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Unit1 Fight with the Forces of Nature. Text A The Icy Defender Text organization Part one Paras 1-2 Introduction—Both Napoleon’s and Hitler’s military.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit1 Fight with the Forces of Nature. Text A The Icy Defender Text organization Part one Paras 1-2 Introduction—Both Napoleon’s and Hitler’s military."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit1 Fight with the Forces of Nature

2 Text A The Icy Defender Text organization Part one Paras 1-2 Introduction—Both Napoleon’s and Hitler’s military campaigns failed because of the severity of the Russian winter. Part two Paras 3-11 Napoleon’s military campaign against Russia Part three Paras Hitler’s military campaign against the Soviet Union Part four Paras 21 Conclusion—The elements of nature must be reckoned with in any military campaign.

3 Pre-reading activities Cultural Notes 1.Background Information Throughout the history of mankind, there have been many conquerors. Chengis Khan spent his entire life conquering neighboring peoples and expanding the Mongolian Empire. Many Roman Emperors did the same for the Rome empire—so much so that at one time they ruled modern-day Great Britain. Both the Mongolian and Roman Empires had their rise and fall in the distant past. Yet if we want to examine conquerors, there is no need to go back that far. This text will focus on Napoleon and Hitler.

4 Pre-reading activities 2. Napoleon Bonaparte ( ) Emperor of the French, who consolidated and institutionalized many reforms of the French Revolution. One of the greatest military commanders of all time, he conquered the larger part of Europe. During Napoleon tried to gain control of the whole of Europe. He had great success against all his enemies except Britain, whose navy under Nelson defeated the French navy at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.

5 Pre-reading activities 3. Adolf Hitler ( ) German political and military leader and one of the 20 th century’s most powerful dictators. He converted Germany into a fully militarized society and launched World War 2 in 1939.He hoped to conquer the world, and for a time dominated most of Europe and much of North Africa. He instituted sterilization and euthanasia measures to enforce his idea of racial purity.

6 Pre-reading activities 4. Joseph Stalin ( ) General secretary of the Communist Party of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. Under his leadership the USSR was built into a modern economic and military power that repelled Hitler’s armies in World War 2 and rivaled the United States during the Cold War period.

7 Pre-reading activities 5. World War 2 ( ) A war whose European operations took place between the Axis powers (Germany, Italy and Japan) and the Allies (Britain, France, and later the USSR and the USA). The picture on the right is a map indicating the situations in this period.

8 Pre-reading activities Par 1 : Read the quotations listed on the right column. Try to learn them by heart if you can. And think the question that human being and nature, which one is more powerful, then air your viewpoint in the class. Nature, to be commanded, must be obeyed.—Francis Bacon Accuse not Nature, she hath done her part; Do thou but thine.—John Milton The first casualty when war comes is truth.—Hiram Warren Johnson

9 Pre-reading activities Part 2: Pre-reading questions 1.What does “the icy defender” refer to? 2.What did Napoleon expect when he assembled his army to attack Russia? 3.What did the Russians do in the face of Napoleon’s offensive? What strategy did the Russians adopt? 4.What did Napoleon discover after he occupied Moscow? 5.What happened to Napoleon’s army when it was retreating from Moscow? 6.How many soldiers were there left after the army limped to Vilna? 7.What did Napoleon do when Paris was captured?

10 Pre-reading activities Keys: 1.The “icy defender” refers to the severe winter of Moscow. 2.He expected a quick victory, predicted the conquest of Russia in five weeks. 3.The Russians treated eastward, burning their crops and homes as they went. 4.He found that the occupation of the city was an empty victory. 5.The Russians launched hit-and-run attacks on the French. 6.Less than one hundred thousand were left. 7.He abdicated and went into exile.

11 While-reading activities Part 1: Language Study 1.In the case of : as far as…is concerned e.g. The rise in interest rate will be disastrous in the case of small firms. Formal training will take at least 3 years in the case of interior decoration. 2.Stand\get\be in the way: prevent from doing sth. e.g. Many teachers complain that they can’t make any improvement in teaching methods as the existing exam system is in the way. Fierce competition keeps getting in the way of kids’ development.

