Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Lecture 15 International Macroeconomics Econ 340.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Lecture 15 International Macroeconomics Econ 340."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Lecture 15 International Macroeconomics Econ 340

3 Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro 2

4 3

5 News: Mar 9-15 ECB QE begins -- WSJ: 3/10 | Proquest | FT: 3/10 | CTools3/10Proquest3/10CTools –Following last month's pledge by the European Central Bank to initiate Quantitative Easing, the Eurozone national central banks began buying sovereign debt, even at negative interest rates. –The plan is to buy about €850bn of eurozone government debt, plus additional private sector debt. EU rules forbid the ECB from bailing out member governments, and this complicates but doesn't prevent the process. –The purpose is stimulate the economy and to reverse or prevent deflation, which has begun in some of the countries. The eurozone's unemployment rate is over 11%. Euro falls close to parity with dollar -- WSJ: 3/14 | Proquest | NYT: 3/12 | Proquest | FT: 3/14 | CTools3/14Proquest3/12Proquest3/14CTools –The euro fell against the dollar on Friday to $1.0482, its lowest since –The reasons for the recent decline include both the ECB QE and the expectation that the Fed will raise interest rates in coming months. –The fall in the euro is to be expected, and is part of the mechanism by which the ECB QE is expected to work: It will make European goods cheaper and stimulate demand. Tea Party divided on renewal of Export-Import Bank -- NYT: 3/10 | Proquest3/10Proquest –"The Export-Import Bank guarantees loans to overseas customers of thousands of American companies." It is an 81- year old institution that will disappear June 30 if not renewed by Congress. –Some conservative Republicans oppose renewal, saying that it is "crony capitalism" mainly benefitting big companies like Boeing and Caterpillar. In fact it also benefits many small companies that export, including ones owned by Tea Party Republicans. So there is division among Republicans on whether to renew. Unlike some other issues, those opposed need not persuade any Democrats, as all they need to do is to not act. –Is the Ex-Im Bank subsidizing exports? That's not clear: "The bank operates on fees it charges its users and, so far, has made money for the government." Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro 4

6 News: Mar 9-15 ECB QE begins –Following last month's pledge by the European Central Bank to initiate Quantitative Easing, the Eurozone national central banks began buying sovereign debt, even at negative interest rates. –The plan is to buy about €850bn of eurozone government debt, plus additional private sector debt. EU rules forbid the ECB from bailing out member governments, and this complicates but doesn't prevent the process. –The purpose is stimulate the economy and to reverse or prevent deflation, which has begun in some of the countries. The eurozone's unemployment rate is over 11%. Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro 5

7 News: Mar 9-15 Euro falls close to parity with dollar –The euro fell against the dollar on Friday to $1.0482, its lowest since –The reasons for the recent decline include both the ECB QE and the expectation that the Fed will raise interest rates in coming months. –The fall in the euro is to be expected, and is part of the mechanism by which the ECB QE is expected to work: It will make European goods cheaper and stimulate demand. Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro 6

8 7

9 News: Mar 9-15 Tea Party divided on renewal of Export-Import Bank –"The Export-Import Bank guarantees loans to overseas customers of thousands of American companies." It is an 81-year old institution that will disappear June 30 if not renewed by Congress. –Some conservative Republicans oppose renewal, saying that it is "crony capitalism" mainly benefitting big companies like Boeing and Caterpillar. In fact it also benefits many small companies that export, including ones owned by Tea Party Republicans. So there is division among Republicans on whether to renew. Unlike some other issues, those opposed need not persuade any Democrats, as all they need to do is to not act. –Is the Ex-Im Bank subsidizing exports? That's not clear: "The bank operates on fees it charges its users and, so far, has made money for the government." Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro 8

10 9

11 Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 14: Pegging 10 (From last time) Effects of Pegging Example: To see the effects of pegging versus floating, –Consider the Chinese foreign exchange market (for $) –Suppose the US economy expands, increasing US imports from China. –What will happen if The renminbi floats? Or, instead, if The renminbi is pegged to the US dollar?

