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AIR POLLUTION Dr. Suharyanto, MS., MSc. Fakulty of Biology Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

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Presentation on theme: "AIR POLLUTION Dr. Suharyanto, MS., MSc. Fakulty of Biology Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia."— Presentation transcript:

1 AIR POLLUTION Dr. Suharyanto, MS., MSc. Fakulty of Biology Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

2 Air Pollution Addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health, and quality of life. Addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health, and quality of life. Homes Homes School School Cities Cities Across Continents Across Continents Globally Globally

3 Air pollution makes people sick Air pollution makes people sick It harms plants, animals, and ecosystems in which they live. It harms plants, animals, and ecosystems in which they live. It returns to earth in the form of acid rain and snow. It returns to earth in the form of acid rain and snow. Pollution is changing earth’s atmosphere. Pollution is changing earth’s atmosphere. Scientist predict that the temperature increase, referred to as global warming. Scientist predict that the temperature increase, referred to as global warming. Alter sea level, make weather more extreme, and increase the spread of tropical disease. Alter sea level, make weather more extreme, and increase the spread of tropical disease.

4 Factory smoke darkens the sky above Czech Republic. The Czech Republic faces a severe air pollution problem that is choking the nation’s land. Air pollution and subsequent acid rain has killed or damaged many of the country’s trees and badly degraded its soil.

5 MAJOR POLLUTANT SOURCES Most air pollution comes from human activity. Most air pollution comes from human activity. Some of air pollution also come from natural sources. Some of air pollution also come from natural sources. Forest fires emit particulate sand VOCs into the atmosphere Forest fires emit particulate sand VOCs into the atmosphere Volcanoes spew out sulfur dioxide and large amounts of pulverized lava rock known as volcanic ash. Volcanoes spew out sulfur dioxide and large amounts of pulverized lava rock known as volcanic ash.

6 Automobile Traffic Pollution Automobile exhaust contains unburned hydrocarbons, particulates, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur that contribute to acid rain, smog, and global warming. The oxides combine with water vapor in the air to form acids, which return to the ground as acid rain. Smog, a mixture of smoke and fog, irritates the eyes, throat, and lungs and also damages plants. Carbon dioxide, produced from the burning of fossil fuels including gasoline, is the leading cause of the greenhouse effect, a phenomenon thought to be responsible for rising global temperatures.

7 The chemical pesticide DDT was used around the world from the 1940s through the early 1970s to kill crop-eating and disease-carrying insects. In the early 1960s studies began to show that the chemical caused reproductive problems in animals and that it often disrupted the food chain. The use of DDT was banned in the United States in 1973.

8 LOCAL AND REGIONAL POLLUTION Local and regional pollution take place in troposphere. Local and regional pollution take place in troposphere. Smog is intense local pollution usually trapped by a thermal inversion. Smog is intense local pollution usually trapped by a thermal inversion. Burning gasoline Burning gasoline Smog contains ozone ( a form of oxygen gas made up of molecules with three oxygen atoms rather than the normal two) Smog contains ozone ( a form of oxygen gas made up of molecules with three oxygen atoms rather than the normal two)

9 Ozone in the lower atmosphere is a poison It damages vegetation, kills trees, irritates lung tissues and attacks rubber. Several pollutants attack the ozone layer Smog spoils views and makes outdoor activity unpleasant. Here, intense ultraviolet radiation breaks the CFC molecules apart, releasing the chlorine atoms they contain.

10 Ozone Layer Hole Ozone is a gas that blocks harmful ultraviolet sunlight. Industrial chemicals released into the atmosphere have caused ozone to break down, opening holes in the ozone layer that tend to concentrate at the poles.

11 Thermal Inversion Smog surrounds the Angel Monument in Mexico, during a thermal inversion. Air pollution increases dramatically when a mass of cold air is trapped below a mass of warmer air. The absence of air circulation prevents pollution near Earth’s surface from escaping

12 Carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and other types of contaminants pouring from industrial smokestacks contribute largely to the world’s atmospheric pollution. Carbon dioxide contributes significantly to global warming, while sulfur dioxide emissions are the principal cause of acid rain in the northeastern United States, southeastern Canada, and eastern Europe.

13 GLOBAL WARMING Like glass in a greenhouse, these gases admit the sun’s light but tend to reflect back downward the heat in the earth’s atmosphere. Like glass in a greenhouse, these gases admit the sun’s light but tend to reflect back downward the heat in the earth’s atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is the most significant of these gases. Carbon dioxide is the most significant of these gases.

14 Shrinking Greenland Ice Sheet The Greenland ice sheet underwent extensive surface melting from 1992 to 2002, according to the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment report released in Tinted areas in these satellite images show the extent of surface melting in 1992 and in The report warned that the melting of Greenland’s ice sheet and the melting of glaciers in Alaska and Canada are increasingly contributing to a rise in the world’s sea level.

15 INDOOR AIR POLLUTION Homes, building. Homes, building. Include tobacco, smoke, radon, an invisible radioactive gas, and chemicals released from synthetic carpets or furniture, pesticides, and household cleaners. Include tobacco, smoke, radon, an invisible radioactive gas, and chemicals released from synthetic carpets or furniture, pesticides, and household cleaners. When disturbed, abestos, a nonflammable material once commonly used in insulation, sheds airborne fibers that can produce a lung disease called abestosis. When disturbed, abestos, a nonflammable material once commonly used in insulation, sheds airborne fibers that can produce a lung disease called abestosis.

16 Macrophage on Asbestos Macrophages, part of the body’s disease-fighting immune system, normally engulf small particles in the lung. Asbestos particles, however, tend to rupture the macrophage on contact, releasing its contents into the surrounding lung tissue. This condition is characteristic of people suffering from asbestosis, a disease caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibers.

17 HOW CAN WE STOP AIR POLLUTION? Stop producing it in the first place. Stop producing it in the first place. Government can pass laws that forbid or limit the use off chemicals that cause pollution. Government can pass laws that forbid or limit the use off chemicals that cause pollution. Build cars that burn less gasoline. Build cars that burn less gasoline. Recycling helps cut down on pollution. Recycling helps cut down on pollution.

18 THANK YOU for your ATTENTION


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