For which we has focused our senses = perception is selective Coctail party effect (some types of information is can come into our mind without focusing… PATIENTS DURING OPERATION: The audio channel is open…!!! Attention …approximately what we have in our conscious/mind at the moment…
ATTENTION: Every information is useful somwhere…! – There is no learning done for nothing… Analys thoroughly the medical history…!! Differential diagnosis – focus of attention…!! (see. Complex learning & open-closed questions in practice!) „Floating” attention – Dr. House… Surgeon’s speech during operation…!!
Memory …and what we have perceived, we do remember for, at least for some time… Coding Storing Retreiving Sections/stages of memory: Short term / „work” memory Long term- The subdivisions/stores of memory: Explicit (informations) Implicit (skills)
Short term / work memory Acustic encoding (eg. by repeating) Visual (eg. at a party the view of face of a stranger boy/girl we like…) Retrieving in the same forme – we cannot croon or sing a music while another one is hearable 7+-2 item (enlargement is enable by clustering the content of it) „WORK” memory! – 7+-2 (3+-2…?!) cognitive operations with cognitive representations; such as compare the content, find similar ones to another item, etc… Features / Specialities
Long term memory Encoding is almost always by meaning Storing – neuron’s responsibility (it can be worsened by alcohol… ) – transport the info from short term into long term memory (see clustering!) Retrieving – interaction with encoding Constructive (= see top-down processes at perception!) – „bump” or „collision” remembering to an accident? Organisation (at encoding-storing) Context can help it – eg. retreiving face of school members (even if we go back just in „fantasy” to the building of the school!) Emotional context – it works in terms of perception too: eg. Facial feed-back experiment (pen in mouth on 2 different way…), in ill humor we detect bad things, and we remember rather to them… PQRST (Preview-Questions-Read-Self_recite-Test – see clustering by meaning & method of the lecture…!) Retreiving error - interference Retreiving Features / Specialities
Close your eyes, and evoke your home… - …can you „see” it…?
Imagination …activation of representation in the brain/mind (see details at connectionism in the book) wich had no external stimulus (see at sensation-perception) to do it at the moment… The danger of VIRTUAL vs. 3D („REAL”) WORLD
MEMORY – practical benefits: Whole of your profession…(diagnostic, cures, therapies, communication, solve the conflict situations) – see encoding-retreiving from long term memory & „work” memory! Exams… The creator power of thought/imaginations/wishes… See „Avatar”, and evidence from quantum-phisical experiments PSYCHOTERAPIC SUPPORT OF MEDICINE…!!!
Thinking Three blind people about the elephant: „Thick column” „Thin, short piece of leather with tassel at the end of it” „Long, very flexible muscle”
THINKING_1 „Reprezentation_2” Individual and unrepeatable THINKING_2 „Technical level 1 (Eg.. Creating Categories) Eg.. words, sentences LANGUAGE / SPEECH Technical level 2: Neurophisiological -> Phisical -> Neurophisiological input Eg. phonemes phonemes 1 1 2 2 LANGUAGE / UNDERSTANDING 12 Perception Cognition COMMUNICATION Communication and language & it’s developement words, sentences Phonemes „Technical level 1 (Eg.. Creating Categories) Eg.. words, sentences „Reprezentation_1” Individual and unrepeatable
Thinking and language …we, men, are simple: peach is a fruit, not a colour… Stupid Idiot Imbecil Cretin Handicaped Intellectual disabilited I made a mistake I need to develop I’m bad presenter It would be better this way...! Tip Mix: How many colours are we able to see? How many from this can be denominated in english? 7 Million, 7500 …has lot of notability…!!!
THINKING AND LANGUAGE – practical benefits: Not enough just ask, that „did you understand myinstructions?”, But „Repeat me back please what was my instruction for you, becuase it is so important for you to follow exactly my instructions, and for this I have to know, you understood everything really.” (Anyway we get a „yes of course” answer, because nobady wants to feel himself stupid…) Not enough: „I wrote in the final what to do home…” In neurosurgery: „no chance for operation”, the patient might understand: „No need for operation…” – you have to explain what it means exactly (prognosis, chemotherapy, etc…) When we call the patient for 8h00 a.m. for an operation: 1) „Com for 8,and I’ll see you when I have time for it…” OR: 2) „Come for 8h00 a.am., first we will take blood from you, you are the 3rd in the surgical timetable, if there isn’t any urgent case you go to the operating room around 11h00 a.m. I will operate till 2h00 p.m. surely, if there were nothing extra, I’ll come to see you around 3h00 p.m., but excuse me in advance if I will be in late.” THE PATIENT WHAT DOES HE THINK, IMAGINE ABOUT HIS ILLNESS (OR…!) ABOUT HIS HEALING…?! SEE COMMUNICATION PRACTICE!!! (NECESSERY FOR EXAM TOO!!)
Litterature: Atkinson & Hilgard.: Psychology 154-157., 270-326., 344-347., Always the related content to the lecture’s theme!
Litterature: Atkinson & Hilgard.: Introduction to Psychology p. 2-28. 150-154., 157-193., 298-307., 648-662., 612-614., 630-647., 662-675., 610-630., 154-157. 270-326., 344-347., Always the related content to the lecture’s theme! END of the 6th lecture Thank you for your attention!