12 Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 14: Pegging 11 Effects of US Expansion on China if Renminbi is Floating US expansion if renminbi is floating Effects of US expansion: –S $ shifts right (more US imports from China) –Yuan appreciates (¥/$ falls) –No change in China’s reserves or money supply –Rising ¥ reduces US imports and increases US exports S$S$ D$D$ Q$Q$ E = ¥/$ E0E0 S’ $ E1E1

13 Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 14: Pegging 12 US expansion if renminbi is pegged Effects of US expansion: –S $ shifts right (more US imports from China) –Yuan stays constant (no further effect on US trade) –People’s Bank of China buys more $ Reserves rise faster Money supply expands faster if not sterilized –May cause inflation in China S$S$ D$D$ Q$Q$ E = ¥/$ E* S’ $ ΔR ΔR’ Effects of US Expansion on China if Renminbi is Pegged

14 Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 14: Pegging 13 Effects of Pegging Implication of Example: –Something always changes in the exchange market when changes occur for trade, capital flows, or other transactions Exchange rate changes if floating Reserves (and maybe money supply) change if pegged

15 Outline: International Macroeconomics Recall Macro from Econ 102 –Aggregate Supply and Demand –Policies Effects ON the Exchange Market –Expansion –Interest Rate Effects OF the Exchange Market –Depreciation via Trade –Depreciation via Net Wealth Effects THOUGH the Exchange Market 14Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

16 Recall Macro from Econ 102 Aggregate Supply and Demand Determine Y = GDP = Output = Income This in turn implies level of Employment P = Price level 15Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

17 Recall Macro from Econ 102 YYYNYN PLRAS SRAS AD Short-run Aggregate Supply Long-run Aggregate Supply Aggregate Demand Natural Rate of Output ( = Output at Natural Rate of Unemployment) 16Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

18 Recall Macro from Econ 102 Macroeconomic Policies –Monetary Expansion = Increase in Money Supply (M) Open market operations: purchase bonds Reserve requirement: reduce it Discount rate: reduce it Usually indicated by Fed target for Federal Funds Rate –Fiscal Expansion Increase government purchases (G) Reduce taxes (or increase transfers) (T) –All of these have the effect of Increasing aggregate demand Shifting AD curve to the right They differ in effects on interest rate (i):  M>0 lowers i  G>0,  T<0 raise i 17Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

19 Recall Macro from Econ 102 YNYN PLRAS SRAS AD AD′ Short-run change Long-run change  M>0,  G>0, or  T<0, 18Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

20 Recall Macro from Econ 102 Macroeconomic Policies –Contractionary policies (  M 0) are just the opposite –All have only temporary effects on output and employment, but lasting effects on price level –Policies can be useful (if done right) for dealing with temporary problems such as a recession 19Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

21 Outline: International Macroeconomics Recall Macro from Econ 102 –Aggregate Supply and Demand –Policies Effects ON the Exchange Market –Expansion –Interest Rate Effects OF the Exchange Market –Depreciation via Trade –Depreciation via Net Wealth Effects THOUGH the Exchange Market 20Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

22 Effects ON the Exchange Market Non-Monetary Expansion Y rises P rises i rises –We’ll always assume that the interest rate effect is larger, because capital today is very mobile –Three cases to consider: Floating exchange rate Pegged exchange rate at overvalued rate Pegged exchange rate at undervalued rate  imports rise  D € shifts right  capital inflow  S € shifts right 21Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

23 US Non-Monetary Expansion: Floating Exchange Rate S€0S€0 D€0D€0 Q€Q€ E = $/€ E0E0 D€1D€1 E1E1  G>0,  T<0 S€1S€1  Causes dollar to appreciate (Due to  Y>0,  P>0) (Due to  i>0) 22Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

24 US Non-Monetary Expansion: Pegged Exchange Rate - Overvalued S€0S€0 I1I1 Q€Q€ E = $/€ D€1D€1  G>0,  T<0 S€1S€1  Less intervention (sells) E* I0I0 D€0D€0 (I 1 < I 0 ) 23Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

25 US Non-Monetary Expansion: Pegged Exchange Rate - Undervalued S€0S€0 I1I1 Q€Q€ E = $/€ D€1D€1  G>0,  T<0 S€1S€1  More intervention (buys) E* I0I0 D€0D€0 24Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

26 Effects ON the Exchange Market Summary: Non-Monetary Expansion –Results: Effects of non-monetary expansion Floating exchange rate appreciates Pegging the exchange rate becomes easier –If reserves were falling (overvalued case) they now fall less rapidly –If reserves were rising (undervalued case) they now rise more rapidly 25Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

27 Effects ON the Exchange Market Monetary Contraction (i.e., rise in interest rate) Y falls P falls i rises –Assume again that the interest rate effect is larger –Same three cases Will only show floating case; others are similar  imports fall  D € shifts left  capital inflow  S € shifts right 26Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

28 US Monetary Contraction: Floating Exchange Rate S€0S€0 D€0D€0 Q€Q€ E = $/€ E0E0 D€1D€1 E1E1  M<0 S€1S€1  Causes dollar to appreciate (Due to  Y<0,  P<0) (Due to  i>0) 27Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

