Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Web Technology Beckwith Consulting, Inc."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Web Technology Beckwith Consulting, Inc
Purpose The purpose of this presentation is to: Acquaint you with the terms and concepts necessary to determine how the Web can improve your business Demonstrate the capabilities of Web applications “It’s time to take the red pill”
Web Concepts How the Web Works Let’s start with you. the user To use the web you must have a computer or another “web-ready” device, ex: Palm Pilot or Web phones*. *Often called Web Access Protocol (WAP) devices
Web Concepts How the Web Works Your computer must have communications hardware with installed drivers (software) –Modem card, ex: 56k Modem –Network* or NIC** card, ex: Linksys –Wireless Network card * Most networks today communicate using Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) ** Network Interface Card
Web Concepts How the Web Works Your computer must have Web service –Modem and Dialup Internet Service Provider (ISP), ex: AOL –*Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), offered by phone company in non-rural areas –*Internet Satellite, offered by satellite TV –*Digital Cable, offered by cable TV –*Dedicated LAN, ex: large corp. networks or US govt. *These faster services are called “Broadband”
Web Concepts How the Web Works Your computer must have Web browser software –AOL Online Software –Microsoft Internet Explorer –Netscape Navigator –Other web services require mail programs (Outlook) or File Transfer programs (WS_FTP)
Web Concepts How the Web Works Your computer must be logged into the Web –Dialup has dialed, connected & user has logged in OR –DSL/Satellite/Cable modem is on and connected
Quick Note on Networks Simple Dialup There are many types of network setups 56k Modem plugged into phone line (1 computer) AOL is a dialup service Computer Dialup Modem Phone Outlet Note: Uses regular(RJ11) phone cable
Quick Note on Networks Simple Cable/Satellite Cable/DSL/Satellite Modem plugged into cable/DSL/satellite outlet (1 computer) Charter and SBC/Yahoo are broadband Internet services Computer Cable/DSL/ Satellite Modem Cable/ Satellite Outlet Note: Uses special Category 5 (Cat 5 RJ45) Cable called patchcords *Most network equipment has a speed of 100Mbit/s
Quick Note on Networks Cable/DSL/Satellite with Hub Cable/DSL/Satellite Modem plugged into cable/DSL/satellite outlet Requires 2 or more Internet Protocol (IP) connections (like 2 separate phone numbers) Computer Cable/DSL Satellite Modem Cable/DSL Satellite Outlet Hub Computer
Quick Note on Networks Cable/DSL/Satellite with Router/Switch Cable/DSL/Satellite Modem and Router/ Switch* plugged into cable/satellite outlet Requires only 1 Internet Protocol (IP) connection (shares a phone number-saves $$) Computer Cable/DSL Satellite Outlet Router/ Switch Computer *Switches are smarter and faster than hubs Cable/DSL Satellite Modem
Quick Note on Networks Cable/Satellite with Wireless Router/Switch Cable/Satellite Modem and wireless Router/Switch plugged into cable/satellite outlet Replaces switch-to-computer cables, requires wireless network cards* Computer Cable/ Satellite Modem Cable/ Satellite Outlet Wireless Router/ Switch Computer *Wireless is more convenient, but slower and less secure than Cable
Computer Quick Note on Networks Cable/Satellite with Wireless and Regular Router/Switch Cable/Satellite Modem and two Router/ Switches plugged into cable/satellite outlet Computer Cable/ Satellite Modem Cable/ Satellite Outlet Wireless Router/ Switch Computer Router/ Switch
Quick Note on Networks Firewalls Firewalls are like the firewall in your car, which keep the heat and noise of the engine outside the passenger compartment Computer Firewalls are used to keep unwanted Internet users from accessing your network Once online, you are vulnerable w/o a firewall –BlackIce is an example of firewall software Computer Cable/ Satellite Modem Cable/ Satellite Outlet Router/ Switch & Firewall
Quick Note on Networks Firewalls Computer Firewalls work like Caller ID You set up the rules of who can “call” you Unrecognized callers are either denied, or asked for a password NOTE: Some software, like PCAnywhere and SQL Server require the firewall to specially configured
Web Concepts How the Web Works Back to the Logged in computer Once your computer is logged in, it is assigned an Internet Protocol (IP) address. Most networks (and all dialups) issue IPs on a per-login basis, these are called Dynamic IPs Some networks issue these permanently, these are called Fixed IPs Your IP is a 16-digit number which is used to identify your computer to the Internet, ex:
Web Concepts How the Web Works Every time you request information from the Internet, your IP is sent with the request, so the Internet knows where to send the information Every website has an IP address. The Universal Resource Listing (URL) like, is translated to its IP address automatically for you NOTE: Remember the router/switches that only need one IP address? The router keeps track of the network users so they can share the IP address.