12 While-reading activities 3. Raw: cold and wet; not cooked, refined, processed, organized or analyzed e.g. The events took place on a raw February morning. This cutting board is only used to cut raw meat. Industrial plants processed the raw material into finished products for export and for domestic consumption. 4. Launch: start; send on its course e.g. Beginning in the early 1960s, humans launched probes to explore other planets. Soviet launched the world’s first artificial satellite on Oct 4,1957.

13 While-reading activities 5. Campaign: a series of military operations or planned activities with a particular aim e.g. Hitler’s advisers tried to persuade him to avoid the risks of a winter campaign in the Soviet Union and wait until spring. 6. Efficient: able to work well or producing a satisfactory result without wasting time or resources e.g. Remote terminals in the home, connected to data bands, make the home the most efficient place to work in many case. To cut back on fossil fuels, we should build more efficient cars.

14 While-reading activities 7. Conquest: conquering, defeat e.g. The year 1939 had witnessed the conquest of Poland by Germany. Hitler assumed the conquest of USSR would be simple. 8. Decisive: producing a definite result or conclusion; having or showing the ability to decide quickly e.g. Most of the decisive land campaigns of World War 1 occurred on the continent of Europe. Lincoln took decisive measure to end slavery. The adoption of the euro is widely viewed as a decisive step toward a single European government.

15 While-reading activities 9. Retreat: move back or withdraw when faced with danger or difficulty e.g. After a fierce battle, the troops retreated southward. We adopted the following strategies: when the enemy advances, we retreat; when they retreat, we pursue. 10. Be\get bogged down: be unable to make progress e.g. Most of the tanks were bogged down because of mechanical defects and inexperienced crews. The local government got bogged down in problems of how to handle the emission of hazardous chemicals by industrial facilities.

16 While-reading activities 11. Engage: begin fighting with sb; take part in or do; occupy or attract sb’s interest, ect. e.g. The commander ordered the soldiers to engage the enemy immediately. I have no time to engage in gossip. We failed to engage any active support for our project. 12. Be faced with: have to deal with e.g. I am faced with the awful job of breaking the news to the boy’s family The assistants were faced with the huge task of listing all the books.

17 While-reading activities 13. Crucial: very important (followed by to) e.g. Amazingly, our soccer team won the victory in the crucial final game. Improved consumer confidence is crucial to economic recovery. 14. Take a gamble: take a risk e.g. The company took a gamble by cutting the price of their products, and it paid off. I think she’s taking a gamble investing all her money in stocks.

18 While-reading activities 15. Press on\ahead: continue doing sth. in a determined way e.g. Our school authorities are keen to press on with educational reform. Organizers of the strike are determined to press on. 16. Occupation: the seizure and control of a country or areas;one’s trade, profession, or business e.g. During the Japanese occupation of China, millions of innocent Chinese people were killed by Japanese soldiers. Many schools have struggled to meet the educational requirements of new technology-based occupations.

19 While-reading activities 17. Bide one’s time: wait patiently for a chance e.g. His political rivals are biding their time for an attack on his policies. He bided his time until Harvard University offered him a professorship. 18. Minus: below zero; made less by; slightly lower than the mark stated e.g. Tomorrow’s temperature will be as low as minus ten degrees centigrade. I got B minus in the final examination which made me very upset.

20 While-reading activities 19. Drag on: move slowly and with effort; continue endlessly and tediously e.g. These compensation cases have already dragged on for one year. How much longer is the meeting going to drag on? 20. Stroke: any of a series of repeated movements; single successful or effective action or occurrence; blow e.g. I saw a chance of solving all my problems at a stroke. He drove in a nail with one stroke of the hammer. He won a car in the lottery last week. That’s his first stroke of good luck.

21 While-reading activities 21. At the cost of: with the loss of e.g. Berman saved Johnson at the cost of his own life. The local government developed its economy but at the cost of environment. 22. Limp: walk with difficulty, especially when one foot or leg is hurt e.g. That dog must be hurt—it’s limping. I injured my ankle and had to limp. During the race he fell down but he kept to limp on.

22 While-reading activities 23. Weaken: (cause to) become weak or weaker e.g. The Asian financial crisis severely weakened some countries. Pneumonia often proves fatal to people with a weakened immune system. 24. Alliance: a union or an association formed for mutual benefit, esp. between countries or organizations e.g. NATO is considered as the most powerful military alliance in modern history. Japan and Germany made their formal alliance in 1940.

