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1. Importance of Microbiology 2 تاریخچه میکروبیولوژی 3.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Importance of Microbiology 2 تاریخچه میکروبیولوژی 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 1

2 Importance of Microbiology 2

3 تاریخچه میکروبیولوژی 3

4 اهمیت میکروارگانیسم ها 4

5 Importance of Microbiology 5

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7 7

8 Famous microbiologist In immunology Louis Pasteur ( ). Emil von (1901) Paul Ehrlich in 1912 Margaret Pittman ( ) Gerhard J Domagk (1935) Alexander Fleming (1928) William A Hinton ( Albert Shatz, E Bugie and Selman (1944PLANTS & SOIL Sergei Winogradsky, in 1890, in soil. ) 8

9 General Microbiology تعریف : میکروارگانیسم ها باچشم غیرمسلح دیده نمی شوند دلیل نیاز به طبقه بندی اولین طبقه بندی موجودات زنده طبقه بندي ميكروارگانيسمها : براساس ساختارهسته : Acaryotes Prokaryotes Eukaryotes 9

10 General Microbiology طبقه بندي براساس سايز سلولي و نحوه ي تغذيه Viruses Bacteria Fungi Algae Protozoa 10

11 Bacterial Numenclature Binomial nomenclature Genus + Species Example: Escherichia coli Bacillus cereus B. cereus 11

12 General Microbiology Bacteria Shape Coccus Rod Spirillum Bacteria طول 1-10 ميكرومتر عرض ميكرومتر 12

13 General Microbiology Bacteria Arrangment 13

14 Bacteria colony تعریف : اجتماعی از سلولهای میکروبی که از یک سلول والد برروی محیط جامد (Agar media) به وجود میایند رشد باکتری در محیط مایع (Broth) باعث کدورت محیط میشود. 14

15 Bacteria Observation 15

16 Bacteria structure 16

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18 Bacteria structure 18

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23 Bacterial pilus 23

24 Bacterial Plasmid and pilli function 24

25 Bacteril capsule 25

26 Bacterial Capsule –Negative Staining 26

27 Capsule Strurcture (Phagocytosis) 27

28 Bacteria Sheath 28

29 Bacterial sheath formation 29

30 Bacterial Fine Structure Cell wall structure 30

31 Cell wall structure 31

32 L- form Bacteria 32

33 Protoplast formation and regeneration 33

34 Bacterial Flagellum 34

35 Bacterial Flagellum 35

36 Bacterial cytoplasmic Membrane 36

37 Bacterial Capsule 37

38 Bacterial Outer membrane 38

39 Bacterial Sheath 39

40 Protozoa’s Stalk 40

41 Bacterial Stalk 41

42 Cytoplasmic membrane 42

43 Ribosome Structure 43

44 Bacterial Inclusion Bodies 44

45 Bacterial Inclusion Bodies 45

46 Endospore structure 46

47 Endospore Structure 47

48 Spore development 48

49 Organism’s requirements for growth Energey H 2 O Carbon source Nitrogen source Oxygen Vitamin Trace elements Macro elements Co 2 49

50 Different sources of energeys Light (Phototrophs) Chemicals (Heterotrophs) Different sources of Carbon Atmospheric CO 2 (Autotrophs) Chemicals (Heterorotrophs) 1) Organic compounds (Organotrophs) 2) Inorganic compounds (Litotrophs) 50 Growth requirements

51 Different steps of Microbial cultivation 1) Preparation of culture medium 2)Preparation of physical factors 3) Inoculation 4) Incubation 51

52 Different Culture Media Definition of culture medium 1- Natural 2- Syntethic 1- Organic 2- Inorganic 1- Selective 2- Differentica 3- General 52

53 Physical parameters required for bacterial growth 53

54 Bacteria classification Kingdom Division Class Order Familly Genus Species Strain 54

55 Bacteria Classification 55

56 Live organisms Classification 56

57 Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes 57

58 Archeabacteria 58

59 Cyanobacteria 59

60 Cyanobacteria 60

61 Cyanobacteria 61

62 Cyanobacteria colonies 62

63 Organism reproduction Water Hydrogen source Carbon source Nitrogen source Oxygen Co2 Trace elements Vitamins 63

64 ClaSSIFICtion of BaCTERIA Acording to their carbon and energy sources Carbon Sources : Autotroph Heterotroph Energy Source: Phototroph Chemeotroph (Chemolitotroph and Chemoorganotroph) 64

65 Bacterial binary fission 65

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69 Viruses Definition Classification, according to their host Their main structure Their Morphology 69

70 Bacteriophages: Definition & History Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and destroy bacteria. They have been referred to as bacterial parasites, with each phage type depending on a single strain of bacteria to act as host. Nucleic acid Nucleic acid Capside Capside Envelope Envelope tail tail

71 Bacteriophages: Classification At present, over 5000 bacteriophages have been identified by electron microscopy and can be divided into 13 virus families. Based on morphology and nucleic acid are classified

72 Double stranded DNA, Enveloped Double stranded DNA, Non-enveloped Myoviridae Siphoviridae Podoviridae P2 T2 λ P22 Tectiviridae PRD1 Corticoviridae PM2 Single-stranded DNA Inoviridae M13 & fd Microviridae ΦX174 Leviviridae Single stranded RNA MS2 Lipothrixviridae TTV1 Fuselloviridae SSV1 Plasmaviridae Double stranded RNA phi6 66 Cystoviridae Rudiviridae SIRV 1, 2 13 Bacteriophage families

73 Bacteriophages: Lysogenic Cycle

74 Bacteriophages: Lysogenic Conversion Some lysogenic phage carry genes that can enhance the virulence of the bacterial host.  For example, some phage carry genes that encode toxins. These genes, once integrated into the bacterial chromosome, can cause the once harmless bacteria to release potent toxins that can cause disease.

75 Plant Viruses symptoms 75

76 Animal Viruses 76

77 Human Cancer 77


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