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Knowledge Retention & Transfer: What You Need to Know February 7, 2012 Jay Liebowitz, D.Sc. Orkand Endowed Chair in Management and Technology The Graduate.

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Presentation on theme: "Knowledge Retention & Transfer: What You Need to Know February 7, 2012 Jay Liebowitz, D.Sc. Orkand Endowed Chair in Management and Technology The Graduate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Knowledge Retention & Transfer: What You Need to Know February 7, 2012 Jay Liebowitz, D.Sc. Orkand Endowed Chair in Management and Technology The Graduate School University of Maryland University College 1

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4 Intelligent Research Networks & Next Generation KM (John Brisbin/Chris Day) “Networks are where the knowledge lives and grows” “Management is about optimizing the network rules” “Innovation DEMANDS networks” 4

5 Strategic Intelligence “Drives Innovation” STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE KM BI CI 5

6 Strategic Intelligence STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE KM= Knowledge- Enabled (e.g., KR&T; SN) BI= Learner-Enabled (e.g.,E-Learning, Analytics, SN) CI= Community- Enabled (External/ Competitor)— e.g., SN 6

7 PEOPLE PROCESS TECHNOLOGY Building and Nurturing a Knowledge Sharing Culture Systematically Capturing and Sharing Critical Knowledge Creating a Unified Knowledge Network What is Knowledge Management? 7

8 “Leaders Know How to Make the Most of Knowledge Management” (September 9, 2009, Credit Union Times) Society of Human Resource Management study (April 2009): –Organizations that optimize knowledge management are leaders in their fields. –“While some firms may view knowledge management as nice to have, proactive organizations see it as a key component of an effective business plan.” 8

9 The KM Journey 9

10 Similar to Desert Types Hot and Dry Semiarid CoastalCold 10

11 Maturity LevelKey Indicators 0  Inefficiencies in searching for needed information and knowledge  Not knowing who to contact within the organization for answering questions  Lack of innovation  Silo/stovepiping effects 1  Realization that your competition is applying KM concepts and that you may be lagging behind your competition  Realization that there may be a better way of doing business and reaching out to the customers/stakeholders by using KM techniques 2  Testing the waters through selected KM pilots  KM technology infrastructure starts to be built  Metrics are developed to measure initial success 3  Employee morale increases due to an improved sense of belonging/community from KM efforts  KM organizational infrastructure starts to be put in place  KM pilots migrate into full-blown projects 4  Enterprise-wide knowledge management  Learning and knowledge sharing proficiencies are built into the recognition and reward system of the organization  KM processes are put in place to ensure the capture, sharing, application, and creation of knowledge  New products or services are created  Functional silos begin to crumble 5  Nirvana is created through the KM activities by establishing high levels of employee morale, increased worker productivity, improved institutional memory building, improved customer relations, increased innovation, a thriving continuous learning culture exists, improved access to people and associated information & knowledge, and a “working smarter not harder” environment permeates Liebowitz, J. and T. Beckman (2008), “Moving Towards a K3M…”, Advances in MIS: Knowledge Management (I. Becerra and D. Leidner, Eds.), M.E. Sharpe Publishers, April. 11

12 The Ripple Effect 12

13 You Don’t Want to be Alone 13

14 The Key to KM: Building Bridges Across Isolated Islands 14

15 4 Pillars of a Human Capital Strategy KMKM CMCM PMPM CGMCGM Human Capital KM=Knowledge Mgt. CM=Competency Mgt. PM=Performance Mgt. CGM=Change Mgt. KM=Knowledge Mgt. CM=Competency Mgt. PM=Performance Mgt. CGM=Change Mgt. 15

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17 i4cp KR Survey (426 organizations responded) Over 77% of the organizations don’t have an owner for KR initiatives 17

18 Pillars of KR (Liebowitz, J. (2009), Knowledge Retention: Strategies and Solutions, Auerbach Publishing) Recognition and Reward Structure Bi-directional Knowledge Flow (bottom-up and top-down) Personalization and Codification (“connections” and “collection”) The Golden Gem (bringing back talented retirees into the organization via contractors, consultants, retiree & alumni association, ready pool of retired experts) 18

19 19 What is Being Done from a KM Perspective? Expertise (yellow pages) locators Online communities of practice Lessons learned/best practice systems Knowledge sharing forums Mentoring programs Job Rotation Job Shadowing Creative Learning/Leadership Groups KM Working Groups/KM Officers/HC Officers/CHCOs/Knowledge Stewards Online, web-based searchable video/knowledge repositories Knowledge Fairs/Knowledge Exchanges/Birds of a Feather Meetings Organizational narratives/storytelling/case studies Knowledge-based/expert/agent-based/intelligent systems Intranets/shared drives 19