23 While-reading activities 25. Invasion: an entering or being entered by an attacking military force e.g. The country remained free from invasion for 60 years. On Hitler’s orders, the invasion of Poland began on September 1, Declaration: formally announcing; a formal announcement (followed by of) e.g. The Japanese attacked the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941 without a declaration of war. The opening speeches sounded like declarations of war.

24 While-reading activities 27. Catch sb. Off guard: take sb. by surprise e.g. The invitation to his wedding caught me off guard. The manager didn’t know what to say, it was clear that my question had caught him off guard. 28. Instruct: give orders or directions to somebody e.g. The family has instructed solicitors to sue Thomson for compensation. The professor instructed us that we had one month to conduct the project. He instructed family members in nursing techniques.

25 While-reading activities 29. Render: cause (sb.\sth) to be in a specified condition e.g. Hundreds of people were rendered homeless by the earthquake. The drug will render the tiger harmless for up to two hours. He was rendered unconscious by a blow on the back of the neck. 30. Casualty: a person who is killed or injured in war or in an accident e.g. The precise number of casualties in yesterday’s bomb explosion is not known.

26 While-reading activities 31. Die from\of : have as the cause of death e.g. Some animals died of starvation in the snow. All the plants were dying from lack of rain. 32. Siege: a military operation in which an army tries to capture a town, etc. by surrounding it and stopping the supply of food, etc. to the people inside. e.g. We must do everything possible to lift the siege. They are hopeful of bringing the siege to a peaceful conclusion. The city was under siege for six months.

27 While-reading activities 33. Bring to a halt: stop completely e.g. Air traffic in Poland had been brought to a halt by an air traffic controllers’ strike. Our journey was brought to a halt by a storm. 34. Offensive: aggressive action, attack e.g. The Red Army brought its winter offensive to a successful conclusion. In January 1944 a Soviet offensive raised the long siege of Leningrad. Faced with the invasion, they took immediate offensive action.

28 While-reading activities 35. Turn the tide(against): change what looks like defeat into victory (over) e.g. The appearance of Joan of Arc turned the tide of war. Soviet victory in Stalingrad turned the tide of the war in Europe. 36. Thanks to: because of e.g. Thanks to her financial support, the two children in the remote village could go to school. Thanks to their tireless efforts, the performance was a great success.

29 While-reading activities 37. Heroic: having the characteristics of a hero; very brave e.g. The soldier saved the girl at the cost of his own life. His heroic deeds were appreciated by all the people in the community. he was famed for his heroic deeds during the war. 38. Region: area e.g. When examining a large geographic unit, geographers often divide it into smaller regions. In recent years increasing numbers of tourists have visited Antarctica to appreciate the region’s majestic scenery and wildlife.

30 While-reading activities 39. Reckon: count; consider; think e.g. The existence of the U.S. is reckoned from the Declaration of Independence. Many people reckon him to be a great basketball player. 40. Toll: the number of people or animals killed or injured in particular circumstances; money paid for the use of a bridge or road. e.g. The toll of road deaths and injuries is on the rise. The local government was allowed to charge tolls for the use of the roads. His hard work has taken its toll on his stomach.

31 While-reading activities Part 2: Compare and Contrast 1. Soil\ Earth 2. Campaign\ Battle 3. Decisive\ Crucial 4. Stick\ Bog 5. Attack\ Assault 6. Flee\ Retreat

32 While-reading activities Part 2: Compare and Contrast 1.Soil: the top layer of the earth in which plants grow; on British soil\French soil: in Britain, in France sb’s native soil= sb’s own country Earth: the world that we live in substance that plants grow in the hard surface of the world, as opposed to sea what\why\how on earth: used when you are asking a question about sth that you are very surprised or annoyed about

33 While-reading activities Part 2: Compare and Contrast 2. Campaign: a series of actions intended to achieve particular result, especially in politics or business; a series of battles, attacks intended to achieve particular result in a war. Battle: a fight between opposing armies, groups of ships etc, especially one that is part of a larger war; a situation in which opposing groups or people compete or argue with each other when trying to achieve success or control

34 While-reading activities Part 2: Compare and Contrast 3. Decisive: an action, event etc that has a powerful effect on the final result of something; leading to a clear result and ending doubt; to be one of the most important causes of sth; definite and not able to be doubted. Crucial: something that is crucial is extremely important because everything else depends on it

