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PART IV COMMUNICATING RESULTS. Structure 10. Questionnaires 9. Qualitative 13. Sampling 11. Experimental 8. Observation 7. Secondary data 16. Survey data.

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Presentation on theme: "PART IV COMMUNICATING RESULTS. Structure 10. Questionnaires 9. Qualitative 13. Sampling 11. Experimental 8. Observation 7. Secondary data 16. Survey data."— Presentation transcript:

1 PART IV COMMUNICATING RESULTS

2 Structure 10. Questionnaires 9. Qualitative 13. Sampling 11. Experimental 8. Observation 7. Secondary data 16. Survey data 15. Qualitative 18. Research report 14. Secondary 4. Research ethics 3. Starting out 6. Reviewing lit. 5. Range of methods 2. Approaches 1. Introduction PART I PREPARATION PART II DATA COLLECTION 12. Case studies PART III ANALYSIS PART IV COMMUNICATE RESULTS 17. Statistical

3 Chapter 18: Preparing a research report

4 CONTENTS Written research reports – Getting started – Report components – Main body of the report – technical aspects – Main body of the report – structure and content Other media – Oral presentations – Use of PowerPoint'-type software

5 Written research reports: types Written research reports: types (Fig. 18.1) Types – Management/planning project report – Academic article – Thesis Distinguished by: – Authors – Content – Brief – Quality assurance – Readership – Published status – Length – Emphasis A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

6 Types of written research report contd Management/ planning/project report Academic articleThesis AuthorsIn-house staff, external consultants or funded academics AcademicsHonours, masters doctoral students ContentReport of commissioned or grant-funded project Report of academic research BriefProvided by commission- ing organisation or out- lined in grant application Generally self- generated (some commissioned). Generally self- generated (some grant-funded ). A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

7 Types of report contd Management/ planning/project report Academic articleThesis Quality assurance In-house: internal. Consultants/academics: reputation of consult- ants/researchers. Anonymous refereeing process (see Ch. 1). Supervision + examination by external examiners. ReadershipProfessional managers/ planners and possibly elected or appointed board/council/committe e members Primarily academics. Primarily academic. A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

8 Types of report contd Management/ planning/ project report Academic articleThesis Published status May or may not be publicly available. Publicly available (often on-line) in published academic journals. Publicly available in libraries and, recently, on- line; findings generally published in summary form in one or more academic articles. LengthVariesIn the social/manage- ment sciences, incl. leisure/tourism: words. In the social/management sciences, incl. leisure/ tourism: Honours: c. 20,000 words Masters: c. 40,000 words PhD: c. 70,000 words + A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

9 Types of report contd Management/ planning/ project report Academic article Thesis EmphasisEmphasis on findings rather than links with the literature/theory and methodology (but latter must be described) Methodology, theory, literature as important as the findings. A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

10 Getting started It’s never too early to start writing Many parts of a report can be written early in the research process A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

11 Report components Report components (Fig. 18.2) Cover Title page Contents page(s) Summary Preface/Foreword Acknowledgements Main body of report Appendices A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

12 Main body of report: technical aspects (Fig. 18.4) Section numbering Paragraph numbering? Use of 'Dot point' lists Page numbering Headers/footers Heading hierarchy - use software ‘styles’ Typing layout/spacing Tables and graphics Referencing – see Ch. 6 Which person? – Personal: ‘I/we conducted a survey’ or – Impersonal ‘A survey as conducted’ A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

13 Tables/graphics All should have: – Numbers, Titles, – Date of data – Geographical area – Nature of sample (eg. age-range) – Sample size – Units of measurement, eg. £, $ – Source, unless related to the main study empirical work Role of tables/graphics: presenting facts Role of text: comment, highlight key features, summarise (see Fig. 18.6) A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

14 Main body of report: structure and content Most important factors: 1.Structure 2.Structure 3.Structure Explain structure, emphasise throughout the report Also: explain structures of individual chapters/ sections throughout A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

15 Typical structure of academic articles (Fig. 18.7) Background/introduction/justification for the research/nature of the problem/issue Review of the literature Specific outline of problem/issue/hypotheses Methods Results Conclusions References A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

16 Between ‘methods’ and ‘results’ In empirical research: as part of ‘methods’ or at the start of ‘results’, indicate: – Size of sample achieved – Response rates and consequences – Sample characteristics and its representativeness of the population – Measures taken to correct any sample bias A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

17 Audiences and style Popular Decision-makers Experts: professional or academic A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

18 Report functions Report as record – Information for current and future reference – Use appendices if necessary Report as narrative – Telling a story, developing an argument A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

19 Report as narrative – structure (Fig. 18.8) E. Issue/topic 2: results/analysis F. Issue/topic 3: results/analysis X. Summary/conclusions etc. A. Introduction etc. B. Issue/problems/literature etc. C. Data collection. D. Issue/topic 1: results/analysis A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

20 Other media Oral presentations: Audio-visual presentation is not the same as a written report Must be designed in its own right – in view of time available Typically involves being selective Sensible to rehearse to get timing right A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge

21 PowerPoint-type software Don’t stand in front of the screen! Don’t overcrowd individual slides Check readability on full-size screen Use graphics where possible Take care with coloured text/backgrounds Use ‘animation’ as appropriate A. J. Veal & S. Darcy (2014) Research Methods for Sport Studies and Sport Management: A practical guide. London: Routledge


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