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Elemental Prominence & The Importance of Analysis in Wine Grape Production Tim Eyrich.

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Presentation on theme: "Elemental Prominence & The Importance of Analysis in Wine Grape Production Tim Eyrich."— Presentation transcript:

1 Elemental Prominence & The Importance of Analysis in Wine Grape Production Tim Eyrich

2 Elemental Prominence Proactive Nutrient Approach is an understanding of the elemental prominence (a time line) in the crop production cycle. That understanding enables us to maintain the appropriate levels and balances of elements, at critical physiological growth stages, that have an influence on yield and quality factors. Proactive Nutrient Approach is an understanding of the elemental prominence (a time line) in the crop production cycle. That understanding enables us to maintain the appropriate levels and balances of elements, at critical physiological growth stages, that have an influence on yield and quality factors.

3 Nutrient Interactions Copper (Cu) Calcium (Ca) Manganese (Mn) Potassium (K) Iron (Fe) Phosphorus (P) Boron (B) Nitrogen (N) Zinc (Zn) Magnesium (Mg) Molybdenum (Mo)

4 Genetic Potential Still progressing slowly Still progressing slowly Now, we intercede for our benefit Now, we intercede for our benefit Our task identify and utilize existing genetic traits Our task identify and utilize existing genetic traits Multitudes of limitations we have not/may not overcome Multitudes of limitations we have not/may not overcome Soil fertilizer uptake efficiency is presently one genetic limitation Soil fertilizer uptake efficiency is presently one genetic limitation

5 Quality Wine Grapes Well integrated nutritional program that involves soil and tissue analysis and soil and foilar applied products is the best insurance for optimum quality and maximum yield

6 Concentration On Analysis And Weather Allows Us To Make The Most Informed Nutritional Decisions To Realize The Crop’s Maximum Yield And Quality Potentials

7 The goal is to manage the vine for optimum berry quality. Even set, even maturity, better must quality.

8 Many of these factors are nutritional driven.

9 Role of Analysis Role of Analysis Soil Analysis - Determines Soil Analysis - Determines Natural soil deficienciesNatural soil deficiencies Interactions and Induced deficienciesInteractions and Induced deficiencies Potential Nutrient AvailabilityPotential Nutrient Availability Tissue Analysis - Determines Tissue Analysis - Determines Plant nutrient levels - critical, adequate, toxicPlant nutrient levels - critical, adequate, toxic Crop Analysis - Determines Crop Analysis - Determines Direct readout on crop qualityDirect readout on crop quality

10 Integrated Fertility Management Integrated Fertility Management SOIL FERTILITY IS THE BASE LINE Soil nutrient status and availability dictates overall potential via soil input Soil nutrient status and availability dictates overall potential via soil input Levels are static aside from cropping and fertilizer input Levels are static aside from cropping and fertilizer input Therefore, soil analysis indicates the potential crop quality and yield Therefore, soil analysis indicates the potential crop quality and yield

11 Integrated Fertility Management Integrated Fertility Management TISSUE FERTILITY IS THE INDICATOR Tissue nutrient levels reflect the true crop status at that time Tissue nutrient levels reflect the true crop status at that time Levels change with maturity and environmental changes Levels change with maturity and environmental changes Tissue analysis indicates the actual status at the time of sampling Tissue analysis indicates the actual status at the time of sampling

12 Integrated Fertility Management Integrated Fertility Management MUST ANALYSIS REVEALS THE PRODUCT Fruit analysis is the bottom line Fruit analysis is the bottom line An integrated fertility program strongly influences the final product An integrated fertility program strongly influences the final product Must characteristics can be altered in season with fertility management Must characteristics can be altered in season with fertility management

13 Key nutrients in viticulture Nitrogen (N) - Protein synthesis (growth) Nitrogen (N) - Protein synthesis (growth) Phosphorus (P) - Cell division, energy transfer Phosphorus (P) - Cell division, energy transfer Potassium (K) - Sugar transport Potassium (K) - Sugar transport Magnesium (Mg) - Part of the chlorophyll molecule, bunch maturation Magnesium (Mg) - Part of the chlorophyll molecule, bunch maturation Calcium (Ca) – Skin set, cell structure (colour, berry quality) Calcium (Ca) – Skin set, cell structure (colour, berry quality) Boron (B) - Pollen germination (flowering, fruit set, bunch maturation) Boron (B) - Pollen germination (flowering, fruit set, bunch maturation) Zinc (Zn) - Auxin synthesis, even fruit set (growth and development) Zinc (Zn) - Auxin synthesis, even fruit set (growth and development) Iron (Fe) - Chlorophyll synthesis Iron (Fe) - Chlorophyll synthesis Manganese (Mn) - Required for photosynthesis Manganese (Mn) - Required for photosynthesis

