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© OECD/IEA - 2007 Sectoral approaches to climate action: ‘Complementary opportunities or dead end?’ Business and Industry Global Dialogue 2008 23 October 2008 Richard Baron – IEA Disclaimer – The views expressed here are the author’s and may not reflect the views of the individual IEA Member countries.
© OECD/IEA - 2007 Outline Sectoral approaches: do we have a choice? An illustration. A look at countries’ recent submissions to the UNFCCC Questions for debate
© OECD/IEA - 2007 Complementary or dead end? Sectoral approaches are likely to be an essential element of future international mitigation efforts Hence, handle with care
© OECD/IEA - 2007 Sectoral approaches: do we have a choice?
© OECD/IEA - 2007 Illustration - CO 2 emissions in China
© OECD/IEA - 2007 Illustration - CO 2 emissions in India
© OECD/IEA - 2007 Electricity (supply and use) should be a priority for action * * * * * IEA(2008), Energy Technology Perspectives 2050. Source: IEA(2008), Energy Technology Perspectives 2050.
© OECD/IEA - 2007 Why are we, internationally, looking at sectors? Since Kyoto: from ‘simple’ country caps (-and-trade) to the actual complexity of specific mitigation policies Whether market-based or else, useful lessons can be drawn from Annex I progress on various policy areas See G8 best practice work and concrete recommendations on energy efficiency Most developing countries not ready for country-wide goals – political and capability issues (CBDR/RC) In the meantime, GHG accumulate Some will need sector-specific support Best policy practice and policy design Training (see Asia-Pacific Partnership on efficiency of existing plants) Targeted financial support Carbon market
© OECD/IEA - 2007 SA under the UNFCCC at present
© OECD/IEA - 2007 Views on SA from submissions China: no to benchmarks, standards, etc. but calls for larger finance incl. via carbon markets. Review of EST on basis of cost, reliability, obstacles India: no common standards, cooperative R&D, IPR cost, standards on certain products and practices, voluntary energy efficiency programmes (pledge) S. Africa: Register of actions. Toolbox of support instruments, SD-PAMs No-lose S. Korea: Registry for NAMA (nationally appropriate mitigation actions): crediting to provide finance
© OECD/IEA - 2007 UNFCCC submissions (ctd.) EU: two categories. Sectoral technology and policy cooperation / sectoral approaches w. carbon market (incl. differentiated instruments) Japan: comparability of efforts / binding sectoral intensity targets for developing countries / crediting as support to NAMA / no trade sanctions / supplementarity Norway: explore crediting /SA further to transfer resources to move towards low-carbon economy Russia: risk of speculation through carbon market
© OECD/IEA - 2007 SA toolkit on UNFCCC table at this stage Prioritize global action & discuss comparability of efforts Broaden crediting from CDM (project) to sectoral CDM Move away from offsets towards actual, global mitigation (no- lose targets) Sectoral targets under emissions trading (article 17 under the Kyoto Protocol) SA to organize technology diffusion/transfer etc. (as per Bali Action Plan, 1.b.iv) Absent: international negotiation over a sector (a.k.a. transnational agreement) Outside: IAI, worldsteel, CSI, APP …
© OECD/IEA - 2007 Questions for debate
© OECD/IEA - 2007 Role(s) of the carbon market Options abound on how to harness the carbon market: Sector-wide CDM, sectoral crediting, no-lose, sectoral caps, intensity-based or not Offsetting vs. crediting: how to evolve away from CDM? How do the options bring incentives to countries / domestic agents? CDM project developers/installations have a clear incentive (CDM project cycle notwithstanding…) Sectoral targets, intensity, non-binding installations are steps away from carbon market – does this matter?
© OECD/IEA - 2007 Role(s) of the carbon market Uncertainty on supply (CDM + sectoral + … ) and demand (developed country commitments) – and back Merely a political issue (‘show me the level of your ambition, I’ll show you mine’) or also about details of instruments, incl. SA? Incentives should matter. Limited (or lack of) data / eligibility / likely timing of entry of various sectors/countries in the market?
© OECD/IEA - 2007 Other possible considerations on SA in UNFCCC negotiations Differentiation of countries or actions What implications for a sectoral approach to mitigation? Differentiate by type? SD-PAMs … Sectoral targets Differentiate by level of international support to NAMA Support mitigation in developing countries / sectors via carbon market or other means? Economically attractive for ‘donors’ Verification = Intrusiveness Countries to pledge actions: will they go beyond these pledges with SA? Competitiveness/leakage issues: ‘elephant in the room’ or can be handled with ad-hoc measures?
© OECD/IEA - 2007 Going forward: Integration in an agreement by Copenhagen? Numbers on sectors / countries by COP15? Unlikely for most – esp. w/o agreement on precise format of SA, or differentiation of actions Areas for decisions by COP15? Principles for SA? Role of carbon market, other support, eligibility sectors/countries? A registry structure (format) to record ‘pledges’? Pilot phase data gathering … Deadline for submissions of SA pledges/goals by developing countries? Process for evaluation of submissions, as they come? Sectoral expert groups?
Annex I Expert Group on the UNFCCC coming soon Options for integrating sectoral approaches (SA) into the UNFCCC Richard Baron, Ingrid Barnsley (IEA), Jane Ellis (OECD)
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