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© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 1 Operations Management Chapter 3 – Project Management Chapter 3 – Project Management © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. PowerPoint.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 1 Operations Management Chapter 3 – Project Management Chapter 3 – Project Management © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 1 Operations Management Chapter 3 – Project Management Chapter 3 – Project Management © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer/Render Principles of Operations Management, 6e Operations Management, 8e

2 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 2  Establishing objectives  Defining project  Creating work breakdown structure  Determining resources  Forming organization Project Planning

3 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 3  Often temporary structure  Uses specialists from entire company  Headed by project manager  Coordinates activities  Monitors schedule and costs  Permanent structure called ‘matrix organization’ Project Organization

4 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 4 A Sample Project Organization Test Engineer Mechanical Engineer Project 1 Project Manager Technician Project 2 Project Manager Electrical Engineer Computer Engineer Marketing Finance Human Resources Design Quality Mgt Production President Figure 3.2

5 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 5 Work Breakdown Structure Level 1.Project 2.Major tasks in the project 3.Subtasks in the major tasks 4.Activities (or work packages) to be completed

6 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 6 Work Breakdown Structure Figure 3.3 Level ID LevelNumberActivity 11.0Develop/launch Windows Longhorn OS 21.1Development of GUIs 21.2Ensure compatibility with earlier Windows versions 31.21Compatibility with Windows ME 31.22Compatibility with Windows XP 31.23Compatibility with Windows Ability to import files

7 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 7  Identifying precedence relationships  Sequencing activities  Determining activity times & costs  Estimating material and worker requirements  Determining critical activities Project Scheduling

8 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 8 Purposes of Project Scheduling 1.Shows the relationship of each activity to others and to the whole project 2.Identifies the precedence relationships among activities 3.Encourages the setting of realistic time and cost estimates for each activity 4.Helps make better use of people, money, and material resources by identifying critical bottlenecks in the project

9 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 9  Gantt chart  Critical Path Method (CPM)  Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) Project Management Techniques

10 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 10 A Simple Gantt Chart Time J F M A M J J A S Design Prototype Test Revise Production

11 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 11 Passengers Baggage Fueling Cargo and mail Galley servicing Lavatory servicing Drinking water Cabin cleaning Cargo and mail Flight services Operating crew Baggage Passengers Deplaning Baggage claim Container offload Pumping Engine injection water Container offload Main cabin door Aft cabin door Aft, center, forward Loading First-class section Economy section Container/bulk loading Galley/cabin check Receive passengers Aircraft check Loading Boarding Minutes Service For A Delta Jet Figure 3.4

12 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 12 Project Control Reports  Detailed cost breakdowns for each task  Total program labor curves  Cost distribution tables  Functional cost and hour summaries  Raw materials and expenditure forecasts  Variance reports  Time analysis reports  Work status reports

13 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 13  Network techniques  Developed in 1950’s  CPM by DuPont for chemical plants (1957)  PERT by Booz, Allen & Hamilton with the U.S. Navy, for Polaris missile (1958)  Consider precedence relationships and interdependencies  Each uses a different estimate of activity times PERT and CPM

14 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 14 Six Steps PERT & CPM 1.Define the project and prepare the work breakdown structure 2.Develop relationships among the activities - decide which activities must precede and which must follow others 3.Draw the network connecting all of the activities

15 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 15 Six Steps PERT & CPM 4.Assign time and/or cost estimates to each activity 5.Compute the longest time path through the network – this is called the critical path 6.Use the network to help plan, schedule, monitor, and control the project

16 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 16 1.When will the entire project be completed? 2.What are the critical activities or tasks in the project? 3.Which are the noncritical activities? 4.What is the probability the project will be completed by a specific date? Questions PERT & CPM Can Answer

17 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 17 5.Is the project on schedule, behind schedule, or ahead of schedule? 6.Is the money spent equal to, less than, or greater than the budget? 7.Are there enough resources available to finish the project on time? 8.If the project must be finished in a shorter time, what is the way to accomplish this at least cost? Questions PERT & CPM Can Answer

18 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 18 A Comparison of AON and AOA Network Conventions Activity onActivityActivity on Node (AON)MeaningArrow (AOA) A comes before B, which comes before C (a) A B C BAC A and B must both be completed before C can start (b) A C C B A B B and C cannot begin until A is completed (c) B A C A B C Figure 3.5

19 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 19 A Comparison of AON and AOA Network Conventions Activity onActivityActivity on Node (AON)MeaningArrow (AOA) C and D cannot begin until A and B have both been completed (d) A B C D B AC D C cannot begin until both A and B are completed; D cannot begin until B is completed. A dummy activity is introduced in AOA (e) CA BD Dummy activity A B C D Figure 3.5