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23 ESA 23

24 KM Objectives Within the ESA Operations Teams Identify and capture core knowledge across missions and generations Facilitate knowledge and operational experience sharing Improve community process 24

25 Knowledge Sharing Tenets for Success Enhance reward and recognition system to include learning and knowledge sharing competencies Acquaint people with knowledge sharing and its benefits Share the message that with creativity comes failure and we all benefit from talking about our successes and our failures Integrate knowledge sharing into everyone’s job Educate people about what types of knowledge are valuable and how they can be used Make sure the technology works for people, not vice versa 25

26 Lessons Learned It is easier to apply KM strategies that fit an organization’s culture than to first change the organizational culture and then apply KM Don’t try to do everything at once Apply KM to the core competencies of the organization to show value-added benefits There will always be skeptics of anything Don’t put the cart before the horse 26

27 The Informal Organization (Katzenbach Partners, 2007) “Yet, in most corporate settings, the informal organization is poorly understood, poorly managed, and often disregarded as inconsequential.” 27

28 5 Signs Your Informal Organization is Alive and Well [Katzenbach Partners, 2007] The Word Gets Out Fast “Change” Isn’t a Dirty Word Collaboration is the Default Mode Employees are Tapped In Stories Demonstrate Values 28

29 “Learning Gets Social” (T. Bingham, T&D) ASTD and i4cp conducted research on informal learning: –98% of those surveyed say that informal learning enhances employee performance –However, 36% dedicated no money to informal learning and 78% dedicated 10 percent or less of the training budget to it –Web 2.0 Study (ASTD/i4cp/Booz Allen): only a small minority of companies are using Web 2.0 technologies in learning 29

30 The Value of Social Networking Networks of informal relationships have a critical influence on work and innovation Research shows that appropriate connectivity in well-managed networks within organizations can have a substantial impact on performance, learning, and innovation facebook.com, myspace.com, LinkedIn.com 30

31 Basic Steps to Performing a SNA Determine your unit of study Develop the relationships/dimensions to be used Create & disseminate your web-based survey instrument (pilot, then field) Apply SNA software tools (e.g., NetMiner, UCINet- Netdraw) to help with the analysis and visualization Report results Perform a post-audit 6-12 months after the intervention 31

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35 Net Team Layout by Generation 35

36 K AreaIsolateTransmitterReceiverCarrier Context Exp. Pr General Process Relation Strategic Node Types by Area 36

37 Importance of Cross-Generational Knowledge Flows “Generational differences significantly impact employee attitudes and outcomes in the workplace. If firms are unable to modify their cultures and work environments to adequately meet the needs of their younger generation employees, they will continue to experience high levels of dissatisfaction and turnover.” Westerman, J. and J. Yamamura (2007), “Generational preferences for work environment fit: effects on employee outcomes”, Career Development Int. Journal, 12(2), Emerald. 37

38 Tacit Knowledge Flows Intergenerational Biases Edge Organizations Main Areas of Research 38

39 Summary of the Findings Important as critical success factors for cross-generational knowledge flows: »Shared understanding refers to having a mutual conveyance and agreement of ideas that are shared between two parties. »Reciprocity refers to being willing to share one’s knowledge because given a similar situation, the knowledge recipient would share 39

40 Summary of the Findings (cont.) »Intrinsic worth of knowledge refers to the value and merit of the knowledge being conveyed. A subset of overlapping values to reduce generational gaps is also important to lead to a common, shared understanding. »Convenient knowledge transfer mechanisms need to exist for cross-generational knowledge flows so that “user adoption” will be enhanced. These knowledge transfer mechanisms could be either codified or personalized approaches to sharing knowledge. »Interpersonal trust and respect for each other will enhance knowledge sharing as well. Knowledge sharing was more likely to occur with individuals with pro-social traits--that is, people concerned more about the group collective goals versus individual agendas 40

41 Future Trends in KM Methodologies ROI on KM; KM Metrics Socio-technical approaches to KM (e.g., SNA/ONA/VNA) Learning from others (taking complementary approaches and integrating them for KM) KM Governance (Formal strategies and ownership needed for KR, KM, HC, etc.) 41

42 Concluding Comments Techniques like SNA can provide added insights into the grapevine effect and can facilitate innovation and informal learning Cross-generational knowledge flows and knowledge retention & transfer will become increasingly important to organizations E-Learning will continue to play an important role for stimulating learning and creativity Governments need to think about creating “knowledge cities” with universities as urban innovation centers These areas will add to macro and micro strategic intelligence 42

43 Final Thought Scott Anthony’s “The Silver Lining: An Innovation Playbook for Uncertain Times” (Harvard Business Press, 2009): –“The biggest silver lining for innovation is that the scarcity that is sure to result from the current economic climate is actually a good thing for innovation.” 43

44 Thank you… Any questions? 44


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