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1 Knowledge Management and E-Learning: Putting Theory into Practice OR “Two Jays are Better Than One” Dr. Jay Liebowitz Orkand Endowed Chair in Management.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Knowledge Management and E-Learning: Putting Theory into Practice OR “Two Jays are Better Than One” Dr. Jay Liebowitz Orkand Endowed Chair in Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Knowledge Management and E-Learning: Putting Theory into Practice OR “Two Jays are Better Than One” Dr. Jay Liebowitz Orkand Endowed Chair in Management and Technology Graduate School of Management & Technology University of Maryland University College

2 E-Learning Trends 2011 (KMS Blog; Learning Circuits—Nov/Dec 2010) How does your company use e-learning? – IT (end user/desktop applications): 39.2% – Regulatory/compliance issues: 35.4% – Task-specific skills: 35.4% – Customer service training: 34.2% – Others (Sales force training; external customers/clients; general business skills; product updates and rollouts; etc.) 2

3 E-Learning Trends 2011 (KMS Blog; Learning Circuits—Cont.) What concerns does your organization have about using e-learning? – Cost to implement:48.4% – Time commitment required:45.3% – Technical competency required:37.5% – Cost to maintain:34.4% – Culture doesn’t support EL:31.3% – Quality of the programs:31.3% – Management/Employee buy-in:29.7% – EL not perceived as real training:26.6% 3

4 Gartner’s View on KM (Sept. 9, 2010) “As KM program leaders determine their goals for 2011, they should consider how the emphasis has shifted away from just collecting content and refocus on connecting people with the content or people they need.” “…KM leaders need to shift their focus to the management and people-related issues that contribute to successful implementation” 4

5 “How to Find Answers Within Your Company” (Benbya and van Alstyne, MIT Sloan Management Review, Winter 2011) Infosys: 17,000 employee consulting and information technology company in Bangalore Internal knowledge market called “K-Shop” (with virtual knowledge currency units) MIT Center for IS Research showed that companies with above-average information reuse experienced 4% higher margins and 12% higher revenue growth in 2009 than companies with below-average reuse. 5

6 Your People Are Your Competitive Advantage Jim Goodnight, CEO of SAS: – “About 95% of my assets walk out the front door every evening and my job is to bring them back the next day” (F. Leistner (2010), Mastering Organizational Knowledge Flow: How to Make Knowledge Sharing Work, John Wiley) 6

7 KM and E-Learning (Taylor and Francis, 2011) 7

8 KM and EL Journal 8

9 “The Research Core of the KM Literature” (Wallace et al., Int. Journal of Info. Mgt., Vol. 31, 2011) Bibliometric analysis and a content analysis on KM literature based on 21,596 references from 2,771 source publications 27.8% used no identifiable research methods Of the remaining refereed articles: – 60% employed mainstream social sciences research – 40% used provisional methods as a substitute for more formally defined or scientifically-based research methodologies 9

10 “ Tapping into Social Networking: Collaborating Enhances Both KM and EL” (Kane et al., VINE, 2010) Synergy exists between KM and EL through social networking T. Rowe Price uses a wiki-based collaborative KM tool Sun Microsystem’s collaborative learning environment includes wiki-driven capabilities with their LMS Shell’s e-learning integrates KM (web-based expertise dictionary, KS forums, and centers of excellence) 10

11 “Sharing Tacit Knowledge Online: A Case Study of E-Learning in Cisco’s Network of System Integrator Partner Firms” (Hildrum, Industry and Innovation Journal, 2009) Main conclusion: Advanced e-learning systems—particularly remote laboratories— make possible efficient sharing of tacit knowledge between internationally dispersed technicians Cisco uses online networks of practice and local communities of practice 11

12 Organizational Learning The MASIE Center, an international think-tank, spoke with 6100 employees in companies around the world in 2008 Found that “when it comes to organizational learning, traditional courses and on-the-job training are increasingly being supplemented with e-learning modules, online video, social networks, and other informal methods”. 12

13 John Crane (Global Engineering) Know-How e-learning platform Support the established organization, but also emerging markets in India, China, Africa, and the former Soviet states Need to rapidly transfer specialized engineering knowledge across employee base Develop and improve the training resources 13

14 E-Learning Advantages for Gov (RWD/NTIS) Shorten time to competency Reduced costs of continuous learning Synchronized communities of practice with common business practices and shared experience Facilitated change management by way of organizational readiness and adoption 14

