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BASEBALL HISTORY 1840-1902. BASE BALL ORIGINS ABNER DOUBLEDAY 1839 LEGEND: BASEBALL AS RURAL PAST TIME IN NEW YORK STATE. CRICKETT, ROUNDERS, STICK-BALL.

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Presentation on theme: "BASEBALL HISTORY 1840-1902. BASE BALL ORIGINS ABNER DOUBLEDAY 1839 LEGEND: BASEBALL AS RURAL PAST TIME IN NEW YORK STATE. CRICKETT, ROUNDERS, STICK-BALL."— Presentation transcript:

1 BASEBALL HISTORY

2 BASE BALL ORIGINS ABNER DOUBLEDAY 1839 LEGEND: BASEBALL AS RURAL PAST TIME IN NEW YORK STATE. CRICKETT, ROUNDERS, STICK-BALL “TOWN BALL” IN NY AND NEW ENGLAND 1845 KNICKERBOCKERS CLUB IN NY KNICKERBOCKERS, FIRST ORGANIZED BASEBALL CLUB. EARLIER TEAMS. BASEBALL RULES: DIAMOND-SHAPE FIELD, 21- ACES, ONE-BOUNCE OUT FLY, RUNNERS THROWN-AT, NO STRIKE ZONE, NO BASE ON BALLS, SPIN-PITCHES, PITCHER’S ROLE= TO FEED THE BALL, NO GLOVES.

3 CARTWRIGHT RULES, 1845 ALEXANDER CARTWRIGHT, KNICKERBOCKERS BASE BALL CLUB BASES SITUATED AT “42 PACES” DISTANCE 21 ACES RULES EQUAL NUMBER OF HANDS OR INNINGS FOUL LINES BALL CAUGHT FLYING OR ON THE FIRST BOUND IS OUT BALL SHALL NOT BE THROWN AT THE RUNNER FOR AN OUT NO BASE RUNNING ON FOULS

4 KNICKERBOCKERS CLUB MIDDLE CLASS WHITE COLLAR WORKERS AMATEUR PLAYERS, BACHELOR CULTURE, MODERATE EXERCISE FOR RECREATIONAL PURPOSES. NEW RULES: LIMIT=9 INNINGS, FLY CATCHES, NEW YORK LEAGUE, NY AND BROOKLIN TEAMS 1846 GAME VS NEW YORK CLUB (23-1) SOCIAL CLUB, DANCES, DINNERS, ETC

5 BASE BALL IN THE 1850s 1857 GAMES 9 INNINGS-LONG RULE AND FIVE-INNINGS LEGAL RULE NY CONVENTION (25 TEAMS) 1858 FLY RULE, ONCE-BOUNCE OUTS DISCONTINUED ALL-STAR GAME NY vs BROOKLYN 50 CENTS ENTRY FEE, FIRST PRO EVENT 1858 NABBP, 60 CLUBS, YEAR SCHEDULE, SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES 1860 PHILADELPHIA ATHLETICS, OLDEST NICKNAME IN BASEBALL USED TODAY.

6 BASE BALL AND MUSCULAR CHRISTIANITY BB BENEFITS: DEVELOPMENT OF CHARACTER, PROMOTION OF HEALTH AND IMPROVEMENT OF MORAL STANDARDS. NON-AGGRESSIVE RECREATIONAL ACTIVITY. OPEN SPACE-DAY TIME, IDEAL FOR BOYS AND YOUNG BACHELORS. RECONNECTION WITH COUNTRYSIDE VALUES vs NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF URBAN LIFE. POSITIVE BENEFITS, MORAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH. RESTORATION OF MEN’S PHYSICAL ATRIBUTES AND MORAL VALUES DIMINISHED BY URBANIZATION.

