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Amazonia and Climate A.D. Nobre, INPA Side Event Institute for Environmental Security UNFCC COP12 15 November 2006, Nairobi Kenya.

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Presentation on theme: "Amazonia and Climate A.D. Nobre, INPA Side Event Institute for Environmental Security UNFCC COP12 15 November 2006, Nairobi Kenya."— Presentation transcript:

1 Amazonia and Climate A.D. Nobre, INPA Side Event Institute for Environmental Security UNFCC COP12 15 November 2006, Nairobi Kenya

2 Socrates Dream Animation credit NASA

3 Greenhouse Earth 95% CO 2 Present day Earth 0.037% CO 2 30% output increase The changes in atmospheric composition are highly correlated with climate stability

4 Biogeochemical Climate Thermostat

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6 A multidisciplinary stroll through Earth evolution See details in the GCP CD: Earth, a Living Planet A multidisciplinary stroll through Earth evolution See details in the GCP CD: Earth, a Living Planet

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8 Photo Credit Andrea, Artaxo et al. LBA Smocc Experiment Photo Credit Andrea, Artaxo et al. LBA Smocc Experiment The Green Ocean

9 2 years data from TRMM satellite Animation Credit NASA Goddard TROPICAL RAINFALL [DATA]

10 20 years of Surface Temperature [DATA] Data & Animation Credit NASA

11 K34 FLUXTOWER Manaus Brazil Photo Credit Andrea, Artaxo et al., LBA Claire II Experiment Biosphere – Atmosphere relations More Power than Meets the Eyes Biosphere – Atmosphere relations More Power than Meets the Eyes 300 liters of water transpired per day by a single big tree ! Equivalent to 20 billion tons for the whole Amazon ! Or 135 years of Itaipu at full power !!

12 RAINFALL MECHANISM IN AN UNDISTURBED RAINFOREST Photo Credit Antonio D Nobre

13 RAINFALL MECHANISM IN AN UNDISTURBED RAINFOREST CLEAN ATMOSPHERE based on results of LBA: Claeys et al and Andrea et al. Science 2004; Marengo et al 2004, 2005; others H 2 O VAPOR Diagram by Antonio D Nobre [MODEL]

14 Photo Credit Antonio D Nobre RAINFALL MECHANISM IN AN UNDISTURBED RAINFOREST

15 Volatile Organic Tree Modified from Fall, R., University of Colorado, Boulder at Light Leaves Isoprene Sesquiterpenes Monoterpenes Formaldhyde Formic Acid Acetaldehyde Acetic Acid Ethanol Acetone Flowers Floral Scents Resin ducts or glands Stored Terpenes Resin ducts or glands Stored Terpenes Leaves, Stems, Roots Cell Membranes Defense + Herbivory Cell Walls by-products Many Tissues Phytohormones Methanol C 5, C 6 VOCs Ethylene 100s of VOCs Methyl Salicylate Methyl Jasmonate Polimerization: Terpenes Metabolism

16 The Forgotten Droplets

17 RAINFALL MECHANISM IN AN UNDISTURBED RAINFOREST CLEAN ATMOSPHERE Warm Low Level Clouds Heavy but Gentle Rainfall based on results of LBA: Claeys et al and Andrea et al. Science 2004; Marengo et al 2004, 2005; others Biogenic Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCNs) H 2 O VAPOR Diagram by Antonio D Nobre [MODEL]

18 RAINFALL MECHANISM IN AN UNDISTURBED RAINFOREST CLEAN ATMOSPHERE Warm Low Level Clouds Heavy but Gentle Rainfall based on results of LBA: Claeys et al and Andrea et al. Science 2004; Marengo et al 2004, 2005; others H 2 O VAPOR Diagram by Antonio D Nobre Biogenic Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCNs) [MODEL]

19 Makarieva A. M., Gorshkov V. G., 2006, Biotic pump of atmospheric moisture and its importance for the water cycle on land, Hydrology Earth System Sciences Discussions, online now. (e) Biotic pump of atmospheric moisture: transpiration fluxes regulated by natural forests exceed oceanic evaporation fluxes to the degree when the arising oceanto- land fluxes of moist air become large enough to compensate losses of water to runoff in the entire river basin. FORESTED-LAND CIRCULATION[MODEL]

20 giraffeselephant Paleoclimates and Vegetation: Suggestions from the Mega fauna

21 Wildebeest

22 The Amazon Rainforest has a Powerful and Key Influence on Climate Photo Credit Antonio D Nobre How does this Influence Plays Elsewhere on the Globe?

23 Healthy forest–atmosphere exchanges can affect the hydrological cycle elsewhere Valuing Ecosystem Services

24 Global water vapor, one week mosaic Click mouse here =><= to Start / Stop rain animation Airborne Rivers of Vapor [DATA]

25 ? ? Fonte mapa: material internet [DATA] Geography of Climate

26 First, let’s observe and understand global atmospheric circulation Surface heating on the equatorial zone produces strong upwellings of air. Rising air cools and looses moisture, making these rainy areas...when the dry air falls in the other extreme of the Hadley cells it warms up and takes moisture from the surface... making these dry areas The Hadley circulation transports heat from the equator to higher latitudes, and explains the trade winds near the surface, which transport moisture from the ocean to the Amazon Diagram source: internet material [MODEL]

27 The ENGINE

28 30 years of South America Rainfall Source: Willmot & Webber, 1998, [DATA]

29 Marengo et al, 2005 The Explanation : South American Monsoon [MODEL]

30 RAINFALL MECHANISM IN A DISTURBED RAINFOREST DIRTY ATMOSPHERE based on results of ABRACOS project 2000 and LBA: Andrea et al. Science,; others People destroy the Garden of Eden… What happens then? Photo Credit Andrea, Artaxo et al. LBA Smocc Experiment Diagram by Antonio D Nobre [MODEL]

31 RAINFALL MECHANISM IN A DISTURBED RAINFOREST DIRTY ATMOSPHERE COLD Towering Clouds based on results of ABRACOS project 2000 and LBA: Andrea et al. Science,; others Soot Dust Diagram by Antonio D Nobre Smoky Dissipative Clouds Suppression of Rainfall Dry Season or Drought [MODEL]

32 (a) Deserts: evaporation on land is close to zero, so the low level air moves from land to the ocean year round, thus "locking" the desert for moisture. DESERT CIRCULATION Makarieva A. M., Gorshkov V. G., 2006, Biotic pump of atmospheric moisture and its importance for the water cycle on land, Hydrology Earth System Sciences Discussions, online now. [MODEL]

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34 Amazon River, 2005

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