14 Nitrogen Generally in viticulture the main concern is avoiding excessive nitrogen applications which can lead to Generally in viticulture the main concern is avoiding excessive nitrogen applications which can lead to Excessive vigour with high yieldExcessive vigour with high yield Increased sensitivity to disease (botrytis)Increased sensitivity to disease (botrytis) Potential reduction in sugar accumulation in berries, increased acidity, reduced colour and bouquetPotential reduction in sugar accumulation in berries, increased acidity, reduced colour and bouquet Increased risk of physiological disorders (coulure, grape stalk necrosis), especially on sensitive varietiesIncreased risk of physiological disorders (coulure, grape stalk necrosis), especially on sensitive varieties

15 Nitrogen

16 Significance of Phosphorus in Wine Grape Production Crucial for photosynthesis, sugar synthesis and energy transfer (respiration) Crucial for photosynthesis, sugar synthesis and energy transfer (respiration) å Sugar production in leaves -- Brix Structural component of cell walls (phospholipids) Structural component of cell walls (phospholipids)

17 Phosphorus Key nutrient for cell division Key nutrient for cell division Period of highest demand is early in the growing season Period of highest demand is early in the growing season Phosphorus levels in the vine fall between bud burst and flowering/fruit set Phosphorus levels in the vine fall between bud burst and flowering/fruit set Uptake from the soil is reduced by low soil temperature Uptake from the soil is reduced by low soil temperature

18 Phosphorus

19 Phosphorus In Fruit Without external intervention Phosphorus In Fruit Without external intervention

20 Significance of Potassium in Wine Grape Production Crucial to sugar transport from leaves to fruit Crucial to sugar transport from leaves to fruit Excess in must neutralizes tartaric acid and lowers acidity Excess in must neutralizes tartaric acid and lowers acidity å Result is poor storage potential, especially when combined with poor tannin structure Lack of results in excess acidity, poor fermentation Lack of results in excess acidity, poor fermentation

21 Potassium Potassium is important for sugar accumulation in the ripening berries Potassium is important for sugar accumulation in the ripening berries High potassium levels will antagonise magnesium availability and may cause magnesium deficiency (grape stalk necrosis) High potassium levels will antagonise magnesium availability and may cause magnesium deficiency (grape stalk necrosis)

22 Potassium

23 Potassium In Fruit Without external intervention

24 Significance of Magnesium in Wine Grape Production With P and Ca, structural component of cell walls With P and Ca, structural component of cell walls Central atom to chlorophyll molecule Central atom to chlorophyll molecule Often in imbalance with K early season and during ripening Often in imbalance with K early season and during ripening Lack of delays or stops ripening Lack of delays or stops ripening å Result is lack of color (anthocyanin), poor color stability (excess tannin), excess acidity, lack of flavor (oxidation of phenolic substances)

25 Magnesium A key nutrient for grape growers A key nutrient for grape growers Central part of the chlorophyll molecule Central part of the chlorophyll molecule Leaf quality without excessive vigour Leaf quality without excessive vigour Prevention is far more effective than cure for magnesium deficiency Prevention is far more effective than cure for magnesium deficiency

26 Magnesium

27 Magnesium in Fruit Without external intervention

28 Significance of Calcium in Wine Grape Production Structural constituent -- in balance with Mg & B, cell wall strength/ elasticity Structural constituent -- in balance with Mg & B, cell wall strength/ elasticity Berry resistance to disease penetration Berry resistance to disease penetration Direct influence on berry skin surface = Color Direct influence on berry skin surface = Color Rarely, excess competes with Mg and K content Rarely, excess competes with Mg and K content

29 Calcium Calcium influences disease susceptibility of many fruit crops Calcium influences disease susceptibility of many fruit crops cell integritycell integrity senescencesenescence Calcium supply to fruits is often not sufficient even if soil or leaves are well supplied.Tablegrapesreport.pdf Calcium supply to fruits is often not sufficient even if soil or leaves are well supplied.Tablegrapesreport.pdfTablegrapesreport.pdf

30 Higher calcium content in the berry skin associated with less problems of Botrytis Higher calcium content in the berry skin associated with less problems of Botrytis