7 BASEBALL POPULARITY “PASTORAL” LANDSCAPE, GLAMOURIZED VERSION OF A HEALTHY OUTDOOR RECREATIONAL “COUNTRYSIDE TRADITION”, INVENTION OF TRADITION FROM RURAL AMERICA. TIME-LESS, EGALITARIAN, NON-VIOLENT, HEALTHY IDEAL AFTER-WORK SPORT FOR MEN ACCORDING TO “MUSCULAR CHRISTIANITY” DOCTRINE HEALTH-MORAL BENEFITS FOR BODY-SPIRIT “PURE AMERICAN” TRADITION 1860 BASEBALL CLUB IN SAN FRANCISCO 1860 FIRST GUIDEBOOK

8 BASEBALL POPULARITY HENRY CHADWICK, B.1824 ENGLAND, EMIGRATED AT 12 TO THE U.S. CRICKETT PLAYER IN NYC NEWSPAPER REPORTER IN NEW YORK BB “A NATIONAL SPORT FOR AMERICANS” DERIVED FROM ROUNDERS BUT EVOLVED INTO A GAME PURELY BASED ON “AMERICAN SPIRIT”

9 BASEBALL POPULARITIY CHADWICK WRITINGS, BASEBALL: 1868 BOOK “THE GAME OF BASEBALL: HOW TO LEARN IT, HOW TO PLAY IT, HOW TO TEACH IT” (RULES, STRATEGY, FUNDAMENTALS) “A MORAL RECREATION” “REMEDY FOR MANY EVILS BOYS AND MEN FACE IN U.S. CITIES” MORAL RATIONALE OF BB SIGNIFICANCE. BOX SCORING INVENTOR INDIVIDUAL STATISTICS FOR PLAYERS STATISTICS BASES FOR BASEBALL

10 BASEBALL AFTER THE CIVIL WAR HARRY WRIGHT, B ENGLAND, CRICKETT PLAYER FOR THE NY ST.GEORGE DRAGONSLAYERS BASEBALL PLAYER FOR THE NY KNICKERBOCKERS 1868 SIGNED A CONTRACT WITH CINCINNATI CLUB 1869 ORGANIZED THE CINCINNATI RED STOCKINGS, FIRST ALL PROFESSIONAL BB TEAM

11 BASEBALL AFTER THE CIVIL WAR CINCINNATI RED STOCKINGS 1869 UNDEFEATED SEASON WRIGHT, TEAM MANAGER, ORGANIZER UNIFORM PROTOTYPE, CAMPAIGN HATS WITH FRONT BILLS INSTEAD OF WIDE BRIMMED HATS. TEAM LETTERS ON SHIRT, COLOR SOX. MEDIA SUCCESS, PRESIDENT GRANT INVITATION TO PLAY IN D.C.

12 BASEBALL AFTER THE CIVIL WAR WRIGHT ALL STAR TEAM 1870 LOST TO BROOKLYN ATHLETICS 8-7 (15,000 FANS) $50cts TICKETS 1870 LOST SEVERAL GAMES OWNERS FIRED WRIGHT AND HIGHEST PAID PLAYERS 1871 WRIGHT MOVED TO MASS. CREATED THE BOSTON RED STOCKINGS, A NEW ALL PRO. TEAM

13 BASEBALL DIFFUSION CIVIL WAR – SOUTHERN STATES RAILROAD-URBANIZATION- INDUSTRIALIZATION SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR s AMERICAN CAPITAL/WORKERS IMPORTATION: CUBA, MEXICO, PUERTO RICO, CENTRAL AMERICA AMERICAN CREWS, TEAMS PLAYED IN CAMPS. AMERICAN ENGINEERS-WHITE COLLAR WORKERS, EXHIBITION GAMES AT COUNTRY CLUBS ABROAD.

