Presentation on theme: "Second International Conference on Innovative Natural Fibre Composites for Industrial Applications Rome - April 15 - 18, 2009 Promoting the cultivation."— Presentation transcript:
Second International Conference on Innovative Natural Fibre Composites for Industrial Applications Rome - April 15 - 18, 2009 Promoting the cultivation and development of hemp in Italy Isidoro Peroni, Glenda Giampaoli, Cesare Quaglia Sapienza University of Rome Museo della Canapa of Sant’Anatolia Assocanapa
Contents 1. Natural fibres characteristics 2. Natural composites 5. Italian Organizations 6. Italian Museums 7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy 8. Peculiarities and uses of hemp 9. Research 10. Optical Microscopic Enlargements of Hemp Plant 3. The history of hemp 4. Re-introduction of the hemp cultivation in Italy 11. A particular application: a prototype of a rudder 12. Phyto-remediation with hemp 13. Conclusions
NATURAL FIBRES ADVANTAGES: biodegradability renewable rough materials low density (even the half of the glass one) low cost low impact damage thermo-acoustic insulation non toxicity 1. Natural fibres characteristics
1. Natural fibres characteristics (cont.) Eastern countries Bamboo, Sisal, Coir, Jute, etc. Western countries Hemp: always of eastern origin but with a long western tradition for fabrics and ropes, (some problems, now solved, for the resemblance with the “Indian hemp”) Kenaf ( without doping substances), Flax, Cotton, etc.
High Mechanical Properties High UTS and Stiffness σ R = 600 MPa E = 70 GPa HEMP FIBRES σ R = 318 ± 14 MPa σ R = 591 ± 67 MPa TreatedUn-treated 1. Natural fibres characteristics (cont.)
E s = 7.0 GpaUTS s = 60.0 MPa E f = 84.0 GpaUTS f = 720.0 Mpa A% = 1.4% 00.511.52.0 ΔL [mm] 1 2 Strength [kN] Average diameter of stalks: 5.7 mm Average strength: 2500 N E = Young Modulus [GPa] UTS = Ultimate Strength [MPa] A% = Percent elongation at breaking ( )s = stalk( )f = fibre Test Machine INSTROM 1193 Range 25kN Laboratory ICMMPM 1. Natural fibres characteristics (cont.) Elongation-strength diagram
The reported result are little higher than the values of literature because the test are performed on virgin stalks. FibresCellulose content (fraction) UTS (MPa) Elongation (%) Hemp0.786901.6 Jute0.615501.5 Flex0.717802.4 Pineapple0.826502.4 Banana0.655403.0 Coir0.4314015.0 Ramie0.838701.2 Strength parameters of various fibres (from J.M.S. 21 1986 ) 1. Natural fibres characteristics (cont.)
2. Natural composites PMC present higher specific properties if compared to metals Structural components Artificial fibres Glass, carbon, aramidic Natural fibres EconomicLightEco-compatibleAvailable Usually rough materials (fibres and matrices) are artificial Polymeric matrix composites are very spread But rough materials could also come from renewable resources
2. Natural composites (cont.) Research aims to conjugate both (Es. international meetings. SAMPE, SPIE, ASME, JSME) Very good properties Biodegradability Very good properties Biodegradability Safety Renewability Safety Renewability Structural modifications Environment protection Structural modifications Environment protection High performance materials Sustainable development High performance materials Sustainable development
The original country of the hemp-plant is no known, but it is generally believed to have been the mountainous districts in the extreme north of India, whence it spread westward through Europe, and southward through the peninsula of India. Its cultivation in each direction had in all probability a different object; for it is found to produce under tropical culture an inferior fibre, and a powerfully intoxicating drug, but in cold and temperate climates it yields an abundance of strong fibres in great perfection for textile purposes, and loses its narcotic qualities. 3. The history of hemp
The similarity of its name in various languages is a strong indication that it has taken the course here indicated; thus, it is called in the Sanscrit goni, sana, or shanapu; Persic canna; Arabic kanneh or kinnub; Greek kannabis; Latin cannabis; Italian canapa; French chanvre or chanbre; Danish kamp or kennep; Lettish and Lithuanian kannapes; Slavonic konopi; Erse canaib; Scaninavian hampr; Swedish hampa; German hauf; Anglo-Saxon haenep; English hemp. 3. The history of hemp (cont.)