15 Naysayers of KM & EL (“At Cross Purposes: Why E-Learning and KM Don’t Get Along, Learning Light, 2005) E-Learning grew out of HR and Training Depts KM grew out of IT and Methods-Depts KM set out to be strategic but has turned out to be too fragmented and anecdotal E-Learning set out to meet tactical needs but got hijacked as a medium for strategic messages Neither model appears to be as effective as it could be Engaged or divorced? 15

16 The Future is “e” (Adrian Snook, KM Magazine; “The objective of all organizations is not simply to have knowledgeable employees, but to have competent ones.” 16

17 “A KM Roadmap for E-Learning” (Lytras et al., Int. Journal of D.E. Tech., 2005) Standards Learning Objects Marketplaces Ubiquitous Learning Evaluation of E-Learning International Partnerships New Services for Citizens Open, Virtual, and Corporate Universities Multimedia E-Learning Content Management Semantic E-Learning Realization 17

18 IBM 2010 CHRO Study 18

19 19 Strategic Intelligence “Drives Innovation” STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE KM BI CI

20 20 Strategic Intelligence STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE KM= Knowledge- Enabled (e.g., KR&T; SN) BI= Learner-Enabled (e.g.,E-Learning, SN) CI= Community- Enabled (External/ Competitor)— e.g., SN

21 21 Trends in Business Intelligence As Related to E-Learning

22 22 Corporate Workforce Development: Growth of Online Learning 3.9 million students (20% of US students) took at least one online course during Fall 2007 (Sloan, 2008). 12 million students now take some or all classes online (Ambient Insight, 2009). 22 million online students estimated by 2014 (Ambient Insight, 2009). $69 billion online learning market estimated by 2015 (Hezel Associates, 2005).

23 The Online Classroom

24 24 UMUC’s National Leadership Institute Provides corporate leadership development training – Affiliated with the Center for Creative Leadership Provides leadership training for academic programs – Executive MBA – Doctor of Management in Community College Administration Focuses on improving leadership behavior in the workplace

25 25 Benefits of Virtual Corporate Training Greater flexibility for employee and company Enhanced peer-to-peer interaction More one-on-one interaction with instructor Greater access to experts through technology Expanded time period allowing for more individual reflection

26 26 Future Corporate Training Seamless transition between learning management systems and new technologies Incorporation of latest Web technologies – Blogs – Wikis – Social networking E-book expansion/wider accessibility Course content accessed from hand-held devices

27 UMUC Data Mining Project ($1.2 M Grant from Kresge Foundation) To increase the likelihood that students entering UMUC will successfully complete the course(s) in their first term AND re-enroll for the immediate next term. o Enhance the Success of Transfer Students 27

28 28 Strategic Intelligence STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE KM= Knowledge- Enabled (e.g., KR&T; SN) BI= Learner-Enabled (e.g.,E-Learning, SN) CI= Community- Enabled (External/ Competitor)— e.g., SN

29 Managing Knowledge in Knowledge Organizations Survey (Amar and Coakes, 2010) 29 Our survey found that contemporary organizations depend extensively on knowledge for their success in the marketplace. Knowledge and its management is not just a concern of KM professionals but of all employees. This redefines the role of knowledge management for the purpose of organizing and managing the experiences of employees. Thus the KM function extends to efficiently and expeditiously creating, locating, capturing, refining, and sharing knowledge. In its new role, KM becomes a task for each employee, and those tasked with managing organizational knowledge become facilitators for this process.

30 30 “Leaders Know How to Make the Most of Knowledge Management” (September 9, 2009, Credit Union Times) Society of Human Resource Management study (April 2009): – Organizations that optimize knowledge management are leaders in their fields. – “While some firms may view knowledge management as nice to have, proactive organizations see it as a key component of an effective business plan.”

31 31 Importance of Cross-Generational Knowledge Flows “Generational differences significantly impact employee attitudes and outcomes in the workplace. If firms are unable to modify their cultures and work environments to adequately meet the needs of their younger generation employees, they will continue to experience high levels of dissatisfaction and turnover.” Westerman, J. and J. Yamamura (2007), “Generational preferences for work environment fit: effects on employee outcomes”, Career Development Int. Journal, 12(2), Emerald.

