Presentation on theme: "Winning The War. As the war wore on, nations realized that a modern, mechanized war required all of the nation’s resources to be channeled into the war."— Presentation transcript:
As the war wore on, nations realized that a modern, mechanized war required all of the nation’s resources to be channeled into the war effort. This is called Total War.
I. Waging Total War – A. Both sides set up systems to recruit, arm and supply troops in the millions. 1. Early in war, all nations except Britain imposed military conscription (the draft). 2. Britain imposed the draft by 1916.
B. Costs of War – 1. Governments raised taxes and borrowed money to pay for the war. – 2. Rationed food and other products. – 3. Forbid strikes, set prices on goods.
C. Economic Warfare – 1. Both sides used naval blockades a. Germans confiscated contraband (military supplies) b. British confiscated all goods. – 2. Food became scarce in Germany and Austria a. In retaliation, Germany declared it would sink all ships carrying goods to Britain. b. May 1915, a U-boat sank the Lusitania, 1,200 were killed, 128 were Americans.
3. President Woodrow Wilson threatened to cut off all ties with Germany. – a. Germany agreed to give warning before sinking ships.
D. Propaganda War – 1. Total war meant controlling public opinion a. Censored the press b. purpose :keep public from knowing casualty figures C. restricted movies, literature, the arts 2. Both sides used propaganda a. Propaganda-spreading of ideas to promote a cause or damage the other side. b. Propaganda used for: motivate men to enlist in military, loan money to government (buy bonds), C. Allies circulated stories of atrocities (horrible acts against innocent people).
E. Women join the war effort – 1. Women took over men’s jobs at home and kept economies going. A. worked in war industries, manufacturing weapons and supplies B. Some joined armed forces C. Nurses worked close to front lines D. Women gained sense of pride and confidence E. Had to give up jobs when men returned. F. Won right to vote in several countries.
F. Morale Collapses – 1. By 1917, morale of troops and civilians plunged. – 2. Many casualties, food shortages, failure of victories led to calls for peace. – 3. Writers and poets began denouncing the waste of so many lives. – 4. Troops mutinied A. French mutinied, Italians deserted, Russians left front line to join revolution at home.
G. Russian Revolution – 1. Public sentiment was against the war – 2. March 1917, bread riots in St. Petersburg erupted in revolution. A. Monarchy brought down B. Allies hoped for democratic government in Russia. C. V.I. Lenin came to power, promising to get Russia out of war. 3. 1918, signed treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Russia withdrew from WWI. 4. Germany concentrated troops on Western Front.