Hemp can be monoecious or dioecious plant, that means it can have female and male flowers on the same or in different plant. The ancient variety are dioecious. The plant was already cultivated in China before 2000 B.C.. In 500 B.C. it was already spread in Asia, Europe and Africa. The Italian production has been the first for quality (variety ‘Carmagnola’) and the second for quantity (after Russian). Until the 1940s the hemp cultivation was widespread in every region of Italy for the production of ropes and fabrics. In the mountainous area, where the land is less fertile, there was, all the same, a production of cloth sheets and brides’ trousseau. In the 1940’ craftsmen and especially craftswomen were very busy in the cultivation and manufacturing of hemp. 3. The history of hemp (cont.)
Subsequently, the fight against drugs and the promulgation of famous 1937 US law, that forbade also the production of industrial hemp, all together with the coming of the new synthetic fibres, such as Nylon patented by Du Pont (one of the more powerful chemical industry in the world), resulted in a significant drop down of the hemp cultivation. At that time these new fibres seemed to be cheaper, healtier and more attractive. For example every young woman in Italy, wished to wear a pair of nylon stockings. 3. The history of hemp (cont.)
In the last ten years the hemp cultivation has been making a comeback in Italy and the rest of Europe. There has been a rediscovery of the potential of hemp that has led to the establishment of many enterprises in the field of hemp and its applications. In Italy Assocanapa and other organisations, like Fibranova and Consorzio Canapa Italia, are now sponsoring the spreading of hemp. This new interest is due to peculiarities of hemp and to the present requirement of ecocompatibility and sustainable development. In Italy and in Europe (CEE Economic European Community ) it is now legal to cultivate hemp for industrial purpose. The varieties allowed are only those with a content in THC (that is the substance with narcotic effect ) lower then 0.2 %. 3. The history of hemp (cont.)
Italian hemp is of very good quality for fabrics and it is exported worldwide. Before the last world war there were more than 100,000 hectares in cultivation, whereas in the last few years there are only a few hundred of hectares. Now a few farmers, industrialists, researchers and ecologists are trying to launch it again, but there are many difficulties to close the line of production (“filiera”). First experiences have been carried out in Piedmont, in Emilia – Romagna and in Umbria. Also Campania is interested in reintroduction of hemp that used to be one of the main cultivations in the region. 3. The history of hemp (cont.)
The opportunity to re-introduce the cultivation of hemp in Italy was born, mainly from both agronomic and economic needs. Of course, to reproduce the culture in Italy has been necessary a phase of agronomic and technological experimentation, to ensure its viability after an eclipse lasting about half a century. In parallel to the cultivation was due to assess the economic viability for both the agriculture and for industry. This phase of the testing period, of not less than five years, has required much work and effort but it has certainly produced good results. It was in this general view that regions Emilia- Romagna and Tuscany have accepted the requests from the manufacturing sector and farmers to facilitate the reintegration of this plant into the regional regulations. 4. Re-introduction of the hemp cultivation in Italy
A cornerstone in the revitalization of the crop was checking on the feasibility of building a "chain of hemp" to do so we needed to assess whether the conditions existed to encourage the creation of facilities for the initial processing of the product and solve some problems related to regulatory issues concerning the lawfulness of the cultivation of hemp fibre. Characteristic features of this project, which has allowed the progress and development, was the cooperation between agriculture, industry and public administration and in 2001 in Italy the “filiera” of the hemp started. The industrial sectors of textiles and paper were the first to leave, giving clear signals of economic development and employment, today are taking place all other sectors to arrive at the total use of all products derived from the processing plant, from cosmetics to power and bio-construction. Combining research and nature, tradition and innovation, was the common thread that brought the companies listed below to undertake a "journey called hemp" 4.Re-introducion of the hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