Web Concepts How the Web Works Example: You wants news so you types in: Quick Note on four parts of the URL: Protocol: http is Hypertext Transfer Protocol, you will also see https used for secure transactions. If you leave this off, the default is http. Domain: identifies a specific webserver File Information: /news/ asp identifies the specific filename on the requested website. Query string: ?vts= Additional information sent in the request, in this case the article number called vts.
Web Concepts How the Web Works Simple Example: You wants news so you type in: MSN-BC receives the request, looks up the article and send it back to you.
Web Concepts How the Web Works Detailed Example (what really happens): You ( ) want news so you type in: MSN-BC’s IP address of is translated by a program called the Domain Name Server (DNS) The request is sent to MSN-BC receives the request, accesses its database to look up the article and sends the article (vts= ) and several graphics* back to you ( ) Your browser assembles the article and graphics according to the HyperText Markup Language (HTML) code to format and display the MSN-BC screen. * Each webpage is comprised of numerous graphic files, that why we see (10 items remaining) on the status bar of a downloading page. It’s waiting for those pieces to complete the page.
Web Concepts How the Web Works Detailed Example (Other Comments): Technically the Internet is a large network. The Worldwide Web (WWW) is an application that runs on the Internet. Whenever you type in “http://www.whatever.com” you are using the Worldwide Web. The Worldwide Web produces webpages (a combination of text and graphics). MSN-BC’s website has an IP address of It uses the domain name of because it registered that domain name with Network Solutions or another authorized Domain Registry company. These companies maintain the databases used by the Domain Name Servers (DNS). Current annual fees are about $35.
Web Concepts How the Web Works Detailed Example (Security): Webpages are secured by installing a special license and software, called a Secure Socket Link (SSL) on the servicing website called a Web Host. This software encrypts communication between the user computer and website. Most credit card processing is transmitted using SSL. You’ll notice the protocol will be https:// or shttp:// and a “secure” or “locked” icon appears on your browser screen. Current annual fee is about $400. Hackers monitor web requests using special software, SSL protects financial & personal information by encrypting these messages—foiling the hackers. https://www.bankofamerica.com $$$
Transmission Speed Transmission Speed is the amount of data that a line can transfer. A 28.8k modem transmits 28,800 bits per second (bps), a 56k modem transmits 56,000 bps (7 kbytes/s) – the maximum via normal phone lines An ISDN modem transmits 128k Cable/Satellite/DSL transmit at least 384 kbps A T1 line transmits 1.54Mbps (ISP speed) A T3 line transmits 43 Mbps (Web host speeds) Fiber Optics start with OC-3 which is 115 Mbps OC-12 is 622 Mbps (Internet backbone speed)
Search Engines All search engines do about the same things: Search the Internet for websites using robots, which are automated software programs that search for keyword and description META tags in the HTML code Allow users to search their database using keywords Allow website administrators to suggest their sites to the search database (no guarantees) Allow website administrators to buy “premium placement” – Extra money to get to the top of the list Other companies, like Overture, also manage premium placement or sponsored links for search engine sites.
Web Applications Web pages are like online Word documents. HTML is used to display pictures, format paragraphs, change colors, fonts, etc.. BUT Word can’t add numbers or animate graphics. Web Applications are like online spreadsheets and databases. They do something. Common scripting languages used to do this are Cold Fusion, Active Server Pages (ASP), and PHP. Web Applications interact with program variables, databases, spreadsheets, and user inputs to create dynamic web content.
Web Applications In fact, our first example was a web application When the MSN-BC server read the asp file, control moved to the ASP server and passed the variable VTS with a value of ASP Server VTS= ASP Server
Web Applications The asp file searched the news database for article number (VTS) ASP Server VTS= Database VTS= ASP Server
Web Applications The article text is passed back to the ASP Server Then to the MSNBC web server ASP Server VTS= Database VTS= ASP Server
Web Applications The article text is then inserted into the web page and sent to the requesting user ASP Server VTS= Database VTS= ASP Server
Web Applications Web Applications can read or write to multiple databases, spreadsheets, even mail servers to send confirmations ASP Server Database Spreadsheet Web Server Mail Server
Web Applications Web Applications include on-line: Banking services Catalogs and shopping carts Airline ticket reservations Chat rooms Message Boards Search Engines Theater Listings Dating Services Mortgage Calculators To name only a few applications.
