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WEEK 4 Introduction to Project Management 1. Communication Plan Objectives Objective is to determine: ◦ Who needs to know what? ◦ How will they be told?

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Presentation on theme: "WEEK 4 Introduction to Project Management 1. Communication Plan Objectives Objective is to determine: ◦ Who needs to know what? ◦ How will they be told?"— Presentation transcript:

1 WEEK 4 Introduction to Project Management 1

2 Communication Plan Objectives Objective is to determine: ◦ Who needs to know what? ◦ How will they be told? ◦ When will they be told and how often? 2

3 Communication Plan Example 3

4 SCHEDULING 4

5 Purpose of Scheduling Shows relationships of each activity to others in the whole project Identifies the precedence relations among activities Encourages the setting of realistic time and cost estimates for each activity Helps make better use of people, money, and material resources by identifying “critical bottlenecks” in the project 5

6 BOTTLENECKS In any project there will be 1or more bottlenecks that can spoil the successful completion of the project. ◦ i.e. getting the resource you need, failing to complete a “critical task” on time One of the important responsibilities of a PM is to ID the bottlenecks of the project and to figure out how to eliminate them or minimize their impact. When you eliminate a bottleneck, it often frees up time When you build a project plan, schedule the tasks conservatively to help insure you can complete them on time. ◦ i.e. If you think it will take 60 days for a contractor to complete a task, schedule 90 days to ensure that the total project will come in on time 6

7 Scheduling Techniques Common tools  Gantt charts  Project calendars  Milestones charts  Critical Path Method (CPM)  the sequence of project activities which determines the shortest time possible to complete the project.  Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)  a method to estimate TASK DURATION, using optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely time frames 7

8 Sample Gantt Chart Time J F M A M J J A S Design Prototype Test Revise Production 8

9  ALL the tasks that determine the end date in your project schedule.  The critical path is the longest PATH, through the “AON” NETWORK (Activity On Node-explanation on 2nd slide from this one—slide # 13)  Longest path  Longest path of planned activities to the end of the project  Longest time in (days/weeks/months)  To be started and completed exactly as scheduled to ensure the project is completed by a certain date  ONE activity can NOT be done before the previous activity is completed CRITICAL PATH 9

10 CRITICAL PATH cont.  The critical path is the shortest possible TIME in which the ENTIRE project can be completed in  Any delay in ANY Critical Path” activities delays the project  Any delay in ANY of the “Critical Path” activities delays the project  All “Critical Path” activities have to be in sequence”  “Critical” does NOT refer to how important the task is, but rather the IMPACT the SCHEDULING of these tasks has on the FINISH date of the project 10

11 Activity on Node (AON) Explained 11

12 AON EXAMPLE 1: “Hanging a Picture” Choose a place on the wall Buy the screws Choose the picture Drill a hole Screw in the screws Hang the picture Some of these tasks can NOT start before the others are finished. ◦ Therefore, some tasks are DEPENDENT on the others. 12

13 “Hanging a Picture” cont. Example of a “PRECEDENCE TABLE” STUDENTS TO DRAW THE “AON” 1) “drill a hole,” 2) “screw in the screws” and 3)“hang the picture” form a sequence of tasks that must be performed in a specific order ◦ These 3 tasks will be will be placed on the “Critical Path” A B C D E F A BD EC 13

14 “Hanging a Picture” ANSWER 14 A B START C D E F CHOOSE A PLACE ON THE WALL BUY THE SCREWS CHOOSE THE PICTURE DRILL A HOLE SCREW IN THE SCREWS HANG THE PICTURE

15 AON (Activity on Node) Example of a “PRECEDENCE TABLE”: “ABC Paper Manufacturing” Activities & predecessors (“Smoke Stack) 15

16 Perform a Critical Path Analysis Determining the Project Schedule ActivityDescriptionTime (weeks) ABuild internal components2 BModify roof and floor3 CConstruct collection stack2 DPour concrete and install frame4 EBuild high-temperature burner4 FInstall pollution control system 3 GInstall air pollution device5 HInspect and test2 Total Time (weeks)25 16

17 INDIVIDUAL Exercise: Calculate the “Critical Path” Example of a “PRECEDENCE TABLE” AND: STUDENTS TO DRAW THE “AON” 2 Weeks 3 Weeks 2 Weeks 4 Weeks 3 Weeks 5 Weeks 2 Weeks HINT: SHOW NEXT SLIDE 17

18 A Start B Start Activity Activity A (Build Internal Components) Activity B (Modify Roof and Floor) AON – Step 1 18 BUILD INTERNAL COMPONENTS MODIFY ROOF & FLOOR

19 G E F H C A Start DB “Arrows” Show Precedence Relationships AON 5 weeks 3 weeks 2 weeks 4 weeks 3 weeks 2 weeks 19 BUILD INTERNAL COMPONENTS 3 weeks 2 weeks 4 weeks 3 weeks 2 weeks MODIFY ROOF & FLOOR POUR CONCRETE & INSTALL FRAME CONSTRUCT COLLECTION STACK BUILD HIGH TEMP BURNER INSTALL POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM INSTALL AIR POLLUTION DEVICE INSPECT & TEST

20 Example 3 of a “PRECEDENCE TABLE” STUDENTS TO DRAW THE “AON” 20

21 “KOLL BUSINESS CENTER” ANSWER B C A D E H G F APPLICATION APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION PLANS TRAFFIC STUDY SERVICE AVAILABILITY CHECK STAFF REPORT COMMISSION APPROVAL WAIT FOR CONSTRUCTION OCCU- PANCY

22 RESOURCE PLANNING 22

23 RESOURCE Planning Questions to be answered when planning resources: ◦ What needs to be done? ◦ Who or what can do the work? ◦ Is this resource available? ◦ How will this resource affect schedules and costs? ◦ RACI (Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, Informed) Chart ◦ Estimating would be completed here but we are not going to get into this in this course 23

24 RACI Chart R = Responsible A = Accountable (or Approve) C = Consulted I = Informed Project Manager does not necessarily have a role in every activity Activities 1 -5 PM Director Service Mgr Legal Dept A1RA A2ACI A3RA (res pons ible & Appr ove) IC A4ARC 24

25 RACI Model Steps in a RACI process ◦ Identify all the activities ◦ Identify the roles ◦ Complete the cells accordingly (R,A,C,I) ◦ Resolve overlaps & gaps  Every process should contain only one “R” 25


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