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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 - Appendix – 3 COMMUNICATING& REPORTING THE RESULTS."— Presentation transcript:


2 Written research reportsWritten research reports –Getting started –Report components –Main body of the report – technical aspects –Main body of the report – structure and content Other mediaOther media –Oral presentations –Use of PowerPoint-type software Types of research report

3 Written Research Reports: Types TypesTypes –Management/planning project report –Academic article –Thesis / Graduation Project Distinguished by:Distinguished by: –Authors –Content –Brief –Quality assurance –Readership –Published status –Length –Emphasis

4 Types of written research report Characteristic Management/ planning/project report Academic article Thesis AuthorsIn-house staff, external consultants or funded academics AcademicsHonours, masters doctoral students ContentReport of commissioned or grant- funded project Report of academic research BriefProvided by commission organisation or out- lined in grant application Generally self- generated (some commissioned) Generally self- generated (some grant-funded)

5 Types of report Characteristic Management/ planning/project report Academic article Thesis Quality assurance In-house: internal consultants/academic: reputation of consultants / researchers Anonymous refereeing process Supervision + examination by external examiners Readership Professional managers / planners and possibly elected or appointed board / council / committee members Primarily academics

6 Characteristic Management / planning / project report Academic article Thesis Published status May or may not be publicly available Publicly available (often on-line) in published academic journals Publicly available in libraries and, recently, on-line; findings generally published in summary form in one or more academic articles LengthVariesIn the social / management sciences, including leisure / tourism: 5000–7000 words In the social / management sciences, including leisure / tourism: Honours20,000 Honours: c. 20,000 words Master’s40,000 Master’s: c. 40,000 words PhD70,000 PhD: c. 70,000 words + Types of report (Continued)

7 Management / planning/ project report Academic article Thesis EmphasisEmphasis on findings rather than links with the literature / theory and methodology (but latter must be described) Methodology, theory, literature as important as the findings Types of report (Continued)

8 Getting started It’s never too early to start writing Many parts of a report can be written early in the research process

9 Cover Title page Contents page(s) Summary Preface / Foreword Acknowledgements Main body of report Appendices Report components

10 Section numbering Paragraph numbering? 'Dot point' lists Page numbering Headers / footers Heading hierarchy – use software ‘styles’ Typing layout/spacing Tables and graphics Referencing Which person? –Personal: ‘I/we conducted a survey’ or –Impersonal ‘A survey as conducted’ Main body of report: technical aspects

11 Tables/graphics All should have: –Numbers, titles –Date of data –Geographical area –Nature of sample (e.g. age-range) –Sample size –Units of measurement, e.g. £, $ –Source, unless related to the main study empirical work Role of tables/graphics: presenting facts Role of text: comment, highlight key features, summarise

12 Main body of report: structure and content Most important factors: 1.Structure 2.Structure 3.Structure Explain structure, emphasise throughout the report Also: explain structures of individual chapters/ sections throughout

13 Background / introduction / justification for the research / nature of the problem / issue Review of the literature Specific outline of problem/issue/hypotheses Methods Results Conclusions References Typical structure of academic articles

14 Between ‘methods’ and ‘results Between ‘methods’ and ‘results’ methods resultsIn empirical research: as part of ‘methods’ or at the start of ‘results’, indicate: sample –Size of sample achieved –Response –Response rates and consequences characteristics –Sample characteristics and its representativeness of the population –Measures –Measures taken to correct any sample bias

15 Audiences and style Popular Decision-makers Experts: professional or academic

16 Report functions recordReport as record –Information for current and future reference –Use appendices if necessary narrativeReport as narrative –Telling a story, developing an argument

17 E. Issue/topic 2: results/analysis F. Issue/topic 3: results/analysis X. Summary/conclusions etc. A. Introduction, etc. B. Issue/problems/literature, etc. C. Data collection D. Issue/topic 1: results/analysis Report as narrative – structure

18 Other media Oral presentations: Audio-visual presentation is not the same as a written report Must be designed in its own right – in view of time available Typically involves being selective Sensible to rehearse to get timing right

19 PowerPoint-type software Don’t stand in front of the screen! Don’t overcrowd individual slides Check readability on full-size screen Use graphics where possible Take care with coloured text/backgrounds Use ‘animation’ as appropriate


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