In the following are reported the main Italian organizations that deal with hemp. A.PRO.CAL Soc a.r.l. is a producer of hemp and flax established in Emilia Romagna in June 2002 with the aim to encourage all initiatives to promote the economic value of production of cannabis on the national and international markets. ISCI (Experimental Institute for Industrial Crops), of the Ministry of Agriculture has granted to Assocanapa the right to reproduce the Italian varieties of hemp, such as Carmagnola and CS (Carmagnola selected), controlled by E.N.S.E. Ente Nazionale Sementi Elette. In collaboration with the Region of Tuscany ARSIA Assocanapa is taking forward the pilot action for the development of chain of hemp for textile use. C.R.A. is a new Center for the Experimentation in Agriculture. In collaboration with the Region of Tuscany ARSIA Assocanapa is taking forward the pilot action for the development of chain of hemp for textile use. Canapaitalia consortium was formed in July 1999 in Ferrara by the will of some companies, agricultural, industrial, involved in the reintroduction of hemp cultivation and have accepted the challenge of verifying the technical and economic feasibility of the reintroduction of hemp cultivation itself. One of the major strengths of the Consortium Canapaitalia is to include not only farmers but the whole chain, from seed to processors, users mainly textile and paper industry (paper Fedrigoni). 5. Italian organizations
Ecocanapa Soc a.r.l. is a company founded in 2001 with the aim of managing the supply chain of agro-industrial hemp fibre. Located in Comacchio (Ferrara) has been officially opened in December 2003 from the Assessorato Agriculture of the Province of Ferrara as "the first processing industry." Its establishment, undertaken in collaboration with Consorzio Canapaitalia houses a facility designed exclusively for the production of hemp fibre quality, technologically innovative and low environmental impact and for creating the missing link to sanction the reintroduction of cultivating and processing hemp in Italy. The system includes a line of scutching, the process of separating the fibre from shives and a line of combing for working long fibre hemp scutched before being inserted in the subsequent processing of the textile supply chain. By the process to obtain other raw materials, such shives and dust, which can be used for the production of felts, for green building products and furnishings, and more. The system required a substantial investment was made in about a year and after only 5 years after the experimental agricultural hemp in Italy. 5. Italian organizations (cont.)
Assocanapa. National Coordination for canapicoltura has its headquarters in Carmagnola [TO]). Assocanapa, was established in Turin by deed dated 30/1/1998. with the main objective to promote, preserve and spread the cultivation of hemp in Italy and its use in various productive sectors. The current number of members is 82. Assocanapa is independent, non-profit pursues and achieves its aims by drawing on the following principles: subsidiarity between members and between the structures at different levels, local, regional, national, under which any decision is taken at the lowest possible level. The Association has the following specific purposes: To promote, protect and spread the cultivation of hemp and its use in various productive sectors. To stimulate and develop research to promote and assist such cultivation and use of its products, paying special attention to develop and enhance those features that make the cultivation of hemp particular interest in the preservation of the environment and living conditions and of work. Representing the needs of those who cultivate cannabis and / or work and use the products to institutions, regional, national and supranational regulatory enforcement and the agricultural and industrial production and use of products derived from them.
In order to achieve its purposes, Assocanapa developed the following activities: - Coordinate and / or initiatives to promote legal, legislative and membership for the development of “canapicoltura” and protection of its members - Contribute to Agencies and organizations that have similar purposes and that in any activities that are of interest for the development of “canapicoltura” and related activities. - Creates and manages brands that enhance the production of its members by providing appropriate specifications that define the quality characteristics necessary for use of the marks themselves. - Producing, in collaboration with other organizations and public or private, information activities and training for farmers, business operators, technicians and users. - Stimulates and / or coordinates and / or supports the presentation in the field of experimental designs and / or innovative financed by EU funds, and / or national and regional and promotes the establishment and consolidation for the development of these projects, partnerships with other business associations and European - Manages the cooperation with other agencies and organizations, publishing activities, including regular, for the dissemination of information regarding its activities and of specific interest to the industry. 5. Italian organizations (cont.)
Group Fibranova s.r.l. born in 2000 at the initiative of some businessmen, scientists and financial advisers who, as of 1996 had a major role in the reintroduction of hemp cultivation Linificio e Canapificio Nazionale SpA is the world leader in the spinning liniera care and hemp is one of the oldest companies in Europe, founded on 14 January 1873 Società Produttori Sementi (Seed Producers Company) SpA Bologna is one of the founding members of the Consortium Canapaitalia and the only seed company in this consortium. In collaboration with A.PRO.CAL is taking forward a project to experiment with new varieties of hemp made available by genetic improvement. The tests also aim to find new uses for hemp, parallel to those in the textile industry, including the production of seed oil for cosmetic use food. 5. Italian organizations (cont.)
