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Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Lesson 1Lesson 1Earth’s Atmosphere Lesson 4Lesson 4Air Quality.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Lesson 1Lesson 1Earth’s Atmosphere Lesson 4Lesson 4Air Quality."— Presentation transcript:


2 Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Lesson 1Lesson 1Earth’s Atmosphere Lesson 4Lesson 4Air Quality

3 Lesson 1-1 The atmosphere is a thin layer of gases surrounding Earth.atmosphere The atmosphere contains the oxygen and water necessary for life on Earth. The atmosphere provides insulation and helps keep temperatures on Earth within a range in which living organisms can survive. Importance of Earth’s Atmosphere

4 Lesson 1-3 Today’s atmosphere is mostly made up of invisible gases, including nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. About 78 percent of the atmosphere is nitrogen, and about 21 percent is oxygen. The amounts of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone vary. Composition of the Atmosphere

5 Lesson 1-3 Acids in the air are formed when sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide combine with water vapor. PG. 411 Figure 1 PhotoLink/Getty Images

6 Lesson 1-3 Many tiny solid particles, such as pollen, dust, and salt, can enter the atmosphere through natural processes. Solid particles of ash from volcanic eruptions and exhaust soot from cars are also present in the atmosphere. Composition of the Atmosphere (cont.)

7 Lesson 1-3 The most common liquid particles in the atmosphere are water droplets. Though microscopic in size, water particles are visible when they form clouds. Other atmospheric liquids include acids that result when fossil fuels are burned. Acids in the air are formed when sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide combine with water vapor. Composition of the Atmosphere (cont.)

8 Lesson 1-4 The atmosphere has several different layers, each with its own unique properties. PG. 412 Figure 3 Layers of the Atmosphere

9 Lesson 1-4 The atmospheric layer closest to Earth’s surface is called the troposphere. troposphere The troposphere extends from Earth’s surface to altitudes between 8-15 km. The temperature of the troposphere decreases as you move away from Earth. Layers of the Atmosphere (cont.)

10 Lesson 1-4 Sunlight passes through the atmosphere, warms Earth’s surface, and the warmth is radiated to the troposphere, causing weather. The stratosphere is the atmospheric layer directly above the troposphere.stratosphere Layers of the Atmosphere (cont.)

11 Lesson 1-4 The stratosphere extends from about 15 km to about 50 km above Earth’s surface. The area of the stratosphere with a high concentration of ozone is referred to as the ozone layer.ozone layer The presence of the ozone layer causes the stratospheric temperatures to increase with altitude. Layers of the Atmosphere (cont.)

12 Lesson 1-4 Ozone has three oxygen atoms and absorbs the Sun’s ultraviolet rays more effectively than oxygen. Ozone protects Earth from ultraviolet rays that can kill plants, animals, and other organisms and cause skin cancer in humans. Layers of the Atmosphere (cont.)

13 Mesosphere – layer that extends from the stratosphere to ~ 85 km above Earth Most meteors burn in this layer instead of striking Earth

14 Lesson 1-4 The exosphere is the atmospheric layer farthest from Earth’s surface where pressure and density are so low that individual gas molecules rarely strike one another. The molecules move at incredibly fast speeds after absorbing the Sun’s radiation and can escape the pull of gravity and travel into space. Layers of the Atmosphere (cont.)

15 Lesson 1-5 Gravity pulls the atmosphere toward Earth, creating air pressure. At higher altitudes, the air is less dense and air pressure is lower. At lower altitudes, the air is denser and air pressure is higher. Pg. 414 figure 7) Air Pressure and Altitude

16 Lesson 1-6 Temperature changes in different ways as altitude increases in the different layers of the atmosphere. In the troposphere, temperature decreases as altitude increases. In the stratosphere, temperature increases as altitude increases because of the high concentration of ozone. Temperature and Altitude

17 Lesson 1-6 In the mesosphere, as altitude increases, temperature again decreases. In the thermosphere and exosphere, temperatures increase as altitude increases. Temperature and Altitude (cont.)

18 Lesson 1-6 Pg. 414 figure 7

19 Lesson 4-1 The contamination of air by harmful substances including gases and smoke is called air pollution.air pollution Examples of pollution: –Bacteria –smog –volcanic ash Sources of Air Pollution C. Sherburne/PhotoLink/Getty Images

20 Lesson 4-2 Acid precipitation occurs when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides combine with moisture in the atmosphere and create acids that fall as precipitation.Acid precipitation Acid precipitation can be in the form of rain, snow, and fog. It affects the chemistry of water in lakes and rivers and can harm organisms living in the water. Causes and Effects of Air Pollution

21 Lesson 4-2 Natural sources of sulfur dioxide include volcanoes and marshes. The most common sources of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are automobile exhausts and factory and power plant smoke. Photochemical smog is air pollution that forms from the interaction between chemicals in the air and sunlight.Photochemical smog Causes and Effects of Air Pollution (cont.)

22 Lesson 4-2 Smog forms when nitrogen dioxide, released in gasoline engine exhaust, reacts with sunlight. A series of chemical reactions produces ozone and other compounds that form smog. Ground-level ozone is the main component of smog. Causes and Effects of Air Pollution (cont.)

23 Lesson 4-3 Particulate matter is a mixture of dust, acids, and other chemicals that can be hazardous to human health.Particulate matter Particulate matter in the atmosphere absorbs and scatters sunlight, which can create haze. Particulate Pollution

24 Lesson 4-4 Because air carries pollution with it, some wind patterns cause more pollution problems than others. Weak winds or no wind prevents pollution from mixing with the surrounding air, which can create high pollution levels and dangerous conditions. Movement of Air Pollution

25 Lesson 4-5 At night, cool air sinks down the mountain sides, trapping pollution in the valley below. Pg. 436 figure 21

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