drive.

63 Fanie Tsiamita Results (III) PREP. + a (pre-mod.) drive (=journey)41% PREP. + the (pre-mod.) drive (=journey)58% PREP. + a (pre-mod.) drive (=private road)67% PREP. + the (pre-mod.) drive (=private road)85%

64 Fanie Tsiamita Results (III) PREP. + a (pre-mod.) drive (=journey)41% PREP. + the (pre-mod.) drive (=journey)58% PREP. + a (pre-mod.) drive (=private road)67% PREP. + the (pre-mod.) drive (=private road)85%

65 Fanie Tsiamita Results (III) PREP. + a (pre-mod.) drive (=journey)41% PREP. + the (pre-mod.) drive (=journey)58% PREP. + a (pre-mod.) drive (=private road)67% PREP. + the (pre-mod.) drive (=private road)85% PREP. + a/an33% PREP. + the52%

66 Fanie Tsiamita  In order to check if this indeed has to do with the word’s sense, I turned to look at some of its co- hyponyms when they occur in a sequence of determiner + (pre-modification) + co-hyponym

67 Fanie Tsiamita  In order to check if this indeed has to do with the word’s sense, I turned to look at some of its co- hyponyms when they occur in a sequence of determiner + (pre-modification) + co-hyponym street lane alley road avenue

68 Fanie Tsiamita Results (III) PREP. + a (a/an...) street75% PREP. + the (…) street87% PREP. + a (a/an...) lane71% PREP. + the (…) lane86% PREP. + an (a/an...) alley75% PREP. + the (…) alley85%

69 Fanie Tsiamita Results (III) PREP. + a (a/an...) road52% PREP. + the (…) road78% PREP. + an (a/an...) avenue52% PREP. + the (…) avenue83%

70 Fanie Tsiamita e fence came closer. There was a road on the other side. Not e can't have vanished? There's a road just opposite he must' V Through the sand, there was a road. One day, Bonney decid eft in the restaurants. It was a road on the way up, this Ma red. "Perhaps. "Tis too narrow a road to be guarded by a cas ly clear of vegetation. It was a road. To their left it led andled, used, of value only as an avenue to her papa's wealt " he said bracingly, "is a new avenue or fresh look at an ol be said. Flight was a possible avenue and he must not overlo secret stores, where a likely avenue of attack comes in ove

71 Fanie Tsiamita e fence came closer. There was a road on the other side. Not e can't have vanished? There's a road just opposite he must' V Through the sand, there was a road. One day, Bonney decid eft in the restaurants. It was a road on the way up, this Ma red. "Perhaps. "Tis too narrow a road to be guarded by a cas ly clear of vegetation. It was a road. To their left it led andled, used, of value only as an avenue to her papa's wealt " he said bracingly, "is a new avenue or fresh look at an ol be said. Flight was a possible avenue and he must not overlo secret stores, where a likely avenue of attack comes in ove

72 Fanie Tsiamita e fence came closer. There was a road on the other side. Not e can't have vanished? There's a road just opposite he must' V Through the sand, there was a road. One day, Bonney decid eft in the restaurants. It was a road on the way up, this Ma red. "Perhaps. "Tis too narrow a road to be guarded by a cas ly clear of vegetation. It was a road. To their left it led andled, used, of value only as an avenue to her papa's wealt " he said bracingly, "is a new avenue or fresh look at an ol be said. Flight was a possible avenue and he must not overlo secret stores, where a likely avenue of attack comes in ove There BE a It BE a

73 Fanie Tsiamita Results (III) So, bearing in mind that In the entire BNC written fiction part -PREP. + a/an  33% -PREP. + the  52% while -PREP. + a (an…) drive (=priv. road)  67% -PREP. + the (…) drive (=priv. road)  85%  The above co-hyponyms of drive (=priv. road) all show striking similarities with drive (=private road) in terms of their colligational preferences as regards the sequence X + det. + Y, where Y is one of drive, road, street, alley, lane, avenue.

74 Fanie Tsiamita Conclusions (II)  There appears to be a priming for the sequence determiner + (pre-modification) + drive (=private road) to be immediately preceded by a preposition.  Furthermore, there are strong indications of very little overlap in terms of the prepositions preceding each of the two senses: -the prepositions across, along, down, in, into, up co- occur exclusively with drive (=private road) -the prepositions after, during, throughout co-occur exclusively with drive (=journey).

75 Fanie Tsiamita Conclusions (III) LP claim: Two similarly common senses will avoid each other’s primings. Semantic associations: Confirmed on both the level of language production and the level of language processing. Colligational patterns: Confirmed on the level of language production, results on the level of language processing still pending.

76 Fanie Tsiamita Thank you! And the AHRC for funding this research.


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