29 Effects ON the Exchange Market Summary: Monetary Contraction –Assuming (always) that the interest-rate effect on capital flows is larger than the income and price effects on trade –Monetary contraction has essentially the same effects as a non-monetary (e.g., fiscal) expansion –Reason: Only the interest rate really matters, due to assumption that capital flows dominate And both fiscal expansion and monetary contraction raise the interest rate 28Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

30 Outline: International Macroeconomics Recall Macro from Econ 102 –Aggregate Supply and Demand –Policies Effects ON the Exchange Market –Expansion –Interest Rate Effects OF the Exchange Market –Depreciation via Trade –Depreciation via Net Wealth Effects THOUGH the Exchange Market 29Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

31 Effects OF the Exchange Market Under a pegged exchange rate, the exchange market has little effect on the economy unless the pegged rate itself is changed –Exception: without sterilization, domestic money supply is sensitive to trade and capital flows Under a floating exchange rate, movement of the exchange rate can matter a lot 30Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

32 Effects OF the Exchange Market Thus, in both cases, we want to know effects of changing the exchange rate We’ll look only at an exchange depreciation –(Usually called a “devaluation” when a pegged exchange rate is depreciated) 31Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

33 Effects OF the Exchange Market Two Major Effects of Exchange-Rate Depreciation –Trade Effect Depreciation makes country’s goods cheaper –Wealth Effect Depreciation makes country’s assets cheaper 32Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

34 Effects OF the Exchange Market Trade Effect of Depreciation –  E>0 Stimulates exports (they are cheaper to foreigners) Retards imports (they are more expensive for domestic buyers) Thus depreciation increases aggregate demand (AD) –Stimulates economy YNYN PLRAS SRAS AD AD′ 33Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

35 Effects OF the Exchange Market Wealth Effect of Depreciation –If assets and liabilities are in same currency, then little effect –If assets and liabilities are in different currencies, one home and the other foreign, then BIG EFFECT 34Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

36 Effects OF the Exchange Market A common case of Wealth Effect, especially in Developing countries in the past Many countries in the recent financial crisis –Countries have borrowed abroad to finance domestic investment Assets are in home currency Liabilities are in foreign currency –Then depreciation causes a huge drop in net wealth 35Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

37 Effects OF the Exchange Market Example: Effect of 20% depreciation of Mexican peso (p): E=10p/$ → 12p/$ –Case 1: Assets and liabilities both in pesos –Case 2: Assets in pesos but liabilities in $ 36Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

38 Effects OF the Exchange Market Case 1: Before E = 10 p/$ Assets Liabilities Net Wealth in pesosin $ −900 p 1000 p = (100 $) = (−90 $) ≈ 80 $ ≈ −72 $ = (+10 $)100 p +8 $ After E = 12 p/$ Initial 20% loss of net worth (in $) 37Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

39 Effects OF the Exchange Market Case 2: Before E = 10 p/$ Assets Liabilities Net Wealth in pesosin $ −900 p = 1000 p = (100 $) −90 $ ≈ 80 $ = −90 $ = (+10 $)100 p −10 $ After E = 12 p/$ Initial Bankrupt! 38Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

40 Effects OF the Exchange Market Wealth Effect of Depreciation –This is exactly what happened to lots of developing countries when they had an Exchange Crisis and their currencies suddenly depreciated –The wealth effect overwhelms any beneficial effect that the country might otherwise feel from a boost in exports 39Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

41 Effects OF the Exchange Market Wealth Effect of Depreciation –It is also what happened in 2008 to Iceland Latvia Perhaps others in Eastern Europe –They had liabilities denominated in euros, and then their own currencies fell. –(It is not what is happened in 2010 to Greece. Their debt and assets were both in euros. They just borrowed more than they could repay.) 40Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

42 41

43 Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro 42 Another recent example: Brazil

44 Effects OF the Exchange Market Example of a different sort: Appreciation of the Chinese Yuan (aka renminbi) –For many years, the yuan was pegged to the US dollar –On July 21, 2005, China Changed to pegging to a basket of currencies The yuan appreciated by 2% After that it rose by about another 20% The increase stopped at the start of the financial crisis, in July 2008 –It rose slowly since then, for a while (as we saw in the graph last time) 43Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

45 Effects OF the Exchange Market Effects of the Yuan Appreciation (See reading by Stiglitz) –Change was gradual, rising only about 6% per year –Wealth effect For US, negligible, since our debt is in dollars For China, there was some decline in yuan value of their dollar assets 44Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

46 Effects OF the Exchange Market Effects of any Yuan Appreciation –Trade effect Effects on prices –US goods become cheaper to China –Chinese goods become dearer to US (But note, from Stiglitz: Chinese exports to the US have 70-80% import content; thus yuan matters little) Helps US sales, hurts Chinese sales 45Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

