Presentation on theme: "Designer’s dilemma Director says a first version “seems a little dry—can you spice it up a bit?” Why might spicing it up with extra graphics or background."— Presentation transcript:
Designer’s dilemma Director says a first version “seems a little dry—can you spice it up a bit?” Why might spicing it up with extra graphics or background music seem worthwhile? Common sense: avoid boring the learner Arousal theory: when learners become emotionally aroused they try harder to learn the material
The Coherence Principle Interesting material can hinder learning Why? Cognitive theory: learners have limited resources Extraneous materials competes with core material for limited cognitive resources Coherence: all materials should cohere relevantly with what needs to be learned
Avoid extraneous sounds Background music and sounds may overload working memory Especially when learner experiences heavy cognitive processing demands Experimental results: For lightning presentation, added sound effects such as winds depicting air movement and crackling of charge transfers Retention was % better for narration without additional sound effects
Also avoid extraneous words Adding interesting sentences may seem like an easy way to increase interest Again, they may just distract learners Conclusion: avoid seductive but irrelevant details that force excitement but don’t increase understanding
How will you apply coherence? Discuss in your project group Do you follow this principle in your scripts so far? Are there any sounds or graphics in your script that you might drop?
What’s the difference? Which is more effective for learners?
Personalization principle Conversational style aids learning Formal style avoids first- and second-person: e.g., “Caution should be used when opening pyrotechnic containers.” Use second-person: “You should be careful if you open any containers with pyrotechnics.” Why might informal style help learning? People work harder to understand material when they feel they are in a conversation with a partner. Discuss examples on p. 164
Use onscreen coaches (pedagogical agents) Agents may be representations of real people or artificial characters using animation and computer-generated voice Clippy, Knobby or professor personae?
Agent in Design-A-Plant Tutor Herman the bug improved learning 24-48% Lifelike agents may not be essential Human voice may work better than computer- generated speech
Adele tutors medical students Web-based agent supports lesson presentation, student monitoring and feedback, probing questions, hints, and explanations
Microsoft Agent architecture Characters move freely in computer display, speak aloud and display text onscreen, and even listen for spoken voice commands Downloadable from
Visible author Reveals personal perspective in 1 st person See text examples on p. 174 Psychological reasons for using visible author? Author as guide for student Social relationships motivate students Evidence shows that learners provide richer answers for some learners
How will you apply personalization? Will you adjust your writing style? Will you use learning coaches or agents? Check out Microsoft Agent software? Will you include a “visible” author?
Does practice make perfect? Interactive practice exercises help learners integrate knowledge into LTM What kinds of exercises? Drag-and-drop and simulations More crucially: exercises should mirror thinking processes and environment of actual task Better learning results from practice questions interspersed throughout the lesson Learners should be trained to developer their own questions
Interactions should mirror the actual job or task Activities should require learners to respond in similar ways during training as they will on the job E.g., Jeopardy game doesn’t help transfer on job Simulation of actual job decisions does Avoid simple regurgitation of information provided in training program Doesn’t implant cues for retrieval in job context
Effective practice questions Asking “why” questions improves learning “Why does an object speed up as its radius gets smaller?” Results in greater factual and inference learning Pro and con analysis improves learning Developing arguments requires organization and integration of materials
More practice aids learning Well designed practice exercises provide opportunities for encoding knowledge or skills The more encoding opportunities, the more integration Logarithmic relationship between amount of practice and time to complete tasks Improvement occurs regardless of initial ability Tradeoff of time in development and lesson Interactive practice can be harder to design Practice also adds to training time: eventually there are diminishing returns on learning
Spacing practice aids learning Spacing practice is superior to massed practice, e.g., at end of lesson Spacing effect is not immediate but after a period of time
Apply media principles to practice Contiguity: keep text close to graphics Modality: use audio to explain graphics But audio is transient, so redundant text and graphics is OK for practice questions Feedback should also be presented in text Redundancy: use text alone Don’t narrate text directions or practice questions Peronalization: use conversational language Provide hints and feedback in first & second person
Train learners to self-question Learners can ask and answer their own questions during lessons: “How can I apply the program features to my job?” Agent could suggest such questions Why encourage self-questioning? Active engagement improves learning Developing metacognitive skills improves learning
How will you add practice? What kinds of practice questions are more effective? Why is it better to think of them as practice than quiz questions? What kind of interactive exercises are you planning? Discuss ADT constructive exercise. Discuss Turing machine simulation. How many practice exercises will you have? Where will your exercises appear?