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Chapter 5 Understanding How Interfaces Affect Users Christina Bui Stephen Brown Casey Christensen.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Understanding How Interfaces Affect Users Christina Bui Stephen Brown Casey Christensen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Understanding How Interfaces Affect Users Christina Bui Stephen Brown Casey Christensen

2 Affective Aspects Affective - producing an emotional response. Affective - producing an emotional response. Recognizing facial expressions and body language Recognizing facial expressions and body language Responding appropriately Responding appropriately Affective Computing - designing computers that recognize and express emotions the same way that humans do. Affective Computing - designing computers that recognize and express emotions the same way that humans do. How can systems be designed to make people respond in certain ways? How can systems be designed to make people respond in certain ways?

3 Expressive Interfaces Attempt to convey a computer’s “emotional state”. Attempt to convey a computer’s “emotional state”. Dynamic icons that indicate state Dynamic icons that indicate state Animations Animations Spoken messages for instructions Spoken messages for instructions Sounds to indicate actions or events Sounds to indicate actions or events Friendly interface agent Friendly interface agent Emoticons (emotional state of the user) Emoticons (emotional state of the user) Aesthetics of an interface can have a positive effect on people’s perception of the system’s usability. Aesthetics of an interface can have a positive effect on people’s perception of the system’s usability.

4 User Frustration Computer interfaces inadvertently elicit negative emotional responses.

5 User Frustration An application doesn’t work properly or crashes. An application doesn’t work properly or crashes. The system doesn’t do what the user wants it to do. The system doesn’t do what the user wants it to do. The user’s expectations are not met. The user’s expectations are not met. The system does not provide sufficient information to enable the user to know what to do. The system does not provide sufficient information to enable the user to know what to do. Error messages pop up that are vague, obtuse or condemning. Error messages pop up that are vague, obtuse or condemning. The appearance of an interface is garish, noisy, gimmicky or patronizing. The appearance of an interface is garish, noisy, gimmicky or patronizing.

6 Sources of Frustration Ranked from most to least frustrating: Error Messages Error Messages Overburdening the user Overburdening the user Appearance Appearance Gimmicks Gimmicks

7 YOU STUPID PIECE OF CRAP!!!!! The operation has expectedly quit, due to poor coding in the operating system. It’s okay, I know you didn’t mean it. !

8 I’m sorry I crashed. I realize I am a failure and a disappointment to you, the user. In the future, I’ll try to do a better job of running your programs.

9 Anthropomorphism Attributing human qualities to non- human objects, such as cars, pets, cartoon characters, or robots.

10 Anthropomorphism in Design? Systems are more enjoyable and fun to interact with. Systems are more enjoyable and fun to interact with. People, especially kids, are more motivated to carry out suggested tasks. People, especially kids, are more motivated to carry out suggested tasks. First person dialog and screen characters are deceptive. (Shneiderman) First person dialog and screen characters are deceptive. (Shneiderman) People quickly become annoyed and ignore suggestions. People quickly become annoyed and ignore suggestions.

11 Kinds of Agents Synthetic characters- lifelike character, as in a video game (1st or 3rd person). Synthetic characters- lifelike character, as in a video game (1st or 3rd person). Animated agents- play a collaborating role at the interface. Animated agents- play a collaborating role at the interface. Emotional agents- have personality and allow the user to manipulate moods. Emotional agents- have personality and allow the user to manipulate moods. Embodied conversational interface agents- emulate human conversation. Embodied conversational interface agents- emulate human conversation. Recognizing, responding to, and generating output (verbal and nonverbal). Recognizing, responding to, and generating output (verbal and nonverbal). Coping with breakdown and turn-taking Coping with breakdown and turn-taking Signal the state of the conversation Signal the state of the conversation

12 Making Characters Believable Appearance- parsimony and simplicity Appearance- parsimony and simplicity Convincing behavior- point out relevant objects, lead with its eyes Convincing behavior- point out relevant objects, lead with its eyes Mode of interaction- emulate human conversation (difficult) or simple artificial conversation Mode of interaction- emulate human conversation (difficult) or simple artificial conversation