Besides strictly cultivation, experimental and commercial, hemp revolve around the cultural institutions and museums, which tend to re-assess and to make known this fibre textiles used in Italy until the'50s. We pass by the Museum Atelier Experimental Aracne created in collaboration with the Consortium Canapaitalia, the Ecomuseum culture and processing of hemp, the Museum of hemp in Pisoniano, near Tivoli [RM], the Ecomuseum of “Cordari” (Rope-makers) in Carmagnola, to San Marino di Bentivoglio just to name a few. In Umbria, in particular, on 12 July 2008 was inaugurated the Museum of the hemp at Sant'Anatolia di Narco, a small medieval village near Spoleto. The Museum is the first antenna of dell'Ecomuseo Valnerina that came into being and it is placed inside the Town Hall in the center of the country. Located on two floors is divided into three main sections: 1) Processing and Weaving Hemp 2) Textile section 3) Workshop 6. Italian museums specialized on hemp history
. Hemp Museum of Sant'Anatolia di Narco. Particular of the exhibition: The sheaves of hemp
1)In the first section, dedicated to working with hemp and weaving, the objects interact with the visitors to make them become an integral part of the reality represented, the panels will explain all stages of processing of hemp, by sowing the crop at harvest, fibre processing and then close the cycle with the last stage of processing, spinning and weaving. 2)In the second section, devoted to fabrics, you can view the finished objects, ie those tissues that can be placed in a home / daily (blankets, towels for the bread, baby bands) and the textile collection "Gentili“ including findings coming from the territorial Valnerina and cover the period running from mid-1700 to mid 1900. 3)The last section, finally, will be dedicated to the workshop to ensure that the Museum, from the mere place of heritage conservation to become an educational tool, a "laboratory study", a school for the residents, to tourists and those who is interested in learning this craft and a tourist attraction that encourages cultural exchanges and economic growth. The various types of frames in the same laboratory of the museum you can learn different textile techniques to better understand how it has gone from a tangle of wires in a tissue and as a vertical loom weights has led to a horizontal frame heddles still used. 6. Italian museums specialized on hemp history (cont.)
. Hemp Museum of Sant'Anatolia di Narco The loom
Hemp Museum of Sant'Anatolia di Narco. De Agostini Almanac 1953
Activity in the laboratory of the Sant’Anatolia museum. Assimilation and invention, knowledge and planning, memory and imagination are the moments based on which we will be working and then graft the creative experience. We start, therefore, from items by weaving then creative thinking and action which then allow the exploration of new realities. In doing so we can fix the "memory" and "tradition" that you see on display but that also revive and display again through acts of fantastic reworking and invention: You create and build new meanings through the active storage and imaginative design. Activating an eye on things, the laboratory intends to cause a meeting between the public and the museum that can be effective on the creative and cognitive level through the game, doing and doing to prove how many and in what ways you can combine and manipulate ideas and concepts as well as tools, materials, colours, techniques. The proposed laboratory activities, related mainly to the processing of hemp and to the texture, will also learn about and deepen the complex and divided world of textile fibres and autarkic ones in particular. In addition to laboratory work projects, the activity of the museum is closely connected with the agricultural practice. Through an agreement with the Institute of Agriculture of Sant'Anatolia and the “Comunità Montana” of Valnerina we are pursuing a project to put back into cultivation of hemp lands located along the Nera river, known as, “Le Canapine”. 6. Italian museums specialized on hemp history (cont.)
Ruscio. Monteleone di Spoleto (Umbria): Harvesting hemp with children of primary school
The Source of Pia. Sant'Anatolia di Narco: Putting the bundles of hemp in water for the retting
. Traditional hemp processing:: drying and scutcing
A field of hemp 7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
Hay baler suitable for hemp 7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
A bale of hemp “tender core” 7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
Polled field of Hemp (Assocanapa) 7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
Implementation of spikes with catchment area properly built by blacksmith craftsman on our project, sized for collection of seed hemp breeding, that can be divided and disconnected quickly in order to permit the transport of the bar on the roads. The system was designed and built so that it can be disassembled quickly and that we can act separately on each part. Application of the spikes on the cutting bar through a steel frame handcrafted custom-built, with bars welded and bolted, as applied to the base of the bottom floor of the bar at the top and on each spike. Modification of the cutting bar (Assocanapa) 7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
Assocanapa s.r.l. 7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
Assocanapa s.r.l. 7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
12 34 Assocanapa s.r.l. 7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
The modification that have been carried out have helped to convey the enormous vegetable mass, and to gather and store the seeds. Further field trials were: technical comparison between crop sowing broadcast or in file, a different investment from 10 to 25 kg / ha the harvesting period of the seed (scalar ripening) improvement of mechanical harvesting polling “cimatura” in the vegetative stage. Experiments in progress aimed at the quality of seed in terms of germination and purity. (Assocanapa) 7. Experiences of hemp cultivation in Italy (cont.)