31 Calcium

32 Berry calcium Grape size (g) Ca (mg/100g FW)

33 Calcium Key to Sampling: 1 = 3/4 weeks pre-flower, 2 = End of flowering, 3 = Veraison (colouring), 4 = harvest

34 Calcium supply to fruits without external intervention Calcium supply to fruits without external intervention PERIOD OF CELL DIVISION Calcium is drawn to the developing fruits by the ‘calcium pump’ PERIOD OF CELL EXPANSION Calcium is no longer supplied to the fruits going instead to the growing points where cell division is now taking place Harvest Total fruit calcium content (mg)

35 Boron Essential for flowering Essential for flowering Severe deficiency will lead to flower abortion or poor fruit set Severe deficiency will lead to flower abortion or poor fruit set –reduced sugar content, increased acidity, lack of colour (unripe grapes) –problems of colour stability (improperly developed berries contain high level of tannins which unbalances the tannin:anthocyanin ratio) –Astringent wines with unripe tannins because pips and stalks stay green.

36 Boron

37 Significance of Zinc in Wine Grape Production Participant in Auxin formation Participant in Auxin formation Crucial for meristematic growth Crucial for meristematic growth Evenness of flowering/fruit set Evenness of flowering/fruit set Rachis elongation -- minimize rots Rachis elongation -- minimize rots Color and flavor stability Color and flavor stability Lack of results in high acidity, poor color and stability Lack of results in high acidity, poor color and stability Problem cannot be overcome late Problem cannot be overcome late

38 Zinc Auxin production, shoot development and flowering/fruit set Auxin production, shoot development and flowering/fruit set Required right from the start of the season through to fruit set Required right from the start of the season through to fruit set

39 Zinc

40 Mn Def.

41 Fe Def.

42

43 Grape Vine Life Cycle Dormancy Dormancy Bud break Bud break Leaf extension/expansion Leaf extension/expansion Flowering Flowering Flower fertilization/Fruit set Flower fertilization/Fruit set Fruit bulking Fruit bulking (Following season bud differentiation) (Following season bud differentiation) Fruit ripening Fruit ripening

44 Dormant (Spring) Little physiological activity Little physiological activity Plant using a minimal amount of stored energy for respiration Plant using a minimal amount of stored energy for respiration No energy input from leaves No energy input from leaves Leaf and fruit buds tight Leaf and fruit buds tight NPK Fertilty – Calcium (Soil) NPK Fertilty – Calcium (Soil)

45 Bud Break Leaf buds swell, enlarge, loosen Leaf buds swell, enlarge, loosen Susceptibility to cold injury increases Susceptibility to cold injury increases No photosynthesis, little transpiration or nutrient movement No photosynthesis, little transpiration or nutrient movement Rudimentary root system Rudimentary root system All activities in deficit mode, reserves All activities in deficit mode, reserves Micronutrients must be in place Micronutrients must be in place

46 Leaf Expansion All leaves continue to grow at energy deficit until 2/3 expanded All leaves continue to grow at energy deficit until 2/3 expanded Micronutrients crucial to proper growth Micronutrients crucial to proper growth Cool (cold), wet soils Cool (cold), wet soils Only most available nutrients from roots Only most available nutrients from roots Phosphorus continues to limit growth Phosphorus continues to limit growth Phosphorus, Magnesium,Zinc, Manganese, and Boron Phosphorus, Magnesium,Zinc, Manganese, and Boron

47 Flowering (Reproductive Phase) Micronutrients adequate? Micronutrients adequate? å Levels and balances crucial for flower set, fertilization, fruit set ( B, Zn, Ca, Mg, P) Leaves contributing to energy input Leaves contributing to energy input Soils and air warm Soils and air warm Relatively stress-free time Relatively stress-free time Time to apply nutrients for early fruit development Time to apply nutrients for early fruit development

48 Cell Division And Early Fruit Bulking Hot air / warm soil temperatures Hot air / warm soil temperatures Sugar translocation to and accumulation in fruit Sugar translocation to and accumulation in fruit Heat stress possible Heat stress possible Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Boron, and Manganese Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Boron, and Manganese Color Color

49 Fruit Bulking To Maturity Heat stress during sizing and sugaring Heat stress during sizing and sugaring Leaf/Fruit competing for nutrients and photosynthates Leaf/Fruit competing for nutrients and photosynthates Disease pressures to fruit increase Disease pressures to fruit increase Calcium for disease attack and entry Calcium for disease attack and entry Phosphorus for sugar synthesis Phosphorus for sugar synthesis Potassium for sugar transport, stress. (monitor Mg) Potassium for sugar transport, stress. (monitor Mg) Begin addressing specific must characteristics, Color Begin addressing specific must characteristics, Color

50 ??????????????


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