35 While-reading activities Part 2: Compare and Contrast 4. Stick: =push, if a pointed object sticks into sth or you stick it into sth it is pushed into it; =fix, to fix sth to sth-else with a sticky substance, or to become fixed to a surface =difficult to move, if sth sticks it becomes fixed in one position so that is is difficult to move Bog: to become too involved in thinking about or dealing with one particular thing; to become stuck in muddy ground and be unable to move

36 While-reading activities Part 2: Compare and Contrast 5. Assault: the crime of attacking someone; a military attack to take control of a place controlled by the enemy; an attempt to achieve sth difficult, especially using physical force. Attack: an act of deliberately using violence against someone; the act of using weapons against an enemy in a war; a statement that criticizes someone strongly.

37 While-reading activities Part 2: Compare and Contrast 6. Flee: to leave somewhere very quickly in order to escape from danger; e.g. We were forced to flee the country. Retreat: to walk back and away from someone or sth because you are afraid or embarrassed; to move away from the enemy after being defeated in battle; to go away to a place that is quiet or safe; to change your mind about a promise you have made because the situation has become too difficult.

38 Post-reading activities Part1: Points for discussion Divide the students into small groups and discuss the following questions. 1.In what way was Hitler’s offensive against the Soviet Union similar to Napoleons’ campaign against Russia? In what way were they different? 2.Do you think the harsh Russian winter the only factor that led to Napoleon’s and Hitler’s defeat? Why or why not? 3.How do you define “war” and do you think war can be avoided in today’s world? Why or why not?

39 Post-reading activities Invading countryFranceGermany Country invadedRussiaSoviet Union Starter of warNapoleonHitler Starting timeSpring, 1812June 22, 1941 PredictionQuick victoryLightning war Capture of the capitalyesNo Truce offerBy Napoleon, being rejected by Czar No Biggest enemy for the invading force Snow, freezing temperature Heavy rain, snow, freezing coldness

40 Post-reading activities The harsh Russian winter was an important factor that led to Napoleon’s and Hitler’s defeat, but it was not the only one. The Russians had strong will-power and they united together to fight the enemies. Many soldiers died for their motherland, they are brave soldiers of the great nation; they are brave sons of their mothers; they are brave fathers of their kids. The blood of the martyrs makes the flag red.

41 Post-reading activities Prussian military strategist Karl von Clausewitz said, “War is nothing but the continuation of politics with the admixture of other means.” War: fighting between two or more countries or opposing groups within a country, involving large numbers of soldiers and weapons.—From Longman dictionary of contemporary English 1.World War 1 2.World War 2 3.Vietnam War 4.Persian Gulf War 5.Iraq War Let the students to collect the information if they want.

42 Post-reading activities Part 2: Words and Phrases to drill Fill in the gaps with words or phrases chosen from the box below. Change the form where necessary. Alliance\limp\declaration\heroic\minus\region\siege\stroke 1.The Labor Party’s electoral strategy, which was based on a tactical__with other smaller parties, has proved successful. 2. The New York fire fighters’__deeds in rescuing the September 11 victims were celebrated across the country. 3. By a __of good luck, Carol, who had been buried in the rubble for more than 20 hours, came out alive. 4. My brother was not badly hurt, but he injured his leg and had to __around for a few weeks.

43 Post-reading activities 5. The aircraft was subjected to a test of temperatures of __65 degrees Celsius and plus 120 degrees. 6. Tax incentives will be used to attract companies to the western __of our country away from the east coast. 7. The opening speeches sounded more like__of war than offerings of peace. 8. After a three-day __ by the police, the terrorists who had seized the restaurant had to give in. Key: 1.alliance\2.heroic\3.stroke\4.limp 5.minus\6.regions\7.declarations\8.siege

44 Post-reading activities Part 3: Translation Translate the following passage into English, using the words and phrases given below: Casualty decisive offensive be faced with Engage launch take a gamble press on Stroke get bogged down thanks to minus Instruct at the cost of turn the tide catch off guard

45 Post-reading activities 原文: 攻势已经持续了三天,但是我们并没有取得多少进展。 我们在前线与敌人交战的部队遇到了强力的抵抗。师 长命令我们营绕到敌人后方发起突然袭击。然而,要 绕到敌人后方,我们必须越过一片沼泽地。我们很多 人担心会陷入泥潭之中。我们营长决定冒一下险。我 们在夜幕掩盖下出发,不顾困难,奋勇向前。幸运的 是,夜间温度突然下降到摄氏零下 20 度,烂泥地都结 上了冰。由于这寒冷的天气,我们于天亮前到达并从 敌人后方发起进攻。这一下扭转了战局。敌人没有戒 备,不久便投降了。