E-Commerce E-commerce sites are basically large web applications. The ordered items go into a database, which adds up the prices, taxes, even shipping. The tricky part is the credit card processing Let’s follow a user that is placing an order.
E-Commerce First, the user goes to a website and adds her desired items to the shopping cart When all her desired items are in the shopping cart, she clicks the “checkout” button The web application will total the item quantities and prices, determine taxes, shipping charges, and present an invoice to her. User Web Server IMA Bank Website’s Bank Acct Verification Svc Secure Web Server
E-Commerce Next, the she reviews his order and clicks the Purchase button The order request is received by the web server who talks to the secure web server The secure* web server sends a secure web page to accept the credit card and personal information User Web Server IMA Bank Website’s Bank Acct Verification Svc Secure Web Server *Most Web Host offer limited free SSL services to their customers
E-Commerce She then inputs his credit card information and address and starts the credit card purchase The credit card information and address is verified by the Verification Service, (ex: VeriSign) The Verification Service acts as a messenger service couriering verified information and money to the required places Verification Services cost about $20/mo User Web Server Secure Web Server IMA Bank Verification Svc Website’s Bank Acct
E-Commerce The verified credit card voucher is forwarded to the Internet Merchant Account (IMA) bank The website has an IMA to cash the credit card vouchers. These IMA banks charge a percentage and a per transaction fee. They also have a minimum fee of $20/month so if you only receive a few credit card transactions, you’ll end up paying a larger fee User Web Server Secure Web Server IMA Bank Verification Svc Website’s Bank Acct
E-Commerce The Internet Merchant Account bank will “cash” the credit card request, subtracting their 2-3% and cents/transaction charges The proceeds are deposited into the Website’s bank account This bank account can be the website company’s regular business bank account or a separate one User Web Server Secure Web Server IMA Bank Verification Svc Website’s Bank Acct
E-Commerce The Internet Merchant Account bank acknowledges the transaction to the Verification Service The Verification Service acknowledges the transaction to the Web Server The Web Server sends notice to the user that her transaction was approved (or disapproved) User Web Server Secure Web Server IMA Bank Verification Svc Website’s Bank Acct
E-Commerce The Verification Service will also notify the Website owner of all credit card transactions All credit card activities are saved in a database. Special administrative webpages (passworded) allow the website owner to reconcile credit card activity, perform charge-backs, and notify additional addresses of account activity User Web Server Secure Web Server IMA Bank Verification Svc Website’s Bank Acct
Website Requirements Requirements Collection One of the most important steps How do we, the development experts, collect requirements from a businessperson who knows his business—but not the Web?
Website Requirements What Do You Want the Web to do for you? What information, pictures, prices, etc. do you want to show about your company? Do you want to sell products or services from your website? What information could you put on the Web that would prevent “time-costly” phone calls?
Website Requirements What Do You Want the Web to do for you? What web applications would bring more business to your company or make your personnel more efficient? –Tying information from multiple databases together into a single report –Extending your business information and applications to your “on the road” salespersons or technicians –Automating boring, labor-intensive tasks
Website Requirements What do I need for my Website? Web Host* – Web server where your website is hosted. Prices are $10 - $50 /mo depending on languages supported, databases, etc. Domain Registration – Registers your named URL, Prices are $10 – 35/year. Web Design - Designing the content, navigation, and layout of your website (front-end). Prices are $50 - $150/hour. Web Applications – Design web application functionality (back-end). Prices are $65 – $250/hour * This is not your Internet Service Provider (ISP). Although your ISP may also Web Host.
Website Requirements What do I need for my Website? (Cont’d) If e-comm/credit card processing is required: Shopping Cart Software, ex. Miva, AbleCommerce, or custom Prices are $ ? Verification Services, ex. VeriSign Prices are a one- time setup fee ($150) and about $20/month Internet Merchant Account (IMA), ex. eMerchant Solutions Prices are a one-time setup fee ($100) and 2-3% and 25 cents per transaction PayPal, requires user signup and checking information