8. Pecularities and Products of hemp There are more than 25000 of products derived from the hemp and the plant has about 50000 different uses. In north of Italy they say that hemp is the vegetable pig because nothing of it is thrown away. Fabrics and ropes - Its fibre can become as fine as cotton and it is also stronger and long lasting. Paper - We can have first quality paper (for example for banknotes) both from fibre and pulp.
Oil – from the seed it is possible to make oils that are very rich in proteins and essential fats. They are very useful in alimentation, cosmetics, detergents and paints. Building industries – There are several patents, especially French (insulating materials, plywood, etc.). Beds for animals – The pulp of hemp is antibacterial and very absorbent. Plastic materials – From cellulose we can produce biodegradable plastic, to obtain complete biological composite. Fuel – From the biomasses it is possible to obtain methanol and ethanol that could replace mineral oils. 8. Peculiarities and Products of hemp (cont.)
Hemp is the more productive plant in the vegetable mass of the whole temperate zone. It produce, for the same cultivate surface, in three months, about four times the amount of biomass of a wood in a year. Besides, if it is employed in paper production it requires less acids and bleachers then wood. The hemp fibre can be used as reinforcement in construction materials and in composite plastic. Hemp fibres can make a stronger and lighter composite plastic than fibreglass. Moreover, when hemp fibres break, the composite does not shatter like fibreglass, making a safer product, for example, for the interior of a car, because it is less likely to cause an injury. Hemp fibre also has been shown to improve home building materials 8. Peculiarities and Products of hemp (cont.)
Some characteristics make the hemp extremely interesting from the point of view of the environment protection: It does not need pesticides, unlike cotton, because it is targeted by very few parasites. It does not need herbicides; because of its easy cultivation and very fast growth, so it chokes all the other plants surrounding it, ‘cleaning up’ the field. It is suitable for any kind of soil and allows the recovery of the uncultivated lands.
Typology of specimen Mat Glass Mat Glass + Hemp Fabric Glass Fabric Glass + Hemp 5 Joule 2.8% 1.3% 1.0% 0.6% 10 Joule 12.8% 6.6% 12.7% 9.9% 15 Joule 17.7% 14.9% 22.5% 16.2% Absorbed energy / Reduction % UTS 5% 5% 5% 0% 15% 10% 25% 15% 25% 20% 30% 20% Results show an improvement of impact response thanks to the insertion of natural fibres. Also impact energy restitution improves. Damage threshold is higher. Some Impact Results (glass-hemp) 8. Peculiarities and Products of hemp (cont.)
9. Research Modernization of the production cycle of hemp: Selection of the variety Control of the THC Control of the cellulose fibres quality Harvest in the field in suitable length to make easy the successive operations of separation of the cellulose fibres from the lignin and hemi-cellulose. Separation by the Steam explosion (ENEA Rotondello Calabria) Enzymatic separation Return back to the traditional methods reviewed, like mechanical and maceration systems Wile it easy to produce technical fibres for insulating panels in building, researchers and developers are trying to obtain high quality fibres for fabrics ed especially for composites reinforcement.
9. Research (cont.) Research must now focus on those aspect that limit the expansion of the natural fibres. Main items are: like of genotypes adapted to different cultivation environments. seed availability mechanisation of harvesting guaranteed supply of homogenous high quality fibre for the industries. identification of new commercial applications for hemp fibre and its products. development of biological resin of good quality and suitable for reinforced composites. generation of a complete and sustainable production chain.
9. Research (cont.) Research on eco-composites in Italian universities and research centres: Università di Roma Scuola di Ingegneria Aerospaziale Facoltà di Ingegneria Dipartimento Ing. CMMPM Dipartimento Ing. Aerospaz. e Astronaut. Dipartimento Meccanica e Aeronautica Università di Trento Università di Palermo (tecnologie produttive) Politecnico di Milano (ecocompositi termoplastici) Università di Napoli “Federico II” (kenaf) Università di Bologna (fibre-matrix interface) Università di Perugia (Ecofina) C.R.Fiat. Torino C.I.R.A. Napoli Consorzio Venezia Ricerche (wood flour) CNR (eco-composites) CNR- ISMAC Biella The Institute of Macromolecolar Studies and many others!