32 32 Intergenerational Knowledge Transfer Debby McNichols: Dissertation on “Tacit Knowledge: An Examination of Intergenerational Knowledge Transfer Within an Aerospace Engineering Community” (2008) – Baby boomers would share knowledge with Gen Xers on the condition that the younger engineers display an attitude of respect and appreciation – Communication, trust, proximity, insecurity and unwillingness to share knowledge – Possible solutions: mentoring, teamwork, technology, management involvement

33 33 Cader, M. and J. Liebowitz, KR Survey, 69 respondents from 42 organizations, Spr.2008.

34 34 i4cp KR Survey (426 organizations responded)—January 2009 Over 77% of the organizations don’t have an owner for KR initiatives

35 35 Tacit Knowledge Flows Intergenerational Biases Edge Organizations Main Areas of Research

36 36 Summary of the Findings Important as critical success factors for cross- generational knowledge flows: » Shared understanding refers to having a mutual conveyance and agreement of ideas that are shared between two parties. » Reciprocity refers to being willing to share one’s knowledge because given a similar situation, the knowledge recipient would share

37 37 Summary of the Findings (cont.) » Intrinsic worth of knowledge refers to the value and merit of the knowledge being conveyed. A subset of overlapping values to reduce generational gaps is also important to lead to a common, shared understanding. » Convenient knowledge transfer mechanisms need to exist for cross-generational knowledge flows so that “user adoption” will be enhanced. These knowledge transfer mechanisms could be either codified or personalized approaches to sharing knowledge. » Interpersonal trust and respect for each other will enhance knowledge sharing as well. Knowledge sharing was more likely to occur with individuals with pro-social traits--that is, people concerned more about the group collective goals versus individual agendas

38 38 Bedell, K., “Succession Planning: Generational Diversity,” Talent Management Magazine. Onboarding: Take a cohort approach, connect their work, solicit their input, and have fun. Training: Include Gen X and boomers with the Gen Y’ers in the training to heighten generational diversity awareness. Mentoring/Reverse Mentoring: Match Gen Y’er with a boomer, and let Gen Y’er be a “technology mentor”. Coaching: coach the team at the beginning and beyond. Give them a seat at the table: get the Gen Y’er involved so they can contribute to the decision making process. Passport Initiatives: Let the Gen Y’er “travel” to different functional and geographical areas within the company to bridge across the silos.

39 39 Strategic Intelligence STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE KM= Knowledge- Enabled (e.g., KR&T; SN) BI= Learner-Enabled (e.g.,E-Learning, SN) CI= Community- Enabled (External/ Competitor)— e.g., SN

40 40 “Learning Gets Social” (T. Bingham, T&D, August 2009) ASTD and i4cp conducted research on informal learning: – 98% of those surveyed say that informal learning enhances employee performance – However, 36% dedicated no money to informal learning and 78% dedicated 10 percent or less of the training budget to it – Web 2.0 Study (ASTD/i4cp/Booz Allen): only a small minority of companies are using Web 2.0 technologies in learning

41 41 Just 1 Blogging Platform for Month of June 2009 (kmgov list, 7/31/09) 388,580 blogs were created 5,845,417 posts were published 8,330,617 comments 2,153,176 active blogs 1,447,021,840 words

42 42 “Social Networking Gets Down to Business” (KMWorld, June 2009) Forrester ( predicts that social networking will account for nearly half of the $4.6 billion market it forecasts for Web 2.0 products by 2013

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44 44 The Informal Organization (Katzenbach Partners, 2007) “Yet, in most corporate settings, the informal organization is poorly understood, poorly managed, and often disregarded as inconsequential.”

45 45 5 Signs Your Informal Organization is Alive and Well [Katzenbach Partners, 2007] The Word Gets Out Fast “Change” Isn’t a Dirty Word Collaboration is the Default Mode Employees are Tapped In Stories Demonstrate Values

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53 53 K AreaIsolateTransmitterReceiverCarrier Context32913319046 Exp. Pr36112617140 General37811816242 Process44211010937 Relation4459412138 Strategic39611315138 Node Types by Area

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55 55 Concluding Comments Techniques like SNA can provide added insights into the grapevine effect and can facilitate innovation and informal learning Cross-generational knowledge flows and knowledge retention & transfer will become increasingly important to organizations E-Learning will continue to play an important role for stimulating learning and creativity Knowledge management and e-learning have strong synergies These areas will add to the strategic intelligence of the organization

56 56 Final Thought Scott Anthony’s “The Silver Lining: An Innovation Playbook for Uncertain Times” (Harvard Business Press, 2009): – “The biggest silver lining for innovation is that the scarcity that is sure to result from the current economic climate is actually a good thing for innovation.”

57 57 Thank you… Any questions?

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