47 Effects OF the Exchange Market Effects of the Yuan Appreciation –Other effects Helps China fight inflation and excessive monetary expansion and credit growth Permits increased consumption in China 46Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

48 Effects OF the Exchange Market Are these the actual reasons for the yuan appreciations of ? –No –US had been Pressing China for years to stop holding down the value of the yuan Threatening increased protection against Chinese exports –Idea was that appreciation would reduce the Chinese bilateral trade surplus with the US, & thus reduce the US deficit –China refused to be bullied, but perhaps it was 47Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

49 Effects OF the Exchange Market Will a further Yuan Appreciation Change the US Trade Balance? –Probably not To do so, it would have to change US saving and investment It’s not clear why an appreciation would do that –One possibility (see Stiglitz, writing in 2005) Chinese spending increases  They stop financing the US current account deficit  US interest rates rise  US housing bubble bursts  US spending would fall (First 2 didn’t happen; second 2 did.) 48Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

50 Effects OF the Exchange Market Most recently, the Chinese yuan depreciated suddenly, instead of appreciating, as it has been doing for years. 49Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

51 Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 14: Pegging 50 US$/Yuan 2.7%

52 Effects OF the Exchange Market Most recently, the Chinese yuan depreciated suddenly, instead of appreciating, as it has been doing for years. This was done deliberately by the Chinese central bank Purpose was, apparently, to discourage those who had been bringing funds into China 51Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

53 Effects OF the Exchange Market Another Example: The Depreciation of the US Dollar –Quite aside from what happened to the yuan, the US dollar depreciated over the last several years (until its more recent rise) Mann and Plück, writing in 2005, say that it fell by 25% It fell more until But has risen recently –What were the effects of the fall? 52Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

54 Effects OF the Exchange Market 53Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

55 Effects OF the Exchange Market Effects of the Dollar Depreciation –Did this help the US trade balance? No! –For more reasons see Mann and Plück Lots of US imports come from countries whose currencies didn’t appreciate (China, Thailand), or even depreciated (Mexico) “Pass-through” is low in the US market: 10% fall in $ only causes % rise in import prices 54Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

56 Effects OF the Exchange Market Effects of the Dollar Depreciation –Note that the dollar depreciated less vis a vis China than vis a vis Canada. –Krugman argues that China should have appreciated more, so that $ would depreciate more US would export more and import less, stimulating the US economy He wants US to threaten a tariff on China’s exports, to push them to appreciate. (Bad idea, unless the threat alone is enough.) 55Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

57 Effects OF the Exchange Market Effects of the Dollar Depreciation –Perry, in contrast to Krugman, thinks that the US benefits from the failure of the Chinese currency to appreciate Consumers, especially low-income, benefit from cheap imported consumer goods. US firms that use imported inputs from China also enjoy lower costs. It’s like we are getting goods free. (He ignores that we are borrowing to accomplish this, and may need some day to pay it back.) 56Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

58 Outline: International Macroeconomics Recall Macro from Econ 102 –Aggregate Supply and Demand –Policies Effects ON the Exchange Market –Expansion –Interest Rate Effects OF the Exchange Market –Depreciation via Trade –Depreciation via Net Wealth Effects THOUGH the Exchange Market 57Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

59 Effects THROUGH the Exchange Market The issue here: –Do macroeconomic effects get transmitted to other countries, and if so how? –i.e., does an expansion, for example, in one country cause an expansion or a contraction in other countries? 58Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

60 Effects THROUGH the Exchange Market –The answer: Although many exceptions are possible, it is usually true that changes in one country cause changes in the same direction in others: Expansion here → expansion there Inflation here → inflation there High interest rates here → high interest rates there 59Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

61 Effects THROUGH the Exchange Market Example: How a recession in US can cause recession Canada –Fall in aggregate demand in US (due to non- monetary contraction such as a fall in investment) leads to Fall in US income, leads to Fall in Canadian exports to US, leads to Fall in Canadian income –To see these links in more detail… 60Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

62 US Investment Falls US Income Falls US Interest Rate FallsUS Imports Fall US Dollar Depreciates US Imports Fall More Canadian Exports Fall Canadian AD Falls Canadian Income Falls 61Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

63 Effects THROUGH the Exchange Market We’ve seen some of this dramatically during the last few years: –Crisis started in US –Effects were transmitted to the world –Exception: US dollar did not depreciate immediately; it appreciated at first. (Due to flight to safety.) 62Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro

64 Next Time Fixed versus Floating Exchange Rates –Who uses them –What experts recommend –Pros and cons of Floating rates Pegged rates –Alternatives –The Problem of Undervalued Currencies 63Econ 340, Deardorff, Lecture 15: Int Macro


Download ppt "Lecture 15 International Macroeconomics Econ 340."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google