3 Enquiry Questions What were the causes and consequences of the MBB? How important was the MBB in the history of the civil rights movement?How did MBB help to make Martin Luther King Junior a national figure?Why did Rosa Park’s refusal to give up her bus seat spark a national controversy?
4 The Amendments14th Amend: “nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”15th Amend: “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”
5 Segregated United States Plessy v. Ferguson: 1896 Supreme Court ruled “separate but equal” did not violate 14th AmendmentReinforced that blacks were inferior
6 Brown v. Board of Ed. - Topeka Linda Brown went to run down black school 21 blocks away when there was a white school 4 blocks1954 The US Supreme Court over turned Plessy v. Ferguson, ending the era of “separate, but equal”
7 Montgomery Bus Boycott Montgomery is the capital state of Alabama1950’s: one of the most racially segregated states70,000 white people 50,000 blackJim Crow laws continued to enforce segregation in schools, transport, libraries and other public facilites
9 Majority of black people worked in low-paid/unskilled jobs 50% of black men worked as domestic servants/labourers60% of women worked in domestic serviceBlack person’s income was half that of a white persons ($970)
10 1952: white woman in Montgomery accused a teenage black boy, Jeremiah Reeves of rape Tried/convicted of rape by all-white juryNAACP appealed, however Reeves was executedAngered black people in MontMany black women had been murdered by white men
11 None convictedSeen as an example of legal double standardsMany people thus thought that justice system in Mont discriminated agst. blacks
12 Segregation was a fact in every day life for blacks in Mont Local law even forbid black people to play cards, dice or dominos with whitesOver 50 churches catered for black peopleLeaders preached focused on spiritual needs rather than social or political reform
13 1955: an event involving segregation on the city’s buses was the starting point of the first organised mass movement of Black American’s in 20th century America
14 Segregation on the buses Montgomery Law:Black people sitting on buses could not sit at the front, even if the seats were unoccupiedFirst four rows reserved for whitesIf there were no seats for the whites the blacks had to give up their seatIf a white person sat beside a black person, the black person had to stand
15 ALL bus drivers were white Yet, 70% of those who used the bus were blackDrivers often humiliated/harassed the blacksCalled them ‘nigger’ or ‘ape’Women in particular were singled out for abuse
16 Drivers made the black people pay the fare at the front, get off the bus and re-board at the back They often took off without the black personSeen as source of amusement for the drivers and white passengersCaused deep resentment among the blacks
17 Those who did not obey the segregation laws were fined or imprisoned 1955: young black teenager, Claudette Colvin arrestedRefused to give up seat to a white personTried/paid a fineThat same year, 18 year old Mary-Louise Smith refused to move for white person
21 Questions Comprehension: In source C who are ‘our people’? List three of the most urgent needs of our people.Which needs are (i) political (ii) social or (iii) economicWhy do they want to know ‘What is your stand on these issues?’
22 5. How are passenger seats assigned in Montgomery, Source B. 6 5. How are passenger seats assigned in Montgomery, Source B? 6. Who was responsible for separating white and black people on the bus? 7. What powers did the bus driver have?