46 Post-reading activities Key of Translation The offensive had already lasted three days, but we had not gained much ground. Our troops engaging the enemy at the front were faced with still resistance. The division commander instructed our battalion to get around to the rear of the enemy and launch a surprise attack. To do so, however, we had to cross a marshland and many of us were afraid we might get bogged down in the mud. Our battalion commander decided to take a gamble. We started under cover of darkness and pressed on in spite of great difficulties. By a stroke of luck, the temperature at night suddenly dropped to minus 20 degrees Celsius and

47 Post-reading activities the marsh froze over. Thanks to the cold weather, we arrived at our destination before dawn and began attacking the enemy from the rear. This turned the tide of the battle. The enemy, caught off guard, soon surrendered. Hints: division commander( 师长 ) battalion ( 营 ) marshland( 沼泽地 )

48 Text B Normandy Landing Part 1: Cultural notes 1.Normandy Landing:it is the largest and most ambitious military expedition in history. American,British and Canadian forces landed on Normandy, which was in northwest France, on the English Channel.

49 Text B Normandy Landing 2. Dwight David Eisenhower ( ): 艾森豪威尔是格兰特总统之后第二位职 业军人出身的总统。他在 5 0 岁之前默 默无闻,甚至在军界也不为人所熟知。 第二次世界大战中,他脱颖而出,锋芒 毕露,在指挥盟军打击纳粹德国的重大 战役中,屡建战功。四年之内,由陆军 上校晋升为五星上将。但在两届总统任 内,政绩平平。在任期内朝鲜战争刚结 束,越南战争尚末开始,是战后美国比 较稳定的时期。

50 Text B Normandy Landing 3. He is the German field marshal, noted for his brilliant generalship in north Africa in World War 2. Later a commander in France. He committed suicide after the officers’ plot against Hitler. Erwin Rommel ( ): nicknamed the Desert Fox.

51 Text B Normandy Landing Part 2 : Vocabulary Artillery 大炮 aircraft 飞机 troop 军队 fleet 舰队 Sea-borne troop 渡海部队 airborne unit 空降部队 Paratrooper 空降兵 pathfinder 伞降信号兵 Armada 舰队 naval vessel 军舰 battery 炮台 Transport plane 运输机 anti-aircraft 高射炮 Assault craft 强击艇 minesweeper 扫雷舰 Anti-personnel 杀伤地雷 landing craft 登陆艇 Cavalry squadron 骑兵中队 shelter 掩体 Naval bombardment 舰炮轰击

52 Text B Normandy Landing Part 3: Comprehension questions 1.If you had to choose a subtitle for the passage, which of the following would be the best? A: Fooling the Germans B: The Role of General Eisenhower C: The Largest Invasion Ever D: Gambling with the Forces of Nature

53 Text B Normandy Landing 2. It can be inferred that___. A: planning the invasion was not complicated except for predicting the weather. B: it was impossible to predict how any of the forces of nature would behave. C: moonlight was needed by the navy. D: the planners were wise to allow for the possibility of delay

54 Text B Normandy Landing 3. The weather forecast for 6 June predicted that___. A: the storm would have completely ended. B: the storm might die down for a while. C: the storm would get worse before it got better. D: the weather would be as expected for the time of year.

55 Text B Normandy Landing 4. It can be inferred that the Germans did not expect the invasion on 6 June because___. A: they thought that weather would be bad. B: they believed the Allies could not agree. C: the allied decoys had fooled them into believing the invasion would take place later. D: they expected the landings on the seventh.

56 Text B Normandy Landing 5. Many paratroopers landed in the wrong place because__. A: the pathfinders had been blown away from the correct landing sites. B: of enemy anti-aircraft fire. C: visibility was poor. D: of bad planning.

57 Text B Normandy Landing 6. The ships’ guns were ineffective because of ___. A: poor visibility B: fear of hitting the troops as they landed C: the high seas D: the strength of the German defense Keys: 1.D 2.D 3.B 4.A 5.B 6.D

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