20 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 20 A Comparison of AON and AOA Network Conventions Activity onActivityActivity on Node (AON)MeaningArrow (AOA) B and C cannot begin until A is completed. D cannot begin until both B and C are completed. A dummy activity is again introduced in AOA. (f) A C DB AB C D Dummy activity Figure 3.5

21 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 21 AON Example ActivityDescription Immediate Predecessors A Build internal components — B Modify roof and floor — C Construct collection stack A D Pour concrete and install frame A, B E Build high-temperature burner C F Install pollution control system C G Install air pollution device D, E H Inspect and test F, G Milwaukee Paper Manufacturing's Activities and Predecessors Table 3.1

22 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 22 AON Network for Milwaukee Paper A Start B Start Activity Activity A (Build Internal Components) Activity B (Modify Roof and Floor) Figure 3.6

23 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 23 AON Network for Milwaukee Paper Figure 3.7 C D A Start B Activity A Precedes Activity C Activities A and B Precede Activity D

24 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 24 AON Network for Milwaukee Paper G E F H C A Start DB Arrows Show Precedence Relationships Figure 3.8

25 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 25H (Inspect/ Test) 7 Dummy Activity AOA Network for Milwaukee Paper 6 F (Install Controls) E (Build Burner) G (Install Pollution Device) 5 D (Pour Concrete/ Install Frame) 4C (Construct Stack) B (Modify Roof/Floor) A (Build Internal Components) Figure 3.9

26 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 26 Determining the Project Schedule Perform a Critical Path Analysis  The critical path is the longest path through the network  The critical path is the shortest time in which the project can be completed  Any delay in critical path activities delays the project  Critical path activities have no slack time

27 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 27 Determining the Project Schedule Perform a Critical Path Analysis ActivityDescriptionTime (weeks) ABuild internal components2 BModify roof and floor3 CConstruct collection stack2 DPour concrete and install frame4 EBuild high-temperature burner4 FInstall pollution control system 3 GInstall air pollution device5 HInspect and test2 Total Time (weeks)25 Table 3.2

28 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 28 Determining the Project Schedule Perform a Critical Path Analysis Table 3.2 ActivityDescriptionTime (weeks) ABuild internal components2 BModify roof and floor3 CConstruct collection stack2 DPour concrete and install frame4 EBuild high-temperature burner4 FInstall pollution control system 3 GInstall air pollution device5 HInspect and test2 Total Time (weeks)25 Earliest start (ES) =earliest time at which an activity can start, assuming all predecessors have been completed Earliest finish (EF) =earliest time at which an activity can be finished Latest start (LS) =latest time at which an activity can start so as to not delay the completion time of the entire project Latest finish (LF) =latest time by which an activity has to be finished so as to not delay the completion time of the entire project

29 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 29 Determining the Project Schedule Perform a Critical Path Analysis Figure 3.10 A Activity Name or Symbol Earliest Start ES Earliest Finish EF Latest Start LS Latest Finish LF Activity Duration 2

30 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 30 Forward Pass Begin at starting event and work forward Earliest Start Time Rule:  If an activity has only one immediate predecessor, its ES equals the EF of the predecessor  If an activity has multiple immediate predecessors, its ES is the maximum of all the EF values of its predecessors ES = Max (EF of all immediate predecessors)

31 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 31 Forward Pass Begin at starting event and work forward Earliest Finish Time Rule:  The earliest finish time (EF) of an activity is the sum of its earliest start time (ES) and its activity time EF = ES + Activity time

32 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 32 ES/EF Network for Milwaukee Paper Start 0 0 ES 0 EF = ES + Activity time

33 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 33 ES/EF Network for Milwaukee Paper Start A2A2 2 EF of A = ES of A ES of A

34 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 34 B3B3 ES/EF Network for Milwaukee Paper Start A2A EF of B = ES of B ES of B

35 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 35 C2C2 24 ES/EF Network for Milwaukee Paper B3B3 03 Start A2A2 20

36 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 36 C2C2 24 ES/EF Network for Milwaukee Paper B3B3 03 Start A2A2 20 D4D4 7 3 = Max (2, 3)

37 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 37 D4D4 37 C2C2 24 ES/EF Network for Milwaukee Paper B3B3 03 Start A2A2 20

38 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 38 E4E4 F3F3 G5G5 H2H D4D4 37 C2C2 24 ES/EF Network for Milwaukee Paper B3B3 03 Start A2A2 20 Figure 3.11

39 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 39 Backward Pass Begin with the last event and work backwards Latest Finish Time Rule:  If an activity is an immediate predecessor for just a single activity, its LF equals the LS of the activity that immediately follows it  If an activity is an immediate predecessor to more than one activity, its LF is the minimum of all LS values of all activities that immediately follow it LF = Min (LS of all immediate following activities)