14 BASEBALL AFTER THE CIVIL WAR CINCINNATTI RED STOCKINGS 1869 FIRST PROFESSIONAL TEAM 1876 NATIONAL LEAGUE OF PROFESSIONAL BASE BALL CLUBS EIGHT TEAMS (NY, SL, BO, CHI, CIN, PHI, HARTFORD, LOUISVILLE) PLAYERS “BOUND FOR LIFE, UNLESS SOLD, TRADED OR RELEASED” BY TEAM OWNERS ADMISSION PRICES, NO SUNDAY GAMES

15 AMERICAN LEAGUE 1882 CINCINNATTI KICKED OUT NL FOR PLAYING SUNDAYS AND SELLING BEER AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF BASE BALL CLUBS (SIX TEAMS) BREWING COMPANIES, NEW INVESTORS AND TEAM OWNERS CHEAPER ADMISSION FEES, SUNDAY GAMES BASEBALL BASE AUDIENCE EXPANSION TO LOWER&BLUE COLLAR CLASSES BASEBALL, NEW WINDOW FOR ENTERTAINMENT&ADVERTISING&CONSUMPTION

16 BASEBALL 1880s WALK RULES: 9 TO 4 BALLS RULE CHANGE: FROM PITCHING ONLY UNDERHAND AND SIDEARM, OVERHAND PROHIBITION LIFTED IN CHICAGO WHITE STOCKINGS, FIRST SPRING SEASON IN ARKANSAS 1887 FIRST STRIKE ZONE (SHOULDERS TO KNEES) BATTER REQUEST NO LONGER ALLOWED FOR HIGH/LOW PITCHES 1887 DETROIT WOLVERINES vs ST.LOUIS BROWNS FIRST NL vs AL SERIES (BEST OF 15 GAMES)

17 BASEBALL IN THE 1880s BASEBALL POPULARITY, MUSICAL PLAYS, BOOKS, MANUALS. JOHN MONTGOMERY “HOW TO BECOME A PLAYER” PUBLISHED. INFORMAL RULES FOR ADMITTING AFRICAN AMERICAN AND LATIN AMERICAN PLAYERS. CHARLES COMISKEY, 1B AND MANAGER OF ST.LOUIS ENDORSES “MENELL’S PENETRATING OIL”. LOUISVILLE COLONELS PLAYERS WALK OUT OVER SALARY DISPUTES, ESPECIALLY THE $100 FOR AN ERROR POLICY.

18 BASEBALL IN THE 1890s 1893: 60 FT 6 INCH. PITCHING DISTANCE RULE BROOKLYN BRIDEGROOMS NICKNAME LAST BAREHANDS INFIELDER JERRY DENNY OVERSIZED MITTONS RULE (CATCHERS AND FIRST BASEMEN) 1898 JOHN T.BRUSH CINCINNATI OWNER: CAP SALARY PLAN AND PURIFICATION PLAN vs PLAYERS “INDECENT LANGUAGE”

19 COMMERCIALIZATION BASEBALL SPORTING GOODS ALBERT G. SPALDING STORY CATALOGUE-MERCHANDISE DOUBLEDAY-COOPERSTOWN MYTH BY N.L. AND SPALDING BEER SPONSORSHIP ADMISSION FEES, OUTFIELD FENCES BASEBALL ORIGINAL FOOD: HOT DOGS

20 BASEBALL NEW ORIGINS 1907 NATIONAL LEAGUE COMMISSIONER ABRAHAM MILLS AND ALBERT SPALDING, FORMAL COMMISSION TO IDENTIFY ORIGINS OF BASEBALL. BASEBALL “NATIONAL SPORT” NEVER LINKED TO ROUNDERS OR CRICKETT ABNER GRAVES LETTER 1839 COPPERSTOWN, NY ABNER DOUBLEDAY PRESENTED A SET OF RULES TO HIS FRIENDS.

21 BASEBALL 1900 OVERHAND PITCHING ONLY BB, SO, PITCHERS’ GOLDEN ERA COMMERCIAL ENTERTAINMENT NATIONAL PASTIME/ NATIONAL SPORT 1910 PRESIDENT TAFT FIRST PITCH THROWING 1903 FIRST “WORLD SERIES” COMMERCIAL SUCCESS


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