13 Discussion Points Chapter 5 How Interfaces Affects Users

14 Today I am feeling… HappyTiredBoredConfusedFrustratedSadExhausted

15 Expressive Interfaces  Dynamic Icons  Animations  Spoken Messages  Sounds  Interface Agents

16 User Frustrations  POP UPS

17 User Frustration  Error messages FATAL, ERROR, INVALID, Ka BOOM !! FATAL, ERROR, INVALID, Ka BOOM !!  Expectations not met  Gimmicks  Too flashy, noisy  Overburdening  Applications crashes

18 Coping with frustration  Should computers say they are sorry? Reeves and Naas argue that they should Reeves and Naas argue that they should What do you think? What do you think? Do you think the apology would be sincere? Do you think the apology would be sincere? Would you forgive it? Would you forgive it? “I’m really sorry I crashed. I’ll try not to do it again.”

19 Virtual Characters  Synthetic 3D characters in video games 3D characters in video games  Animated Tutors, wizards, helpers Tutors, wizards, helpers  Emotional Predefined personality and emotions Predefined personality and emotions  Conversational Humanlike Humanlike

20 Virtual Characters  Miss Boo.com Miss Boo.com Miss Boo.com Sales Agent for a virtual shopping mall Sales Agent for a virtual shopping mall  Rea Rea MIT Embodied Agent MIT Embodied Agent

21 Design Concerns  Apple’s Knowledge Navigator “Phil”  Which one do you like better?

22 People, Places, and Projects Chapter 5

23 Humanoid Robotics Group  MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory  Humanoid Robots Cog (http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid-robotics- group/cog/cog.html) Cog (http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid-robotics- group/cog/cog.html)http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid-robotics- group/cog/cog.htmlhttp://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid-robotics- group/cog/cog.html Kismet (http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid-robotics- group/kismet/kismet.html) Kismet (http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid-robotics- group/kismet/kismet.html)http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid-robotics- group/kismet/kismet.htmlhttp://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid-robotics- group/kismet/kismet.html videovideovideo And the newest member Coco And the newest member Coco  Rodney Brooks - director of the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab, the founder of the humanoid robotics group   u/projects/humanoid-robotics-group/ u/projects/humanoid-robotics-group/

24 James C. Lester  Associate Professor Department of Computer Science North Carolina State University Department of Computer Science Department of Computer Science Animated Pedagogical Agents Animated Pedagogical Agents Herman the BugHerman the BugHerman the BugHerman the Bug CosmoCosmoCosmo  Ph.D., Computer Science (1994) University of Texas at Austin  ml ml ml

25 Aaron Marcus  Founder of Aaron Marcus and Asociates, Inc.  Cultural Dimensions and Global Web User- Interface Designer One design white American females One design white American females European adult male intellectuals European adult male intellectuals But what happened??? Everyone agreed that one was bestBut what happened??? Everyone agreed that one was best 

26 Ben Shneiderman  Department of Computer Science University of Maryland  ACM CHI (Computer Human Interaction) Lifetime Achievement Award in 2001 Lifetime Achievement Award in 2001 Lifetime Achievement Award in 2001  Developed guidelines on how to design good error messages  Author of Leonardo’s Laptop 

27 Clifford Nass and Byron Reeves  Stanford in the Department of Communications  Main authors of The Media Equation  Everyone responds to PCs as if they are social actors uses such techniques as brainwave monitoring, home video, and questionnaires to measure peoples’ response to media in all its forms uses such techniques as brainwave monitoring, home video, and questionnaires to measure peoples’ response to media in all its forms perception is more important than reality perception is more important than reality form of media isn’t an issue; the same social responses can be elicited from multiple and varied forms of media form of media isn’t an issue; the same social responses can be elicited from multiple and varied forms of media

28 Microsoft’s Bob  Friendly interface agent  Aimed at new computer users  “Stupid”

29 Questions? Comments?


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