10. Optical Microscopic Enlargements of Hemp Plant
Hemp fibres after Traction test X8Particular of fibre (200 micron) X80
Filo di canapa (yarn) Canapificio Linificio Italiano X30 Yarn of hemp Canapificio Linificio Italiano X30, X300 Micrographies with SEM of Hemp fibre
Yarn of hemp Canapificio Linificio Italiano X1000, X5000 Micrographies with SEM of Hemp fibre
“Mat” thermoacoustic insulator of hemp X30, X300
“Mat” thermoacoustic insulator of hemp X1000, X5000
“Mat” of glassfibre Sistema Compositi X300, X1000, X5000 Comparison to SEM of glass fibre
Fabric of glass fibre Sistema Compositi X30, X300
Fabric of glass fibre Sistema Compositi X1000, X5000
LOOM 11. Prototypic Production of an Aeronautical Rudder Types of Fabric
HAND LAY UP RTM 11. Prototypic Production of an Aeronautical Rudder (cont.)
RUDDER PROTOTYPE (HEMP AND GLASS) Ultra-light plane Storm 280 SI SG Aviation Sabaudia (IT) 11. Prototypic Production of an Aeronautical Rudder (cont.)
The first step: to obtain composites of good quality with natural reinforcement and traditional plastic matrix (like epoxy or polyester resin) is nearly achieved. Such partially natural composite could substitute classical GRP (glass reinforced plastic) in many applications. The second step: to have reliable wholly bio-degradable composite with both matrix and reinforcement derived from natural products (not from mineral oil ) is under investigation in all the world in universities and industries. Some problems, to be solved, are: reliability, compatibility, strength to water and strength to ageing. 11. Prototypic Production of an Aeronautical Rudder (cont.)
12. Phyto-remediation Among the possible uses of hemp (Cannabis sativa), you can use the cultivation of hemp for the remediation of soils through phyto-remediation, exploiting its capacity to absorb, degrade or stabilize pollutants by improving soil and / or avoiding pollution of the water-bearing strata. Hemp is suitable for use in the reclamation of land, as is easily cultivable, adapts well to many types of soils and produces a high biomass used in the no-food industry. That is why in recent years have been carried out numerous experiments to test its real capacity of remediation of the soil. Currently there are only experimental data that encourage the use of hemp for the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. It would be necessary to extend the trial to obtain definitive data on its possible practical use in the recovery of contaminated soils with organic pollutants. Given the various industrial applications, the testing of its environmental potentialities could make fruitful at least a portion of land that are now unused.
12. Phyto-remediation (cont.) Phytodegradation Accumulation of metals in to the biomass Phytovolatilization Phytoextraction Phytostabilization
Scientific experiments have been conducted by: Prof. Giovanardi University of Udine, Prof.sa Citterio Bicocca Un. of Milan, Dr. Di Candilo CRA-ISCI of Bologna. 12. Phyto-remediation (cont.) ABSORBITION Hemp shows: resistance to high concentrations of pollutants, capacity to absorb and accumulate pollutants, fast growth and high biomass production, deep-rooting.
The varieties of hemp are tolerant to high concentrations of Cd, Ni, Cr, Cu and Zn; The varieties of hemp are able to extract the metals from the soil (mainly accumulate in the root but also in the shoot); The soil type factors and pH affect both the growth of plants and the extraction of metals; In the current state of research, are required several years to recover land from the environmental pollution. 12. Phyto-remediation (cont.)
The best results with phyto-extraction are obtain in the absence of marked effects phyto-toxic borne plant. The crop manifests its phyto-extraction very similar to the accumulative species. The limited content of heavy metals inside the stalk allows an industrial use of itself. The high production of biomass would allow high production of energy through combustion. 12. Phyto-remediation (cont.)
We have shown the main activities for the re-introduction and promotion of hemp in Italy, focusing on the unique properties of this natural product in the seed and stalks. We have drawn an outline of ancient history (this is from an old edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1856) and modern chronicle of hemp in Italy. We passed through the industrial and academic organizations working in the field of hemp, agricultural cultivation, primary processing and utilization of the many products available from this versatile plant and research. Non-negligible importance in promoting have the specialized museums, in particular that of Valnerina, in addition to the oldest one of Carmagnola and Pisoniano and others. After viewing some beautiful images of the structure of hemp, at last we have shown a promising application of natural composites in aerospace and something that can become highly topical use of the hemp plant as recovery of polluted soils. 13. Conclusions
References Web sites www.assocasanapa.it www.ecocanapa.it www.casanapaitalia.com www.gruppofibranova.it www.comunesantanatolia.it..