Presentation on theme: "Water power –the matured source. Water power has a long history. Until the early twentieth century, water powered mills ground grain into flour, sawed."— Presentation transcript:
Water power –the matured source
Water power has a long history. Until the early twentieth century, water powered mills ground grain into flour, sawed lumber and performed numerous other tasks. Such direct usage is now rare, and most water power is used to generate a convenient secondary energy source, electricity.
HHHHydro power is available by creating dams in stream and river flows. Hydro power generation is an established technology and maybe as much as one fifth of the world's electricity is generated this way, which is slightly more than by nuclear generation.
Hydroelectric dam in cross section
In electricity generation, an electrical generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy, generally using electromagnetic induction. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank, compressed air or any other source of mechanical energy.
Large Dams such as Hoover Dam are able to provide large amounts of hydroelectric power; it has a 2.07 gigawatt capability. Hoover Dam is among the most recognized and renowned structures built by the Bureau of Reclamation. Hoover Dam is among the most recognized and renowned structures built by the Bureau of Reclamation. The dam was authorized under the Boulder Canyon Project. The dam was authorized under the Boulder Canyon Project.
Advantages The major advantage of hydroelectricity is elimination of the cost of fuel. The cost of operating a hydroelectric plant is nearly immune to increases in the cost of fossil fuels. Where a dam serves multiple purposes, a hydroelectric plant may be added with relatively low construction cost, providing a useful revenue stream to offset the costs of dam operation. Economics
Since hydroelectric dams do not burn fossil fuels, they do not directly produce carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas). While some carbon dioxide is produced during manufacture and construction of the project, this is a tiny fraction of the operating emissions of equivalent fossil-fuel electricity generation. Greenhouse gas emissions
Reservoirs created by hydroelectric schemes often provide facilities for water sports, and become tourist attractions in themselves. In some countries, farming fish in the reservoirs is common. Multi-use dams installed for irrigation can support the fish farm with relatively constant water supply. Related activities
Disadvantages Hydroelectric projects can be disruptive to surrounding aquatic ecosystems. For instance, studies have shown that dams along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America have reduced salmon populations by preventing access to spawning grounds upstream, even though most dams in salmon habitat have fish ladders installed. Environmental damage
Population relocation Another disadvantage of hydroelectric dams is the need to relocate the people living where the reservoirs are planned. In many cases, no amount of compensation can replace ancestral and cultural attachments to places that have spiritual value to the displaced population. Such problems have arisen at the Three Gorges Dam project in China.
Dam failures FFFFailures of large dams, while rare, are potentially serious — the Banqiao Dam failure in Southern China resulted in the deaths of 171,000 people and left millions homeless. Dams may be subject to enemy bombardment during wartime, sabotage and terrorism. Smaller dams and micro hydro facilities are less vulnerable to these threats.
Made by : Schiopu Nicoleta Tiganus Emilia Stefana Coordinated by : Schnabel Dieter