40 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 40 Backward Pass Begin with the last event and work backwards Latest Start Time Rule:  The latest start time (LS) of an activity is the difference of its latest finish time (LF) and its activity time LS = LF – Activity time

41 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 41 LS/LF Times for Milwaukee Paper E4E4 F3F3 G5G5 H2H D4D4 37 C2C2 24 B3B3 03 Start A2A2 20 Figure 3.12 LF = EF of Project 1513 LS = LF – Activity time

42 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 42 LS/LF Times for Milwaukee Paper E4E4 F3F3 G5G5 H2H D4D4 37 C2C2 24 B3B3 03 Start A2A2 20 LF = Min(LS of following activity) 1013 Figure 3.12

43 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 43 LS/LF Times for Milwaukee Paper E4E4 F3F3 G5G5 H2H D4D4 37 C2C2 24 B3B3 03 Start A2A2 20 LF = Min(4, 10) 42 Figure 3.12

44 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 44 LS/LF Times for Milwaukee Paper E4E4 F3F3 G5G5 H2H D4D4 37 C2C2 24 B3B3 03 Start A2A Figure 3.12

45 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 45 Computing Slack Time After computing the ES, EF, LS, and LF times for all activities, compute the slack or free time for each activity  Slack is the length of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the entire project Slack = LS – ES or Slack = LF – EF

46 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 46 Computing Slack Time EarliestEarliestLatestLatestOn StartFinishStartFinishSlackCritical ActivityESEFLSLFLS – ESPath A02020Yes B03141No C24240Yes D37481No E48480Yes F No G Yes H Yes Table 3.3

47 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 47 Critical Path for Milwaukee Paper Figure 3.13 E4E4 F3F3 G5G5 H2H D4D4 37 C2C2 24 B3B3 03 Start A2A

48 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 48 ES – EF Gantt Chart for Milwaukee Paper ABuild internal components BModify roof and floor CConstruct collection stack DPour concrete and install frame EBuild high- temperature burner FInstall pollution control system GInstall air pollution device HInspect and test

49 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 49 LS – LF Gantt Chart for Milwaukee Paper ABuild internal components BModify roof and floor CConstruct collection stack DPour concrete and install frame EBuild high- temperature burner FInstall pollution control system GInstall air pollution device HInspect and test

50 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 50 Project Crashing

51 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 51 Trade-Offs And Project Crashing  The project is behind schedule  The completion time has been moved forward It is not uncommon to face the following situations: Shortening the duration of the project is called project crashing

52 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 52 Factors to Consider When Crashing A Project  The amount by which an activity is crashed is, in fact, permissible  Taken together, the shortened activity durations will enable us to finish the project by the due date  The total cost of crashing is as small as possible

53 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 53 Steps in Project Crashing 1.Compute the crash cost per time period. If crash costs are linear over time: Crash cost per period = (Crash cost – Normal cost) (Normal time – Crash time) 2.Using current activity times, find the critical path and identify the critical activities

54 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 54 Steps in Project Crashing 3.If there is only one critical path, then select the activity on this critical path that (a) can still be crashed, and (b) has the smallest crash cost per period. If there is more than one critical path, then select one activity from each critical path such that (a) each selected activity can still be crashed, and (b) the total crash cost of all selected activities is the smallest. Note that a single activity may be common to more than one critical path.

55 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 55 Steps in Project Crashing 4.Update all activity times. If the desired due date has been reached, stop. If not, return to Step 2.

56 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 56 Crashing The Project Time (Wks)Cost ($)Crash CostCritical ActivityNormalCrashNormalCrashPer Wk ($)Path? A2122,00022,750750Yes B3130,00034,0002,000No C2126,00027,0001,000Yes D4248,00049,0001,000No E4256,00058,0001,000Yes F3230,00030,500500No G5280,00084,5001,500Yes H2116,00019,0003,000Yes Table 3.5

57 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 57 Crash and Normal Times and Costs for Activity B ||| 123Time (Weeks) $34,000 $34,000 — $33,000 $33,000 — $32,000 $32,000 — $31,000 $31,000 — $30,000 $30,000 — — Activity Cost CrashNormal Crash Time Normal Time Crash Cost Normal Cost Crash Cost/Wk = Crash Cost – Normal Cost Normal Time – Crash Time = $34,000 – $30,000 3 – 1 = = $2,000/Wk $4,000 2 Wks Figure 3.18

58 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 58 Critical Path And Slack Times For Milwaukee Paper Figure 3.19 E4E4 F3F3 G5G5 H2H D4D4 37 C2C2 24 B3B3 03 Start A2A Slack = 1 Slack = 0 Slack = 6 Slack = 0

59 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.3 – 59 Enjoy your break!


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