2Cotton wool disease Causative agent – Saprolegnia opportunistic pathogenic fungi affecting tropical fishes and fish eggsSymptomsgreyish white, cotton-like growths on the skin, gills, eyes, or fins that may invade deeper tissues of the body.preventive measuresremoval of predisposing causes, e.g. inadequate sanitation,excessive chemical treatment, or the presence of dead, infected fish and decaying organic material.
3Ichthyophonus hoferiThis fungus causes an internal infection and is generally chronic and progressive.Preventive measuresremoving infected fish and avoiding feeding raw fish products.Iodophors of varying iodine concentrations are used to prevent mycotic infections of nonfood-fish eggs, which can be disinfected by a 100 ppm iodine bath for min.Formaldehyde, up to 2,000 ppm for 15 min, can be used to treat eggs
4Larval mycosis in shrimps Causitive agent-Lagenidium sp. Sirolpidium sp. and Haliphthoros spfilamentous non-septate and coenocytic fungiAffected larvae appear opaque followed by sudden mortalityLarval stages are highly susceptibleBlack gill disease of larvae is caused by Fusarium sp. in shrimps.Saprolegnia and Leptolegnia cause dark necrotic lesions on shrimp exoskeleton and cause gradual mortality.
5Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) Cause damage to a wide variety of fishes (most affected are murrels) but chineese carp and tilapia relatively resistantCausitive agent-Aphanomyces invadans.Infection starts as a red spot in the skin then it eventually becomes an ulcer and finally resulting in erosion of ulcerative area.Disgnosis:-Grocott’s stain is used for fungal staining. It gives black colouration in the fungal hyphae.A. invadans has the ability of penetrating the body of the fish using the proteolytic enzymeIt causes mortality by two means(i) by invading fungus(ii) osmoregulatory failure of invaded area
6Contd….. Control Measures In the initial stage, application of lime and sodium chloride treatment was found to be effective.CIFA produced a mixture of CIFAX, for controlling EUS but not much standardized.Treating the water with chlorine before letting in to the pond, avoidance of water use from large water body with improper water quality, use of filters in water channels to avoid wild fish entry and preventing the entry of predatory birds are central to disease management strategy.